Etruscan urn containing the ashes of Pomponius Notus
gens Pomponia was a plebeian family at ancient Rome. Its members appear throughout the history of the Roman Republic, and into imperial times. The first of the gens to achieve prominence was Marcus Pomponius, tribune of the plebs in 449 BC; the first who obtained the consulship was Manius Pomponius Matho in 233 BC. 
In the latter part of the Republic, it was common for various gentes to claim descent from the founding figures of Rome; the companions of
Aeneas, Romulus, or those who came to Rome in the time of the kings. The Pomponii claimed to be descended from Pompo, one of the sons of Numa Pompilius, the second King of Rome, whose image appears on some of their coins. Several other gentes also claimed Numa as their ancestor. [i]     Pompo, asserted as the name of the ancestor of the Pompilii, does indeed appear to have been an ancient praenomen of Sabine origin. It was the Oscan equivalent of , a very common name. Numa's father is said to have been named Quintus Pompo Pompilius, and it is evident that the nomen Pompilius was itself a patronymic surname derived from Pompo. Pomponius appears to be derived from an adjectival form of that name, and the equivalent of the Latin nomen . Thus, it is reasonably certain that some ancestor of the Pomponii was indeed named Quinctilius Pompo, although the claim that he was the son of Numa may well be a later addition. 
An alternative explanation suggested during the early nineteenth century, was that the name might be derived from an Etruscan root,
or Pumpu Pumpili. In her  History of Etruria, Mrs. Hamilton Gray supposed Pumpu to have been the name of Numa's mother, adopted as a surname according to a tradition common to the Etruscan and Sabine cultures. 
The Pomponii used a wide variety of
praenomina. The principal names were , and Marcus, Lucius . A few of the Pomponii bore the praenomina Titus , and Quintus, Publius . The illustrious family of the Pomponii Mathones favored Sextus , and there are individual instances of Manius and Gaius .
Branches and cognomina
In the earliest times, the Pomponii were not distinguished by any surname, and the only family that rose to importance in the time of the Republic bore the surname
Matho. On coins we also find the , and cognomina Molo, Musa Rufus, but none of these occur in ancient writers. The other surnames found during the Republic, such as Atticus, were personal cognomina. Numerous surnames appear in imperial times. 
Members This list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation.
Pomponii Rufi Lucius Pomponius Rufus, grandfather of the consular tribune of 399 BC.
 Lucius Pomponius L. f. Rufus, father of the consular tribune.
 Marcus Pomponius L. f. L. n. Rufus,
consular tribune in 399 BC.    Quintus Pomponius (L. f. L. n. Rufus), tribune of the plebs in 395 BC, opposed a measure to establish a colony at Veii, for which reason he was accused and fined two years later.  
Titus Pomponius Bassus, consul suffectus in AD 94. Lucius Pomponius Bassus, consul
suffectus in AD 118. Lucius Pomponius L. f. Bassus Cascus Scribonianus, consul
suffectus between AD 128 and 143. 
Gaius Pomponius C. f. Bassus Terentianus, consul suffectus around AD 193. 
Pomponius Bassus, consul in AD 211, put to death by Elagabalus, so that the emperor could marry his widow, Annia Faustina. Pomponius Bassus, consul in AD 259 and 271; in the latter year, his colleague was the emperor Aurelian.
Pomponia, the wife of Publius Cornelius Scipio, and mother of Scipio Africanus. Sextus Pomponius,
legate of the consul Tiberius Sempronius Longus in 218 BC, the first year of the Second Punic War. 
Titus Pomponius Veientanus, a , who as commander of some of the allied troops in southern Italy in 213 BC, attacked the publicanus Carthaginian general Hanno; he was defeated and taken prisoner. 
Marcus Pomponius, praetor urbanus in 161 BC, obtained a decree of the senate, forbidding philosophers and rhetoricians from living at Rome.   
