Ejército Revolucionario Filipino Hukbong Pilipinong Mapaghimagsik
Ejercito en la República dela Filipina Emblem, 1897
Founded March 22, 1897 Country Philippines Allegiance
Tejeros Government from March 22, 1897 to November 1, 1897
Republic of Biak-na-Bato from November 1, 1897 to December 14, 1897 unknown following the December 14, 1897 signing of the
Pact of Biak na Bato until April 17, 1898.
Central Executive Committee from April 17, 1898 to May 19, 1899
Dictatorial Government from May 19, 1898 to June 23, 1899
Revolutionary Government from June 23, 1898 to January 22, 1899 Philippine Republic from January 22, 1899 to perhaps November 13, 1899, when Aguinaldo decided to disperse his army and begin guerrilla war Type Army Role Military Force Size 80,000 to 100,000 (1898)  Garrison/HQ Kawit, Cavite Nickname(s) Republican Army   Colors Blue, Red, Gold and White Anniversaries March 22 Engagements Philippine Revolution Spanish-American War Philippine-American War Commanders President Su Excelencia Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo Commanding General Gen. Artemio Ricarte (1897-1899) Gen. Antonio Luna (1899) Notable commanders Gen. Simeon Ola Gen. Manuel Tinio Gen. Pío del Pilar Gen. Mariano Noriel Major General Juan K. Cailles Gen. Gregorio del Pilar Gen. Miguel Malvar Gen. Tomás Mascardo Col. Paco Román Maj. Manuel Quezon
Marching Filipino soldiers during the inauguration of the First Philippine Republic in Malolos on January 23, 1899.
Philippine Revolutionary Army ( Filipino: Panghimagsikang Hukbo ng Pilipinas / Hukbong Pilipinong Mapaghimagsik; Spanish: Ejército Revolucionario Filipino), later renamed Philippine Republican Army ( Filipino: Hukbong Katihan ng Republika ng Pilipinas; Spanish: Ejército en la República de la Filipina) was founded on March 22, 1897 in Cavite. General Artemio Ricarte was designated as its first Captain General during the Tejeros Convention. This armed force of General  Emilio Aguinaldo's central revolutionary government replaced the Katipunan's military force. 
Regular soldiers of the Philippine Revolutionary Army stand at attention for an inspection.
The revolutionary army used the 1896 edition of the Spanish regular army's
Ordenanza del Ejército to organize its forces and establish its character as a modern army. Rules and regulations were laid down for the reorganization of the army, along with the regulation of ranks and the adoption of new fighting methods, new rank insignias, and a new standard uniform known as the . rayadillo Filipino artist Juan Luna is credited with this design.  His brother, General  Antonio Luna commissioned him with the task and personally paid for the new uniforms. Juan Luna also designed the collar insignia for the uniforms, distinguishing between the services:  infantry, cavalry, artillery, sappers, and medics. At least one researcher has postulated that Juan Luna may have patterned the tunic after the  English Norfolk jacket, since the Filipino version is not a copy of any Spanish-pattern uniform.  Infantry officers wore blue pants with a black stripe down the side, while Cavalry officers wore red trousers with black stripes.  Soldiers and junior officers wore straw hats while senior officers often wore peaked caps.
Orders and circulars were issued covering matters such as building trenches and fortifications, equipping every male aged 15 to 50 with bows and arrows (as well as
bolo knives, though officers wielded European swords), enticing Filipino soldiers in the Spanish army to defect, collecting empty cartridges for refilling, prohibiting unplanned sorties, inventories of captured arms and ammunition, fundraising, purchasing of arms and supplies abroad, unification of military commands, and exhorting the rich to give aid to the soldiers. 
Aguinaldo, a month after he declared Philippine independence, created a pay scale for officers in the army: Following the board, a brigadier general would receive 600 pesos annually, and a sergeant 72 pesos.
Philippine-American War erupted on February 4, 1899, the Filipino army suffered heavy losses on every sector. Even Antonio Luna urged Apolinario Mabini, Aguinaldo's chief adviser, to convince the President that guerrilla warfare must be announced as early as April 1899. Aguinaldo adopted guerilla tactics on November 13, 1899, dissolving what remained of the regular army and after many of his crack units were decimated in set-piece battles. 
The Filipinos were short on modern weapons. Most of its weapons were captured from the Spanish, were improvised or were traditional weapons. The service rifles of the nascent army were the
Spanish M93 and the Spanish Remington Rolling Block rifle. Moreover, while in Hong Kong,  Emilio Aguinaldo purchased rifles from the Americans. Two batches of 2,000 rifles each including ammunition were ordered and paid for. The first batch arrived while the second batch never did. In his letters to  Galicano Apacible, Mariano Ponce also sought weapons from both domestic and international dealers in the Empire of Japan. He was offered different breech-loading  single-shot rifles since most nations were discarding them in favor of new smokeless bolt-action rifles. However, there was no mention of any purchase occurring. Another planned purchase was the Murata rifle from Japan but no record exists that it made its way into the hands of Filipino revolutionaries.
