|Polity type||Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|Constitution||1997 Constitution of Poland|
|Meeting place||Sejm and Senate Complex of Poland|
|Name||Senate of Poland|
|Presiding officer||Tomasz Grodzki, Marshal of the Senate|
|Presiding officer||El?bieta Witek, Marshal of the Sejm|
|Appointer||Open-list proportional representation in 41 constituencies (5% national election threshold)|
|Head of State|
|Appointer||Direct popular vote|
|Head of Government|
|Name||Government of the Republic of Poland|
|Current cabinet||Cabinet of Mateusz Morawiecki|
|Deputy leader||Piotr Gli?ski, Deputy Prime Minister|
|Headquarters||Sejm and Senate Complex of Poland|
|Name||Judiciary of Poland|
|Chief judge||Julia Przybska|
The Government of Poland takes place in the framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government.
Executive power is exercised, within the framework of a multi-party system, by the President and the Government, which consists of the Council of Ministers led by the Prime Minister. Its members are typically chosen from the majority party or coalition, in the lower house of parliament (the Sejm), although exceptions to this rule are not uncommon. The government is formally announced by the President, and must pass a motion of confidence in the Sejm within two weeks.
Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of parliament, Sejm and Senate. Members of Sejm are elected by proportional representation, with the proviso that non-ethnic-minority parties must gain at least 5% of the national vote to enter the lower house. Currently five parties are represented. Parliamentary elections occur at least every four years.
The president, as the head of state, is the supreme commander of the Armed Forces, has the power to veto legislation passed by parliament, which may be overridden by a majority of three fifths, and can dissolve the parliament under certain conditions. Presidential elections occur every five years. When a majority of voters support the same candidate, he is declared the winner, while when there is no majority, the top two candidates participate in a runoff election.
The political system is defined in the Polish Constitution, which also guarantees a wide range of individual freedoms. The judicial branch plays a minor role in politics, apart from the Constitutional Tribunal, which can annul laws that violate the freedoms guaranteed in the constitution.
The Prime Minister proposes, the President appoints, and the Sejm approves the Council of Ministers. The President is elected by popular vote for a five-year term, the Prime minister and Deputy Prime Ministers (if any) are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Sejm. The Council of Ministers is responsible to the Prime Minister and the Sejm.
|President||Andrzej Duda||Law and Justice||6 August 2015|
|Prime Minister||Mateusz Morawiecki||Law and Justice||11 December 2017|
The President is elected by terms; as head of state, supreme commander of the Armed Forces, and supreme representative of the Republic of Poland. The President has the right to veto legislation, although veto may be overridden by the assembly with a three-fifths majority vote. The President, as representative of the state in foreign affairs, shall ratify and renounce international agreements, appoint and recall the plenipotentiary representatives of the Republic of Poland and shall cooperate with the Prime Minister and the appropriate minister in respect of foreign policy. As Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, the President shall appoint the Chief of the General Staff and commanders of branches of the Armed Forces.
The President may, regarding particular matters, convene the Cabinet Council, although it does not possess the competence of the Council of Ministers. Official acts of the President shall require, for their validity, the signature of the Prime Minister, nevertheless this does not apply to:
The Polish Parliament has two chambers. The lower chamber (Sejm) has 460 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies using the d'Hondt method similar to that used in many parliamentary political systems, with a 5% threshold (8% for coalitions, threshold waived for national minorities). The Senate (Senat) has 100 members elected for a four-year term under the single member, one-round first-past-the-post voting method. When sitting in joint session, members of the Sejm and Senate form the National Assembly, (Polish Zgromadzenie Narodowe). The National Assembly is formed on three occasions: Taking the oath of office by a new president, bringing an indictment against the President of the Republic to the Tribunal of State, and declaration of a President's permanent incapacity to exercise their duties due to the state of their health. Only the first kind has occurred to date. Since 1991 elections are supervised by the National Electoral Commission (Pa?stwowa Komisja Wyborcza), whose administrative division is called the National Electoral Office (Krajowe Biuro Wyborcze).
