Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and SamarFelipinas after Philip II of Spain, then the Prince of Asturias. Eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover the archipelago's Spanish posessions. Before Spanish rule was established, other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands, San Lázaro, were also used by the Spanish to refer to islands in the region.
There is evidence of early hominins, such as Homo luzonensis, living in what is now the Philippines as early as 709,000 years ago. The oldest modern human remains found on the islands is the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to 47,000 ± 11-10,000 years ago. The Tabon man is presumably a Negrito, who were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, descendants of the first human migrations out of Africa via the coastal route along southern Asia to the now sunken landmasses of Sundaland and Sahul.
The earliest known surviving written record found in the Philippines is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. By the 1300s, a number of the large coastal settlements had emerged as trading centers, and became the focal point of societal changes. Some polities developed substantial trade contacts with other polities in China and Southeast Asia. Trade with China is believed to have begun during the Tang dynasty, but grew more extensive during the Song dynasty. By the 2nd millennium CE, some Philippine polities were known to have sent trade delegations which participated in the Tributary system enforced by the Chinese imperial court, trading but without direct political or military control. Indian cultural traits, such as linguistic terms and religious practices, began to spread within the Philippines during the 10th century, likely via the Hindu Majapahit empire. By the 15th century, Islam was established in the Sulu Archipelago and by 1565 had reached Mindanao, the Visayas, and Luzon.
Polities founded in the Philippines from the 10th-16th centuries include Maynila,Tondo, Namayan, Pangasinan, Cebu, Butuan, Maguindanao, Lanao, Sulu, and Ma-i. The early polities of the Philippine archipelago were typically characterized by a three-tier social structure: a nobility class, a class of "freemen", and a class of dependent debtor-bondsmen. Among the members of the nobility class were leaders who held the political office of "Datu," which was responsible for leading autonomous social groups called "barangay" or "dulohan". Whenever these barangays banded together, either to form a larger settlement or a geographically looser alliance group, the more senior or respected among them would be recognized as a "paramount datu".
Under Spanish rule, Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity. They also founded schools, a university, hospitals, and churches. To defend their settlements, the Spaniards constructed and manned a network of military fortresses across the archipelago. The Spanish also decreed the introduction of free public schooling in 1863. Slavery was also abolished. As a result of these policies the Philippine population increased exponentially.
During its rule, Spain quelled various indigenous revolts, as well as defending against external military challenges The Philippines was expensive during Spanish rule. War against the Dutch from the West, in the 17th century, together with conflict with the Muslims in the South and combating Japanese-Chinese Wokou piracy from the North nearly bankrupted the colonial treasury. There was a high desertion rate among the Latino soldiers sent from Mexico and Peru, and also to Filipino warriors and laborers levied by Spain, this was due to repeated wars, lack of wages, dislocation and near starvation. Immigration blurred the racial caste system Spain maintained in towns and cities. Increasing difficulty in governing the Philippines led to the Royal Fiscal of Manila writing to King Charles III of Spain, advising him to abandon the colony. However, this was successfully opposed by the religious and missionary orders that argued that the Philippines was a launching pad for further religious conversion in the Far East.
Spanish artillery along the walls of Intramuros to protect the city from local revolts and foreign invaders.
The Philippines survived on an annual subsidy provided by the Spanish Crown, usually paid through the provision of 75 tons of silver bullion being sent from the Americas. Financial constraints meant the 200-year-old fortifications in Manila did not see significant change after being first built by the early Spanish colonizers.British forces occupied Manila from 1762 to 1764 during the Seven Years' War, however they were unable to extend their conquest outside of Manila as the Filipinos stayed loyal to the remaining Spanish community outside Manila. Spanish rule was restored through the 1763 Treaty of Paris. The Spanish-Moro conflict lasted for several hundred years. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Spain conquered portions of Mindanao and the Moro Muslims in the Sulu Sultanate formally recognized Spanish sovereignty.
In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade and shifts started occurring within Filipino society. Many Spaniards born in the Philippines and those of mixed ancestry were wealthy, and an influx of Hispanic American immigrants opened up government positions traditionally held by Spaniards born in the Iberian Peninsula. However, ideas of rebellion and independence began to spread through the islands. Many Latin-Americans and Criollos staffed the Spanish army in the Philippines. However, the onset of the Latin American wars of independence led to doubts about their loyalty. This was compounded by a Mexican of Filipino descent, Isidoro Montes de Oca, becoming captain-general to the revolutionary leader Vicente Guerrero during the Mexican War of Independence. To prevent the union of both Latinos and Filipinos in rebellion against the empire, the Latino and Criollo officers stationed in the Philippines were soon replaced by Peninsular officers born in Spain. These Peninsular officers were less committed to the people they were assigned to protect and were often predatory, enriching themselves before returning to Spain, putting the interests of the metropolis over the interest of the natives.