Crew-served weapons of the Philippine military included captured Spanish guns such as
Krupp guns, Ordóñez guns, and Maxim-Nordenfelt multi-barreled guns. There were also improvised artillery weapons made of water pipes reinforced with bamboo or timber known as lantakas, which can only fire once or twice. 
, the Supreme Commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army.
Group showing General Manuel Tinio (seated, center), General Benito Natividad (seated, 2nd from right), Lt. Col. Jose Alejandrino (seated, 2nd from left), and their aides-de-camp.
The use of the
Murata rifle was proposed by some revolutionaries. There was a planned purchase from Japan with the help of Japanese sympathizers.
rifles used by Filipino infantry during the Philippine Revolution and Philippine-American War on display at Clark Museum.
Bolo knives were widely available in the islands and were used extensively by the revolutionaries.
, notable Chief Commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army.
Soldiers of the army stationed near the Barasoain church during a session of the congress.
Officers' and soldiers' uniforms, 1899-1902.
The evolution of Philippine revolutionary insignia can be divided into three basic periods; early Katipunan, late Katipunan and the Republican army.
Revolutionary Army enlisted ranks
Revolutionary Army ranks
In 1898, the Philippine government prescribed branch colors twice:
30 July 1898
25 November 1898
Military Juridical Corps
Commissary and Quartermaster Corps
Recruitment and conscription
During the revolution against
Spain, the Katipunan gave leaflets to the people to encourage them to join the revolution. Since the revolutionaries had become regular soldiers at the time of Emilio Aguinaldo, they started to recruit males and some females aged 15 and above as a form of national service. A few Spanish and Filipino enlisted personnel and officers of the Spanish Army and Spanish Navy defected to the Revolutionary Army, as well as a number of foreign individuals and American defectors who volunteered to join during the course of the revolution.
Conscription in the revolutionary army was in effect in the
Philippines and military service was mandatory at that time by the order of Gen. Antonio Luna, the Chief Commander of the Army during the Philippine-American War. 
During the existence of the Revolutionary Army, over 100 individuals were appointed to
General Officer grades. For details, see the List of Filipino generals in the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine-American War article.
Other notable officers Colonel Agapito Bonzón
Felipe Salvador - Commander of the Santa Iglesia faction. Colonel
Apolinar Vélez Colonel Alejandro Avecilla
Francisco "Paco" Román - Aide to Lieutenant General Antonio Luna. Colonel Manuel Bernal - Aide to Lieutenant General Antonio Luna.
Colonel Pablo Tecson - Leader,
Battle of Quingua. Colonel Alipio Tecson - Supreme Military Commander of
Tarlac in 1900 and exiled to Guam. Colonel Simón Tecson - Leader of
Siege of Baler; signatory of the Biak-na-Bato Constitution. Colonel Simeón Villa
Colonel Luciano San Miguel
Colonel José Tagle - Known for his role in the
Battle of Imus. Lieutenant Colonel
Lázaro Macapagal - Commanding officer in-charge at the execution of Andrés and Procopio Bonifacio brothers. Lieutenant Colonel
José Torres Bugallón - Hero of the Battle of La Loma. Lieutenant Colonel
Regino Díaz Relova - Fought as one of the heads of columns under General Juan Cailles in the Laguna province. Captain José Bernal - Aide to Lieutenant General Antonio Luna.
Captain Eduardo Rusca - Aide to Lieutenant General Antonio Luna.
Captain Pedro Janolino - Commanding Officer of the Kawit Battalion.
Captain Vicente Roa
Captain Serapio Narváez - Officer of the 4th Company, Morong Battalion.
Cirilo Arenas- Captain of Maguagui (Naic), Cavite. Major
Manuel Quezon - Aide to President Emilio Aguinaldo. Eventually succeeded him as the second President of the Philippines under the United States-sponsored Commonwealth. Major Juan Arce
Lieutenant García - one of Gen. Luna's favorite sharpshooters of the Black Guard units.
Corporal Anastacio Félix - 4th Company, Morong Battalion the first Filipino casualty of the Philippine-American War. 
Notable foreign officers and servicemen Army
Juan Cailles - Franco-Indian who led Filipino forces in Laguna mestizo  General José Valesy Nazaraire - Spanish.
 Brigadier General
José Ignacio Paua - Full-blooded Chinese general in the Army.  Brigadier General B. Natividad - Brigade Acting Commander in Vigan under General Tinio.
