Political Parties in Russia
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Political Parties in Russia
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politics and government of
the Russian Federation
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This article discusses political parties in Russia.

The Russian Federation has a multi-party system. As of 2018 six parties have members in the federal parliament, the State Duma, with one dominant party (United Russia).

After the Perestroika reforms in the 1980s Russia had over 100 registered parties, but the people elected to the State Duma represented only a small number of parties. After 2000, during Vladimir Putin's first presidency (2000-2008), the number of parties quickly decreased. From 2008 to 2012 there were only seven parties in Russia, and every new attempt to register new, independent parties was blocked.[by whom?] The last-registered party of this period was the government-organized Right Cause (registered on 18 February 2009). Before the 2011 parliamentary elections, about 10 opposition parties were denied registration. However, after a series of mass protests and a 2011 European Court decision on the case of the Republican Party of Russia, the law changed and the number of registered parties quickly increased to more than 48 as of December 2012.

History

Party of power

In Russian politics, a "party of power" is a specially established party which unconditionally supports the current president or prime minister in the parliament.[]

These parties have been considered[by whom?] parties of power:

Legislation

Certificate of state registration of political parties in Russia, issued by the Ministry of Justice of Russia

Social composition of voters

According to studies, United Russia voters in 2007 were younger and more market-oriented than the average voter. The party's electorate includes a substantial share of government employees, pensioners and military personnel, who are dependent on the state for their livelihood.[1] Sixty-four percent of United Russia supporters are female. According to researchers[who?], this could be because women place a great value on stability. In the run-up to the 2011 Duma elections, it was reported that support for United Russia was growing among young people.[2]

Registered parties

All parties registered by the Ministry of Justice have the right to participate in any elections all over the country. The list is placed on the Justice Ministry website. In December 2012, there were 48 registered parties in Russia; 6 of them are currently represented in the State Duma as of 2017.