Photograph of armed Filipino revolutionaries known as Katipuneros.
In 1965, Macapagal lost the presidential election to Ferdinand Marcos. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated numerous infrastructure projects but, together with his wife Imelda, was accused of massive corruption and embezzling billions of dollars in public funds. Nearing the end of his term, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972. This period of his rule was characterized by political repression, censorship, and human rights violations.
Due to the volcanic nature of the islands, mineral deposits are abundant. The country is estimated to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa giving credence to the talk that the Philippines was the Biblical Ophir and the country also has one of the largest copper deposits in the world.Palladium, originally discovered in South America, was found to have the world's largest deposits in the Philippines too.Romblon island also possesses the most diversified, high quality and hardest marble in the world and is available in at least 7 colors mainly: brown, grey, rust, white, green, black and orange. The country is also rich in nickel, chromite, and zinc. Despite this, poor management, high population density, a desire to protect indigenous communities from exploitation, and an extremely ardent environmental consciousness have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped. The unstable seismology that created these minerals, such as frequent volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and landslides, continue to affect the country.Geothermal energy is a product of volcanic activity that the Philippines has harnessed more successfully. The Philippines is the world's second-biggest geothermal producer behind the United States, with 18% of the country's electricity needs being met by geothermal power.
The Philippines is a megadiverse country. Around 1,100 land vertebrate species can be found in the Philippines including over 100 mammal species and 170 bird species not thought to exist elsewhere. The Philippines has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new species of mammals discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, the rate of endemism for the Philippines has risen and likely will continue to rise. Parts of its marine waters contain the highest diversity of shorefish species in the world.
Philippine maritime waters encompass as much as 2,200,000 square kilometers (849,425 sq mi) producing unique and diverse marine life, an important part of the Coral Triangle, a territory shared with other countries. The total number of corals and marine fish species was estimated at 500 and 2,400 respectively. New records and species discoveries continue. The Tubbataha Reef in the Sulu Sea was declared a World Heritage Site in 1993. Philippine waters also sustain the cultivation of pearls, crabs, and seaweeds. One rare species of oyster, Pinctada maxima which is indigenous to the Philippines, is unique since its pearls are naturally golden in color. Pearls have been declared a "National Gem".
With an estimated 13,500 plant species in the country, 3,200 of which are unique to the islands, Philippine rainforests boast an array of flora, including many rare types of orchids and rafflesia.Deforestation, often the result of illegal logging, is an acute problem in the Philippines. Forest cover declined from 70% of the Philippines's total land area in 1900 to about 18.3% in 1999. Many species are endangered and scientists say that Southeast Asia, which the Philippines is part of, faces a catastrophic extinction rate of 20% by the end of the 21st century.
The Philippines has a tropical maritime climate that is usually hot and humid. There are three seasons: tag-init or tag-araw, the hot dry season or summer from March to May; tag-ulan, the rainy season from June to November; and tag-lamig, the cool dry season from December to February. The southwest monsoon (from May to October) is known as the Habagat, and the dry winds of the northeast monsoon (from November to April), the Amihan. Temperatures usually range from 21 °C (70 °F) to 32 °C (90 °F) although it can get cooler or hotter depending on the season. The coolest month is January; the warmest is May.
The average yearly temperature is around 26.6 °C (79.9 °F). In considering temperature, location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor. Whether in the extreme north, south, east, or west of the country, temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range. Altitude usually has more of an impact. The average annual temperature of Baguio at an elevation of 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) above sea level is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F), making it a popular destination during hot summers.
Sitting astride the typhoon belt, most of the islands experience annual torrential rains and thunderstorms from July to October, with around nineteen typhoons entering the Philippine area of responsibility in a typical year and eight or nine making landfall. Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters (200 in) in the mountainous east coast section but less than 1,000 millimeters (39 in) in some of the sheltered valleys. The wettest known tropical cyclone to impact the archipelago was the July 1911 cyclone, which dropped over 1,168 millimeters (46.0 in) of rainfall within a 24-hour period in Baguio. Bagyo is the local term for a tropical cyclone in the Philippines. The Philippines is highly exposed to climate change and is among the world's ten countries that are most vulnerable to climate change risks.