Manuel Sityar - Half-Spanish Director of Academía Militar de Malolos. A former captain in the Spanish colonial army who defected to the Filipino side.  Colonel Sebastian de Castro - Spanish director of the military hospital at
Malasiqui, Pangasinan.  Colonel Dámaso Ybarra y Thomas - Spanish.
 Lieutenant Colonel Potenciano Andrade - Spanish.
 Estaquio Castellor - French
mestizo who led a battalion of sharpshooters.  Major
Candido Reyes - Instructor at the Academía Militar de Malolos. Former sergeant in the Spanish Army.  Major
José Reyes - Instructor at the Academía Militar de Malolos. Former sergeant in the Spanish Army.  Major José Torres Bugallón - Spanish officer who served under General Luna.
Antonio Costosa - Former officer in the Spanish Army. Captain Tei Hara - Japanese officer who fought in the Philippine-American war with volunteer soldiers.
 Captain Chizuno Iwamoto - Japanese officer who served on Emilio Aguinaldo's staff.
Returned to Japan after Aguinaldo's capture.   Captain
David Fagen - An African-American Captain who served under Brigadier General Urbano Lacuna. A former Corporal in United States Army 24th Colored Regiment.    Captain Francisco Espina - Spanish.
 Captain Estanislao de los Reyes - Spanish aide-de-camp to General Tinio.
 Captain Feliciano Ramoso - Spanish aide-de-camp to General Tinio.
 Captain Mariano Queri - Spanish officer who served under General Luna as an instructor in the Academía Militar de Malolos and later as the director-general of the staff of the war department.
 Captain Camillo Richairdi - Italian.
 Captain Telesforo Centeno - Spanish.
 Captain Arthur Howard - American deserter from the 1st California Volunteers.
 Captain Glen Morgan - American who organized insurgent forces in central Mindanao.
 Captain John Miller - American who organized insurgent forces in central Mindanao.
 Captain Russel - American deserter from the 10th Infantry.
 Lieutenant Danfort - American deserter from the 10th Infantry.
 Lieutenant Maximino Lazo - Spanish.
 Lieutenant Gabriel Badelly Méndez - Cuban.
 2nd Lieutenant Segundo Paz - Spanish.
 Lieutenant Alejandro Quirulgico - Spanish.
 Lieutenant Rafael Madina - Spanish.
 Lieutenant Saburo Nakamori - Japanese.
 Lieutenant Arsenio Romero - Spanish.
John Allane - United States Army.  Private
Harry Dennis - United States Army.  Private
William Hyer - United States Army.  Private
Meeks (given name not specified) - United States Army.  Private
George Raymond - 41st Infantry, United States Army. Private
Maurice Sibley - 16th Infantry, United States Army.  Private
John Wagner - United States Army.  Private
Edward Walpole - United States Army.  Henry Richter - American deserter from the 9th Cavalry.
 Gorth Shores - American deserter from the 9th Cavalry.
 Fred Hunter - American deserter from the 9th Cavalry.
 William Denten - American deserter who joined General Lukban in Samar.
 Enrique Warren - American deserter who served under Francisco Makabulos in Tarlac.
 Antonio Prisco - Spanish.
 Manuel Alberto - Spanish.
 Eugenia Plona - Spanish aide-de-camp to Baldermo Aguinaldo.
 Alexander MacIntosh - English.
 William McAllister - English.
 Charles MacKinley - Englishman who served in Laoag.
 James O'Brian - English.  Navy
Deady 2005, p. 55 (page 3 of the PDF)
Brian McAllister Linn (2000). . UNC Press Books. p. The U.S. Army and Counterinsurgency in the Philippine War, 1899-1902 13. ISBN . 978-0-8078-4948-4
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"Philippine-American War, 1899-1902". philippineamericanwar.webs.com . Retrieved .
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"Uniformology II". Archived from the original on 2008-05-02 . Retrieved .
Combs, William K. "Filipino Rayadillo Norfolk-pattern Tunic" . Retrieved .
"Filipino Rayadillo Norfolk Pattern Tunic" . Retrieved 2015.
"Uniformology I" . Retrieved .
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Tan 2002, p. 249.
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Ambeth R. Ocampo. "Japanese with a different face". inquirer.net.
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^ Consistency Is the Hobgoblin: Manuel L. Quezon and Japan, 1899-1934 by Grant K. Goodman, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Mar., 1983), p.79.
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Fantina, Robert (2006). . Algora Publishing. Desertion and the American Soldier, 1776-2006 ISBN . 978-0-87586-453-2
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In popular media
The Philippine revolutionary army has been mentioned in several books and films.