2019 Parliamentary Elections
|Law and Justice (PiS)||8,051,935||43.59||235||-5|
|Civic Coalition (KO)||5,060,355||27.40||134||-32|
|The Left (SLD)||2,319,946||12.56||49||+49|
|Polish Coalition (PSL)||1,578,523||8.55||30||-28|
|German Minority (MN)||32,094||0.17||1||±0|
|Nonpartisan local government activists (BS)||144,569||0.78||0||±0|
|Action of Disappointed Retirees and Pensioners (AZER)||5,448||0.03||0||±0|
|Right Wing of the Republic (PR)||1,765||0.01||0||-1|
|Blank and invalid votes||207,747||1.11|
|Registered voters / Turnout||30,253,556||61.74|
|(Source: National Electoral Commission)|
2020 Presidential Election
|Candidate||Party||First round||Second round|
|Andrzej Duda||Independent (PiS)||8,450,513||43.50||10,440,648||51.03|
|Rafa? Trzaskowski||Civic Platform||5,917,340||30.46||10,018,263||48.97|
|Krzysztof Bosak||Confederation (RN)||1,317,380||6.78|
|W?adys?aw Kosiniak-Kamysz||Polish People's Party||459,365||2.36|
|Stanis?aw ?ó?tek||Congress of the New Right||45,419||0.23|
|Marek Jakubiak||Federation for the Republic||33,652||0.17|
|Waldemar Witkowski||Labour Union||27,290||0.14|
|Miros?aw Piotrowski||Real Europe Movement||21,065||0.11|
|Source: Results, Turnout (First round); Results, Turnout (Second round)|
Poland's top national security goal is to further integrate with NATO and other west European defense, economic, and political institutions via a modernization and reorganization of its military. Polish military doctrine reflects the same defense nature as its NATO partners.
The combined Polish army consists of 100,300 active duty personnel and in addition 234,000 reserves. In 2009 the Armed Forces transformed into a fully professional organization and compulsory military service was abolished. Personnel levels and organization in the different branches are as follows (2004):
The Polish military continues to restructure and to modernize its equipment. The Polish Defense Ministry General Staff and the Land Forces staff have recently reorganized the latter into a NATO-compatible J/G-1 through J/G-6 structure. Budget constraints hamper such priority defense acquisitions as a multi-role fighter, improved communications systems, and an attack helicopter.
Poland continues to be a regional leader in support and participation in the NATO Partnership for Peace Program and has actively engaged most of its neighbors and other regional actors to build stable foundations for future European security arrangements. Poland continues its long record of strong support for United Nations peacekeeping operations; it maintaining a unit in Southern Lebanon (part of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon, a battalion in NATO's Kosovo Force (KFOR), and providing and actually deploying the KFOR strategic reserve to Kosovo. Poland is a strong ally of the US in Europe, and it led the Multinational Division Central-South in Iraq in the 2000s.
The State Protection Service (Polish: S?u?ba Ochrony Pa?stwa, SOP) is Poland's equivalent of the Secret Service in the United States, providing antiterrorism and VIP security detail services for the government.
Poland is divided in 16 provinces or Voivodeships (województwa, singular - województwo): Lower Silesia, Kuyavia-Pomerania, ?ód?, Lubelskie, Lubusz, Lesser Poland, Masovia, Opole, Subcarpathia, Podlaskie, Pomerania, Silesia, ?wi?tokrzyskie, Warmia-Masuria, Greater Poland and West Pomerania.
Duhamel has developed the approach further: He stresses that the French construction does not correspond to either parliamentary or the presidential form of government, and then develops the distinction of 'système politique' and 'régime constitutionnel'. While the former comprises the exercise of power that results from the dominant institutional practice, the latter is the totality of the rules for the dominant institutional practice of the power. In this way, France appears as 'presidentialist system' endowed with a 'semi-presidential regime' (1983: 587). By this standard he recognizes Duverger's pléiade as semi-presidential regimes, as well as Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and Lithuania (1993: 87).Cite journal requires
Even if the president has no discretion in the forming of cabinets or the right to dissolve parliament, his or her constitutional authority can be regarded as 'quite considerable' in Duverger's sense if cabinet legislation approved in parliament can be blocked by the people's elected agent. Such powers are especially relevant if an extraordinary majority is required to override a veto, as in Mongolia, Poland, and Senegal. In these cases, while the government is fully accountable to parliament, it cannot legislate without taking the potentially different policy preferences of the president into account.