The Commission on Population estimated the country's population to be 107,190,081 as of December 31, 2018, based on the latest population census of 2015 conducted by the Philippine Statistics Authority. The population increased from 1990 to 2008 by approximately 28 million, a 45% growth in that time frame. The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5,567,685.
It is estimated that half of the population resides on the island of Luzon. The 3.21% population growth rate between 1995 and 2000 decreased to an estimated 1.95% for the 2005-2010 period, but remains a contentious issue. The population's median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old. Life expectancy at birth is 69.4 years, 73.1 years for females and 65.9 years for males. Poverty incidence also significantly dropped to 21.6% in 2015 from 25.2% in 2012. Since the liberalization of United States immigration laws in 1965, the number of people in the United States having Filipino ancestry has grown substantially. In 2007 there were an estimated 12 million Filipinos living overseas.
Filipinos generally belong to several Southeast Asian ethnic groups classified linguistically as part of the Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian speaking people. It is believed that thousands of years ago Austronesian-speaking Taiwanese aborigines migrated to the Philippines from Taiwan, bringing with them knowledge of agriculture and ocean-sailing, eventually displacing the earlier Negrito groups of the islands.
Negritos, such as the Aeta and the Ati, are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands. These minority aboriginal settlers (Negritos) are an Australoid group and are a left-over from the first human migration out of Africa to Australia. However, the aboriginal people of the Philippines along with Papuans, Melanesians and Australian Aboriginals also hold sizable shared Denisovan admixture in their genomes.
Being at the crossroads of the West and East, the Philippines is also home to migrants from places as diverse as China, Spain, Mexico, United States, India, South Korea, and Japan. The Chinese are mostly the descendants of immigrants from Fujian in China after 1898, numbering around 2 million, although there are an estimated 27 percent of Filipinos who have partial Chinese ancestry, stemming from precolonial and colonial Chinese migrants.
Furthermore, at least one-third of the population of Luzon, where Spaniards mixed with natives, as well as old settlements in the Visayas (founded by Mexicans) and Zamboanga City (colonized by Peruvians) or around 13.33% of the Philippine population, have partial Hispanic ancestry (from varying points of origin and ranging from Ibero-America to Spain). Recent genetic studies confirm this partial European and Hispanic-American ancestry. The migrants from Peru and Mexico were not even homogeneous since they themselves were already racially admixed Mestizos or Mulattos but there were also a few Native-Americans too.
Filipino and English are the official languages of the country. Filipino is a standardized version of Tagalog, spoken mainly in Metro Manila and other urban regions. Both Filipino and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business. Due to the Philippines' history of complex interactions with cultures across the world, the Filipino language has a rich repertoire of incorporated foreign vocabulary used in everyday speech. Filipino has borrowings from, among other languages, English, Latin, Greek, Spanish, Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Malay, Chinese, Japanese, and Nahuatl. Furthermore, in most towns, the local indigenous language are also spoken. The Philippine constitution provides for the promotion of Spanish and Arabic on a voluntary and optional basis, although neither are used on as wide a scale as in the past. Spanish, which was widely used as a lingua franca in the late nineteenth century, has since declined greatly in use, although Spanish loanwords are still present today in many of the indigenous Philippine languages, while Arabic is mainly used in Islamic schools in Mindanao. A theory that the indigenous scripts of Sumatra, Sulawesi and the Philippines are descended from an early form of the Gujarati script was presented at the 2010 meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society.
The historical Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte. Declared as a National Cultural Treasure by the Philippine government in 1973 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the collective group of Baroque Churches of the Philippines in 1993.
Religion in the Philippines, 2010 estimate by CIA
Islam is the second largest religion. The Muslim population of the Philippines was reported as 5.57% of the total population according to census returns in 2010. Conversely, a 2012 report by the National Commission of Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) stated that about 10,700,000 or 11% of the Filipinos are Muslims. Some Muslim scholars argue that the census taken in 2000 significantly undercounted the number of Muslims because of security concerns and hostility of the inhabitants to government personnel in Muslim-majority areas, leading to difficulty in getting accurate data for the Muslim population in the country. The majority of Muslims live in Mindanao and nearby islands. Most practice Sunni Islam under the Shafi'i school.
The percentage of non-religious people in the Philippines was measured to be about 11% of the population in a 2006 survey by Dentsu Research Institute, while a 2014 survey by Gallup International Association measured it as 21%. The Philippine Atheists and Agnostics Society (PATAS) is a nonprofit organization for the public understanding of atheism and agnosticism in the Philippines which educates society, and eliminates myths and misconceptions about atheism and agnosticism. The 2010 Philippine Census reported the religion of about 0.08% of the population as "none".