Currently represented in the State Duma

Currently represented in regional parliaments

All currently registered parties

No[3] Name (Russian name) Abbr. Ideology Affiliations Position Leader(s) Created Registration
1 United Russia
( )
ER () Statism
Conservatism
Russian Nationalism
All-Russia People's Front Right-Wing Dmitry Medvedev,
Vladimir Putin,
Sergey Neverov
2001 2003
2 Communist Party of the Russian Federation
(? ? )
CPRF, KPRF (?) Communism, Marxism-Leninism Union of Communist Parties - Communist Party of the Soviet Union,
International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties
Far-left Gennady Zyuganov 1990 2002
3 Liberal Democratic Party of Russia
(?- )
LDPR (?) Russian ultranationalism, Pan-Slavism, Imperialism, Mixed economy Liberal Democratic Party (Belarus),
Liberal Democratic Party of Pridnestrovie,
National Front (France)[4]
Far-right Vladimir Zhirinovsky 1992 2002
4 Patriots of Russia
( )
Social democracy, Democratic Socialism, Left-wing nationalism All-Russia People's Front Left Gennady Semigin 2005 2003
5 Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko"
(? «»)
Social liberalism, Environmentalism Liberal International,
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party
Centre-left Sergey Mitrokhin,
Grigory Yavlinsky,
Emilia Slabunova
1995 2003
6 A Just Russia
( )
Social democracy, Democratic socialism Socialist International Centre-left Nikolai Levichev,
Sergey Mironov
2006 2002
7 Party of Growth
( )
Conservatism/Liberal conservatism, Russian nationalism and patriotism elements International Democrat Union (suspended) Right Andrei Dunaev 2008 2009
8 Republican Party of Russia - People's Freedom Party
( -- ?)
RPR-PARNAS (-) Liberalism, Liberal democratic, Federalism, Human rights Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party (partly) Centre-right Vladimir Ryzhkov,
Mikhail Kasyanov,
Boris Nemtsov (until his death in 2015)
1990 2002
9 Democratic Party of Russia
( )
Conservatism Centre-right Timur Bogdanov 1990 2012
15 Communist Party of Social Justice
(? ? )
? Socialism Far-left Andrei Bogdanov 2012
18 Young Russia
(? )
? Nikolay Stolyarchuk 2012
19 New Russia
( )
Social liberalism Vyacheslav Grishin 2012
20 Party of Free Citizens
( ?)
Constitutionalism Pavel Sklyanchuk 2012
21 Russian Ecological Party "The Greens"
(? ? «?»)
? Environmentalism, Centrism, Green politics Centre-left Anatoly Panfilov 1993 2012
22 Communists of Russia
(? )
Marxism-Leninism Far-left Maksim Suraykin 2009 2012
23 Agrarian Party of Russia
( )
Agrarian socialism, Social conservatism Centre-left Olga Bashmachnikova
Vladimir Plotnikov
1993 2012
24 Russian All-People's Union
(? ?)
Russian nationalism, Patriotism, Conservatism, partly socialism Right Sergey Baburin 1991 2012
25 Party for Justice
( )
2012
26 Political Party of Social Protection
( ? )
2012
27 Civilian Power
( ?)
Liberalism, Green politics Centre-left Alexandr Ryavkin 2007 2012
28 Russian Party of Pensioners for Justice
(? )
? Social conservatism Centre-right Igor Zotov 1997 2012
29 Smart Russia
( )
Civil nationalism Nikita Borovikov [ru],
Vasily Yakemenko
2012
30 People's Alliance
( )
Patriotism Progress Party Centre-right 2012
31 Monarchist Party
(? )
Monarchism Anton Bakov 2012
32 Party of Peace and Unity
(? ? ? )
Democratic socialism Patriots of Russia Centre-left Sazhi Umalatova 1996 2012
33 Civic Platform
( )
Liberal conservatism, Economic liberalism Centre-right Mikhail Prokhorov 2012 2012
34 Honest/Man. Justice. Responsibility (Party)
(/?. . )
Sergey Zamuruev 2012
35 Taxpayers Party of Russia
( )
Yevgeny Sivkov 2012
36 Democratic Choice
( )
National liberalism, Liberal conservatism, Civil nationalism Left Vladimir Milov 2010 2012
37 Party of Will
( ?)
Narodnik, Democratic socialism, Left conservatism Left Svetlana Peunova 2007 2012
38 Labor Party of Russia
( )
Liberalism, Social conservatism Sergey Vostretsov 2012 2012
39 Against All
( ?)
Liberal conservatism Pavel Mihalchenkov 2012
40 Russian Socialist Party
(? ? )
Socialism Left Sergey Cherkashin 2012 2012
41 Party of Spiritual Transfiguration of Russia
( )
? Inna Bozhko 2012 2012
42 Party of Veterans of Russia
( )
Patriotism, Social conservatism 2012
43 Russian United Labour Front
(? )
ROT Front ( ) Marxism-Leninism, Socialism Far-left Viktor Tyulkin 2010 2012
44 Party Action
( ?)
Centre-right Konstantin Babkin 2012
45 Party of National Security of Russia
( )
? Alexandr Fedulov 2012
46 Rodina
()
All-Russia People's Front Left Aleksey Zhuravlyov 2012
47 Union of Labor
(? )
Alexandr Shershukov 2012
48 Russian Party of People's Administration
(? ?)
Albert Mukhamedyarov 2012
49 Women's Dialogue
(? )
Yelena Semerikova 2012
50 Born in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
( ? ? )
Communism Far-left 2013
51 Party of Renaissance of Villages
( ?)
2013
52 Defenders of the Fatherland
( )
Nikolay Sobolev 2013
53 Cossack's Party of the Russian Federation
(? ? )
Sergey Bondaryov 2013
54 Development of Russia
( )
Aleksey Kaminskiy 2013
55 United Agro-Industrial Party of Russia
( ?- )
2013
56 Democratic Legal Russia
( )
Igor Trunov 2013
57 Party of Social Solidarity
( ? )
Alexandr Voznesenskiy 2013
58 Dignity Party
( )
Stanislav Bychinskiy 2013
59 Great Fatherland
(? )
Conservatism, Patriotism Right Nikolai Starikov,
Igor' Ashmanov
2012 2013
60 Russian Party of Gardeners
(? )
Left Igor Kasyanov 2013
61 Civil Position
( ?)
Social liberalism Left Dmitry Chirov 2012
62 Civic Initiative
( ?)
Democracy, Liberalism Left Andrey Nechayev 2013
63 Party of Russia's Rebirth
( )
Socialism, Social state Left Gennadiy Seleznyov
Viktor Arkhipov
2013
64 National Course
( ?)
Andrey Kovalenko 2013
65 Automotive Russia
(? )
Elena Fanaeva 2013
66 The People Against Corruption
( )
Anti-corruption 2013
67 Native Party
( )
2013
68 Party of Protection of Business and Entrepreneurship
( ? ? ?)
2013
69 Sports Party Russian Healthy Forces
(? « ?»)
2013
70 Man's Labor Party
( )
2014
71 Progress Party
( )
Nikolay Pakin 2012 2012
72 Party of Social Reform
( ? )
73 International Party of Russia
( )
2014
74 United Party of People With Limited Working Capacity of Russia
( ? )
2014
75 Good Deeds, Protection of Children, Women, Freedom, Nature and Retirees
( , , , ?, ? ? )
2014
76 Revival of Agrarian Russia
( )
Agrarian socialism, Social conservatism Centre-left 2015

Parties without official registration

Active unregistered parties

Historical parties (1992-present)

partiya "Zyelyonyye")

Banned parties in Russia

Soviet parties, 1917-1992

Parties of the Russian Empire, 1721-1917

Other historical parties

See also

Further reading

  • Gel?man, Vladimir (2013). Party Politics in Russia: From Competition to Hierarchy. Politics In Russia: A Reader. CQ Press. pp. 273-289.
  • Hale, Henry E. (2006). Why Not Parties in Russia?: Democracy, Federalism, and the State. Cambridge University Press.
  • Smyth, Regina (2012). Political parties. Routledge Handbook of Russian Politics and Society. Routledge. pp. 115-128.
  • White, Stephen (2013). Russia's Client Party System. Politics In Russia: A Reader. CQ Press. pp. 306-330.

References

  1. ^ "Russia Analytical Digest" (PDF) (102). University of Basel, Center for Security Studies Zürich, Forschungsstelle Osteuropa Bremen. 26 November 2011: 2-6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 May 2012.
  2. ^ Yevgeny Utkin. Seven parties, one virtually certain outcome Russia Beyond the Headlines. (2011-11-23)
  3. ^ " - ". minjust.ru.
  4. ^ : " <...> ?. . , . ? . ? . ?, , ? ? ? ..."

External links


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