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The Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation of the federally recognized tribe is in Polk County, where the people have been since the early 19th century, after having been forcibly evicted from the Southeast. The 2000 census reported a resident population of 480 persons within the reservation. The tribe reports 1100 enrolled members.
Ike Turner Camp Confederate Monument, Livingston, Texas
As of the census of 2000, 41,133 people, 15,119 households, and 10,915 families were residing in the county. The population density was 39 inhabitants per square mile (15/km2). The 21,177 housing units averaged 20 per square mile (8/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 79.64% White, 13.17% African American, 1.74% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 3.75% from other races, and 1.32% from two or more races. About 9.39% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.
Of the 15,119 households, 28.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.90% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.80% were not families. About 24.60% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50, and the average family size was 2.95.
In the county, the population was distributed as 22.90% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 26.80% from 25 to 44, 24.20% from 45 to 64, and 18.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 108.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.50 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $30,495, and for a family was $35,957. Males had a median income of $30,823 versus $21,065 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,834. About 13.30% of families and 17.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.10% of those under age 18 and 12.30% of those age 65 or over.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,110 square miles (2,900 km2), of which 1,057 square miles (2,740 km2) are land and 53 square miles (140 km2) (4.7%) are covered by water.
Polk County College / Commerce Center was completed in 2013 and is located on the U.S. Highway 59 Bypass. Angelina College offers advanced curriculum study and technical training at this location. The facility provides public auditorium space and may be used as a mass shelter in a disaster event .
Sam Houston: general of the revolution to achieve independence and President of the Republic of Texas, spent much time in Polk County, including making peace treaties with the Alabama-Coushata Indians.
Captain (Ike) Isaac Newton Moreland Turner: Confederate captain who joined the Civil War from Polk County, with units called the "Texas Brigade"; his remains were returned here from Georgia and were reinterred in his family cemetery on April 15, 1995
Annette Gordon-Reed (born November 19, 1958 in Livingston, Texas) is an American historian, Pulitzer Prize winning author, and law professor noted for changing scholarship on Thomas Jefferson regarding his relationship with Sally Hemings and her children.