There are an increasing number of private health providers and, as of 2009[update], 67.1% of healthcare came from private expenditures while 32.9% was from government. In 2013, total expenditures on the health sector was 3.8% of GDP, below the WHO target of 5%. Health expenditure represented about 6.1% of total government spending. Per capita total expenditure at average exchange rate was US$52. The budget allocation for Healthcare in 2010 was ?28 billion (about US$597 million) or ?310 ($7) per person but had an increase in budget in 2014 with a record high in the collection of taxes from the House Bill 5727 (commonly known as Sin tax Bill).
There are an estimated 90,370 physicians or 1 per every 833 people, 480,910 nurses, 43,220 dentists, and 1 hospital bed per every 769 people. Retention of skilled practitioners is a problem. Seventy percent of nursing graduates go overseas to work. The Philippines is the biggest supplier of nurses for export.
In 2001 there were about 1,700 hospitals, of which about 40% were government-run and 60% private. Cardiovascular diseases account for more than 25% of all deaths. According to official estimates, 1,965 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were reported in 2003, of which 636 had developed acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Despite the increase of HIV/AIDS cases from 12,000 in 2005 to 17,450 as of April 2014 with 5,965 people who were under anti-retroviral therapy, the country is still a low-HIV-prevalence country with less than 0.1% of the adult population estimated to be HIV-positive.
While the country's universal healthcare implementation is underway as spearheaded by the state-owned Philippine Health Insurance Corporation, most healthcare-related expenses are either borne out of pocket or through health maintenance organization (HMO)-provided health plans as part of compensation on an employer-employee type of professional engagement. As of April 2020, there are only about 7 million individuals covered by these plans, against the resident population of around a hundred million.
As of 2008[update] the Philippines had a simple literacy rate of 95.6%, with 95.1% for males and 96.1% for females. The Philippines had a functional literacy rate of 86.45%, with 84.2% for males and 88.7% for females in 2008. Spending on education accounted for 16.11% in the national budget proposed for 2015.
The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) lists 2,180 higher education institutions, 607 of which are public and 1,573 private. Classes start in June and end in March. The majority of colleges and universities follow a semester calendar from June to October and November to March. There are a number of foreign schools with study programs. A 6-year elementary, a 4-year junior high school and a 2-year senior high school education is mandatory of the K-12 educational program in 2013.
Several government agencies are involved with education. The Department of Education covers elementary, secondary, and non-formal education. The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) administers post-secondary, middle-level education training and development. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) supervises college and graduate academic programs and degrees as well as regulates standards in higher education.
The Philippines attaches great importance in its relations with China, and has established significant cooperation with the country. Japan is the biggest contributor of official development assistance to the country. Although historical tensions exist due to the events of World War II, much of the animosity has faded.
Historical and cultural ties continue to affect relations with Spain. Despite issues such as domestic abuse and war affecting overseas Filipino workers, relations with Middle Eastern countries are friendly as seen in the continuous employment of more than two million overseas Filipinos living there.
A newly industrialized country, the Philippine economy has been transitioning from one based upon agriculture to an economy with more emphasis upon services and manufacturing. Of the country's total labor force of around 40.813 million, the agricultural sector employs 30% of the labor force, and accounts for 14% of GDP. The industrial sector employs around 14% of the workforce and accounts for 30% of GDP. Meanwhile, the 47% of workers involved in the services sector are responsible for 56% of GDP.
The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis affected the economy, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the peso and falls in the stock market. The extent it was affected initially was not as severe as that of some of its Asian neighbors. This was largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the government, partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth. There have been signs of progress since. In 2004, the economy experienced 6.4% GDP growth and 7.1% in 2007, its fastest pace of growth in three decades. Average annual GDP growth per capita for the period 1966-2007 still stands at 1.45% in comparison to an average of 5.96% for the East Asia and the Pacific region as a whole. The daily income for 45% of the population of the Philippines remains less than $2.
The economy is heavily reliant upon remittances from overseas Filipinos, which surpass foreign direct investment as a source of foreign currency. Remittances peaked in 2010 at 10.4% of the national GDP, and were 8.6% in 2012 and in 2014, Philippines total worth of foreign exchange remittances was US$28 billion. Regional development is uneven, with Luzon - Metro Manila in particular - gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions, although the government has taken steps to distribute economic growth by promoting investment in other areas of the country. Despite constraints, service industries such as tourism and business process outsourcing have been identified as areas with some of the best opportunities for growth for the country. The Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry is composed of eight sub-sectors, namely, knowledge process outsourcing and back offices, animation, call centers, software development, game development, engineering design, and medical transcription. The IT-BPO industry plays a major role in the country's growth and development. In 2008[update], the Philippines was reported as having eclipsed India as the main center of BPO services in the world.
The travel and tourism sector is a major contributor to the economy, contributing 10.6% to the country's GDP in 2015 and providing 1,226,500 jobs in 2013. 2,433,428 international visitors arrived from January to June 2014 up by 2.22% in the same period in 2013. South Korea, China, and Japan accounted for 58.78% while the Americas accounted for 19.28% and Europe 10.64%. The island of Boracay, popular for its beaches, was named as the best island in the world by Travel + Leisure in 2012. The Philippines is also a popular retirement destination for foreigners due to its climate and low cost of living.
As an archipelago, inter-island travel using watercraft is often necessary. This is traditionally done by small to medium-sized double-outrigger (trimaran) vessels, ranging from dugouts to plank-built vessels. Although highly diverse, they are collectively known as bangka (also baroto, baloto, or paraw; archaic: balangay, sakayan, biray, biroko, etc.). Bangka were originally propelled by sails. Since the 1970s, however, the sails have almost completely been replaced by motor engines. These motorized bangka are usually referred to as "pump boats" in Philippine English. Other traditional Filipino boat types have mostly gone extinct or are in danger of disappearing, like the once abundant casco barges and guilalo cargo ships. But the bangka remain the most ubiquitous type of watercraft in the Philippines, even in modern times, due to their stability, speed, and ability to navigate even shallow coral reefs. The busiest seaports are Manila, Batangas, Subic, Cebu, Iloilo, Davao, Cagayan de Oro, and Zamboanga. The Pasig River Ferry serves the cities of Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig and Marikina in Metro Manila.
Access to water is universal, affordable, efficient and of high quality. The creation of financially sustainable water service providers ("Water Districts") in small and medium towns with the continuous long-term support of a national agency (the "Local Water Utilities Administration" LWUA); and the improvement of access, service quality and efficiency in Manila through two high-profile water concessions awarded in 1997. The challenges include limited access to sanitation services, high pollution of water resources, often poor drinking water quality and poor service quality, a fragmentation of executive functions at the national level among numerous agencies, and a fragmentation of service provision at the local level into many small service providers. In 2015, it was reported by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation that 74% of the population had access to improved sanitation, and that "good progress" had been made between 1990 and 2015.
Filipino culture is a combination of Eastern and Western cultures. The Philippines exhibits aspects found in other Asian countries with a Malay heritage, yet its culture also displays a significant number of Spanish and American influences. Traditional festivities known as barrio fiestas (district festivals) to commemorate the feast days of patron saints are common, these community celebrations are times for feasting, music, and dancing. The Ati-Atihan, Moriones and Sinulog festivals are among the most well-known.
Some traditions, however, are changing or gradually being forgotten due to modernization. The Bayanihan Philippine National Folk Dance Company has been lauded for preserving many of the various traditional folk dances found throughout the Philippines. They are famed for their iconic performances of Philippine dances such as the tinikling and singkil that both feature clashing bamboo poles.
One of the most visible Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of Spanish names and surnames among Filipinos; a Spanish name and surname, however, does not necessarily denote Spanish ancestry. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial edict by Governor-General Narciso Clavería y Zaldua, which ordered the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of Hispanic nomenclature on the population. The names of many streets, towns, and provinces are also in Spanish.
The common use of the English language is an example of the American impact on Philippine society. It has contributed to the ready acceptance and influence of American pop cultural trends. This affinity is seen in Filipinos' love of fast food and American film and music. Fast food outlets are found on many street corners. American global fast food chain stalwarts have entered the market, but local fast food chains like Goldilocks and most notably Jollibee, the leading fast food chain in the country, have emerged and compete successfully against foreign chains.
Philippine mythology has been handed down primarily through the traditional oral folk literature of the Filipino people. While each unique ethnic group has its own stories and myths to tell, Hindu and Spanish influences can nonetheless be detected in many cases. Philippine mythology mostly consists of creation stories or stories about supernatural creatures, such as the aswang, the manananggal, the diwata/engkanto, and nature. Some popular figures from Philippine mythologies are Maria Makiling, Lam-Ang, and the Sarimanok.
The American occupation in 1898 introduced a new breed of architectural structures in the Philippines. This led to the construction of government buildings and Art Deco theaters. During the American period, some semblance of city planning using the architectural designs and master plans by Daniel Burnham was done on the portions of the city of Manila. Part of the Burnham plan was the construction of government buildings that resembled Greek or Neoclassical architecture. In Iloilo, a lot of the colonial edifices constructed during the American occupation in the country can still be seen. Commercial buildings, houses and churches in that era are abundant in the city and especially in Calle Real. Certain areas of the country like Batanes have slight differences as both Spanish and Filipino ways of architecture assimilated differently due to the climate. Limestones and coral were used as building materials.
Philippine music has evolved rapidly due to the different influences stemming from colonialism under other countries. Before the Spanish conquest of the islands, most music was reminiscent of, or heavily influenced by, nature. Some examples of this tribal music is Koyu No Tebulul of the T'boli and Ambo Hato of the Ifugao. This genre is often accompanied by gong music and one well known instrument is the Kulintang. During the Spanish era Rondalya music, where traditional string orchestra mandolin type instruments were used, was widespread.
Marcelo Adonay (organist), Simplicio Solis (organist), Diego C. Perez (pianist), Jose Conseco (pianist) and Doña Dolores Paterno (composer) were some of the recognized musicians in this era. Nowadays, American pop culture has a heavy hold on the Filipinos that evolved from the Spanish times when the American occupation happened. Along with Korean pop, these two are dominating the recent music scene in media. However, the revival of Spanish-influence folk music has been possible thanks to the different choir groups coming in and going out of the country, such as the Philippine Madrigal Singers.
Cariñosa, a Hispanic era dance for traditional Filipino courtship.
Just like the evolution of Philippine music, dance as well has been in constant change. Prior to colonial rule, the Philippines had a wide array of ethnic dances from different tribal groups. This was due mainly to the fact that Philippines is an archipelago thus the different varieties of dance developed. Both Luzon and Visayas, at first, were more akin to tribal movements until the Spanish came. Mindanao represents more of an array of Muslim inspired dances and Spanish influence was limited to the region of Zamboanga.
One famous dance that is well known is called the Tinikling, where a band of Rondalya musicians play along with the percussive beat of the two bamboo poles. It usually starts with men and women acting a scene about "How rural townsfolk mingle". The dancers then graze thru the clashing of the bamboo poles held on opposite sides. The end displays the paired bamboo poles crossing each other. The Muslim version of this where bamboo poles are also used is called the Singkil.Cariñosa is a Hispanic Filipino dance, unofficially considered as the "National Dance of the Philippines". It is a courtship dance which involves a woman holding a fan or a handkerchief, where it plays an instrumental role as it places the couple in romance scenario.
In the Modern and Post-Modern time periods, dances may vary from the delicate ballet up to the more street-oriented styles of breakdancing.
A statue showing the traditional pagmamano gesture, which is a sign of respect to the elderly and request a blessing from them.
As a general description, the distinct value system of Filipinos is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly Christianity), and commercial relationships.
Filipino values are, for the most part, centered around maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group. The main sanction against diverging from these values are the concepts of "Hiya", roughly translated as 'a sense of shame', and "Amor propio" or 'self-esteem'. Social approval, acceptance by a group, and belonging to a group are major concerns. Caring about what others will think, say or do, are strong influences on social behavior among Filipinos.
Other elements of the Filipino value system are optimism about the future, pessimism about present situations and events, concern and care for other people, the existence of friendship and friendliness, the habit of being hospitable, religious nature, respectfulness to self and others, respect for the female members of society, the fear of God, and abhorrence of acts of cheating and thievery.
Filipino cuisine has evolved over several centuries from its Malayo-Polynesian origins to become a mixed cuisine with many Hispanic, Chinese, American, and other Asian influences that have been adapted to local ingredients and the Filipino palate to create distinctively Filipino dishes. Dishes range from the very simple, like a meal of fried salted fish and rice, to the elaborate, such as the paellas and cocidos created for fiestas.
Unlike many Asians, most Filipinos do not eat with chopsticks; they use Western cutlery. However, possibly due to rice being the primary staple food and the popularity of a large number of stews and main dishes with broth in Filipino cuisine, the main pairing of utensils seen at the Filipino dining table is that of spoon and fork, not knife and fork.
The traditional way of eating with the hands known as kamayan (using the washed right hand for bringing food to the mouth) was previously more often seen in the less urbanized areas. However, due to the various Filipino restaurants that introduced Filipino food to people of other nationalities as well as to Filipino urbanites, kamayan fast became popular. This recent trend also sometimes incorporates the "Boodle Fight" concept (as popularized and coined by the Philippine Army), wherein banana leaves are used as giant plates on top of which rice portions and Filipino viands are placed all together for a filial, friendly and/or communal kamayan feasting.
Philippine media uses mainly Filipino and English. Other Philippine languages, including various Visayan languages are also used, especially in radio due to its ability to reach remote rural locations that might otherwise not be serviced by other kinds of media. The dominant television networks ABS-CBN, GMA and 5 also have extensive radio presence.
During the 1960s, James Bond movies, bomba (soft porn) pictures and an era of musical films, produced mostly by Sampaguita Pictures, dominated the cinema. The second golden age occurred from 1970s to early 1980s. It was during this era that filmmakers ceased to produce pictures in black and white. A rise in Hollywood films dominated theater sales during the late 1980s until the 2000s. The dawn of this era saw a dramatic decline of the mainstream Philippine movie industry. In the year 2009, however, presence of box-office films in the Philippine Box Office has surged. The mid 2010s also saw broader commercial success of films produced by independent studios.
^Legarda, Benito Jr. (2001). "Cultural Landmarks and their Interactions with Economic Factors in the Second Millennium in the Philippines". Kinaadman (Wisdom) A Journal of the Southern Philippines. 23: 40.
^Polities and Sultanates in the 10th and 16th Century Philippines, Historical Atlas of the Republic, Manila: The Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office, 2016. p. 64."
^Legarda, Benito Jr. (2001). "Cultural Landmarks and their Interactions with Economic Factors in the Second Millennium in the Philippines". Kinaadman (Wisdom) A Journal of the Southern Philippines. 23: 40.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
^Zaide, Gregorio F. & Sonia M. Zaide (2004). Philippine History and Government (6th ed.). All-Nations Publishing Company.
^"In Governor Anda y Salazar's opinion, an important part of the problem of vagrancy was the fact that Mexicans and Spanish disbanded after finishing their military or prison terms "all over the islands, even the most distant, looking for subsistence."" ~CSIC riel 208 leg.14
^ abTomás de Comyn, general manager of the Compañia Real de Filipinas, in 1810 estimated that out of a total population of 2,515,406, "the European Spaniards, and Spanish creoles and mestizos do not exceed 4,000 persons of both sexes and all ages, and the distinct castes or modifications known in America under the name of mulatto, quarteroons, etc., although found in the Philippine Islands, are generally confounded in the three classes of pure Indians, Chinese mestizos and Chinese." In other words, the Mexicans who had arrived in the previous century had so intermingled with the local population that distinctions of origin had been forgotten by the 19th century. The Mexicans who came with Legázpi and aboard succeeding vessels had blended with the local residents so well that their country of origin had been erased from memory.
^"The descendants of Mexican mestizos and native Filipinos were numerous but unaccounted for because they were mostly the result of informal liasons." ~Garcia de los Arcos, Forzados, 238
^Blair, E., Robertson, J., & Bourne, E. (1903). The Philippine islands, 1493-1803 : explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the Catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century. Cleveland, Ohio.
^Barrows, David (2014). "A History of the Philippines". 1: 179. Within the walls, there were some six hundred houses of a private nature, most of them built of stone and tile, and an equal number outside in the suburbs, or arrabales, all occupied by Spaniards (todos son vivienda y poblacion de los Españoles). This gives some twelve hundred Spanish families or establishments, exclusive of the religious, who in Manila numbered at least one hundred and fifty, the garrison, at certain times, about four hundred trained Spanish soldiers who had seen service in Holland and the Low Countries, and the official classes.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
^"Officers in the army of the Philippines were almost totally composed of Americans," observed the Spanish historian José Montero y Vidal. "They received in great disgust the arrival of peninsular officers as reinforcements, partly because they supposed they would be shoved aside in the promotions and partly because of racial antagonisms."
^Nuguid, Nati. (1972). "The Cavite Mutiny". in Mary R. Tagle. 12 Events that Have Influenced Philippine History. [Manila]: National Media Production Center. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from StuartXchange Website.
^Atwood, J. Brian; Schuette, Keith E. A Path to Democratic Renewal(PDF) (Report). p. 350 – via National Democratic Institute for International Affairs and National Republican Institute for International Affairs.
^Carpenter, Kent E. & Victor G. Springer (April 2005). "The center of the center of marine shore fish biodiversity: the Philippine Islands". Environmental Biology of Fishes. 74 (2): 467-480. doi:10.1007/s10641-004-3154-4. S2CID8280012.
^Soares, PA; Trejaut, JA; Rito, T; Cavadas, B; Hill, C; Eng, KK; Mormina, M; Brandão, A; Fraser, RM; Wang, TY; Loo, JH; Snell, C; Ko, TM; Amorim, A; Pala, M; Macaulay, V; Bulbeck, D; Wilson, JF; Gusmão, L; Pereira, L; Oppenheimer, S; Lin, M; Richards, MB (2016). "Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian-speaking populations". Hum Genet. 135 (3): 309-26. doi:10.1007/s00439-015-1620-z. PMC4757630. PMID26781090. The final component (dark blue in Fig. 3b) has a high frequency in South China (Fig. 2b) and is also seen in Taiwan at ~25-30 %, in the Philippines at ~20-30 % (except in one location which is almost zero) and across Indonesia/Malaysia at 1-10 %, declining overall from Taiwan within Austronesian-speaking populations.
^"In 1637 the military force maintained in the islands consisted of one thousand seven hundred and two Spaniards and one hundred and forty Indians." ~Memorial de D. Juan Grau y Monfalcon, Procurador General de las Islas Filipinas, Docs. Inéditos del Archivo de Indias, vi, p. 425. "In 1787 the garrison at Manila consisted of one regiment of Mexicans comprising one thousand three hundred men, two artillery companies of eighty men each, three cavalry companies of fifty men each." La Pérouse, ii, p. 368.
^Cooper, Matthew (November 15, 2013). "Why the Philippines Is America's Forgotten Colony". National Journal. Retrieved 2015. c. At the same time, person-to-person contacts are widespread: Some 600,000 Americans live in the Philippines and there are 3 million Filipino-Americans, many of whom are devoting themselves to typhoon relief.
^Chan-Yap, Gloria (1980). Hokkien Chinese borrowings in Tagalog. Dept. of Linguistics, School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. p. 5. ISBN978-0-85883-225-1. The number of loanwords in the domain of cookery is rather large, and they are, by far, the most homogeneous of the loanwords.
^O'Shaughnessy, Thomas J (1975). "How Many Muslims Has the Philippines?". Philippine Studies. 23 (3): 375-382. JSTOR42632278.
^"International Religious Freedom Report for 2014". United States Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. Most Muslims are members of various ethnic minority groups. The majority of Muslims reside in Mindanao in the South and nearby islands.
^ abRepublic of the Philippines. Commission on Higher Education. (August 2010). "Information on Higher Education System". Archived from the original on July 4, 2011. Retrieved 2011.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link). Official Website of the Commission on Higher Education. Retrieved April 17, 2011.
^Commission on Higher Education The Commission on Higher Education is the governing body covering both public and private higher education institutions as well as degree-granting programs in all tertiary educational institutions in the Philippines. The CHED was established on May 18, 1994 through Republic Act 7722 or the Higher Education Act.
^"Country description". US State Department Website. US State Department Website. January 2012. Archived from the original on January 3, 2012. Retrieved 2012. The Philippines is an emerging economy with a democratic system of government.
^Hayden Cooper, 2012, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Government urged to help kidnapped Australian, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...Warren Richard Rodwell from Australia being held captive by this group since December 5, 2011...please do whatever to raise the 2 million US dollars they are asking for my release ..."
^Roel Pareño, The Philippine Star, March 24, 2013, Sayyaf releases Aussie hostage, Retrieved July 6, 2020, "...Australian Warren Rodwell emerged early yesterday withered after being held for 15 months by Abu Sayyaf bandits in southern Mindanao..."
^Sun Star, April 25, 2014, Abducted tourist, hotel staff now in Sulu, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...Abu Sayyaf bandits have brought a Chinese tourist and a Filipino hotel receptionist to their jungle stronghold in southern Philippines after kidnapping the women from a dive resort in eastern Malaysia ..."
^Aguilar, Glenn D. (2004). "Philippine Fishing Boats". In Silvestre, Geronimo; Green, Stuart J.; White, Alan T.; Armada, Nygiel; Luna, Cesar; Cruz-Trinidad, Annabelle; Carreon, Marciano F., III (eds.). In Turbulent Seas: The Status of Philippine Marine Fisheries. Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Republic of the Philippines. pp. 118-121. ISBN9719275340.
^Mga Larong Pilipino [Philippine Games]. (2009). Tagalog at NIU. Retrieved December 19, 2009 from the Northern Illinois University, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, SEAsite Project. (archived from the originalArchived August 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine on June 28, 2014)