Marcus Pomponius, an intimate friend of Gaius Gracchus, who sacrificed himself to afford Gracchus to escape his pursuers on the day of his death, in 121 BC.    
Lucius Pomponius Bononiensis, a playwright of the early first century BC. Marcus Pomponius,
aedile in 82 BC, exhibited scenic games, in which the dancer Galeria Copiola appeared, at the age of 13 or 14. 
Gnaeus Pomponius, an orator of some repute, who perished during the civil war between Marius and Sulla.  Marcus Pomponius, the name erroneously assigned by
Plutarch to Marcus Pompeius, commander of the cavalry under Lucullus during the Third Mithridatic War.  Marcus Pomponius, legate of
Gnaeus Pompeius during the war against the pirates in 67 BC; he was assigned to keep watch over the Ligurian Sea and the sinus Gallicus. 
Titus Pomponius, father of Atticus, a man of learning, who, being possessed of considerable property, gave his son a liberal education.
Titus Pomponius T. f. Atticus, an eques, moneylender, and friend of Cicero.
Pomponia T. f., married Quintus Tullius Cicero.
Pomponia T. f. T. n., married Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, and became the mother of Vipsania Agrippina, the first wife of Tiberius. Marcus Pomponius Dionysius, a freedman of Titus Pomponius Atticus.
Quintus Pomponius Musa, 66 BC. triumvir monetalis circa Publius Pomponius, a companion of
Publius Clodius Pulcher at the time of his death, in 52 BC.  Marcus Pomponius, commanded
Caesar's fleet at Messana; the greater part of the fleet was burnt by Gaius Cassius Longinus during the Civil War, in 48 BC.  Pomponius, proscribed by the triumvirs in 43 BC, he escaped Rome disguised as a Praetor, accompanied by slaves playing the part of lictors. 
Pomponii of imperial times
Publius Pomponius Graecinus, consul suffectus in AD 16, was a friend of Ovid, and the brother of Lucius Pomponius Flaccus, who was consul the following year.
Pomponia Graecina, married Aulus Plautius, the first governor of Britannia.
Lucius Pomponius Flaccus, consul in AD 17, was a friend of Tiberius, and the brother of Publius Pomponius Graecinus, who had been consul the preceding year.  Marcus Pomponius Marcellus, a celebrated grammarian and advocate during the reign of Tiberius.
Pomponius Labeo, governor of Moesia during the reign of Tiberius, he was denounced by the emperor for maladministration, and put an end to his life in AD 34.  
Publius Pomponius Secundus, a celebrated tragedian, consul suffectus in AD 44, later triumphed over the Chatti. 
Quintus Pomponius Secundus, brother of the playwright, consul suffectus in AD 41, joined the revolt of Camillus Scribonianus the following year.
Pomponius Mela, a geographer, who probably lived during the reign of Claudius. Pomponia Decharis, possibly a
freedwoman who was buried in the tomb of Eumachia in Pompeii. She was the adoptive mother of  Alleius Nigidius Maius, who became one of the towns most admired patrons.  Gaius Pomponius Pius, consul
suffectus in AD 65. Gaius Pomponius, consul
suffectus in AD 74.
Quintus Pomponius Rufus, consul suffectus in AD 95. Lucius Pomponius Maternus, consul
suffectus in AD 95. Gaius Pomponius Pius, consul
suffectus in AD 98. Gaius Pomponius Rufus Acilius, consul
suffectus in AD 98.
Pomponius Mamilianus, consul suffectus in AD 100. Quintus Pomponius Marcellus, consul
suffectus in AD 121. Lucius Pomponius Silvanus, consul
suffectus in AD 121.
Titus Pomponius Antistianus Funisulanus Vettonianus, consul suffectus in AD 121. Quintus Pomponius Maternus, consul
suffectus in AD 128.
Sextus Pomponius, a jurist active during the time of Hadrian. Gaius Pomponius Camerinus, consul in AD 138.
Quintus Pomponius Musa, consul in AD 158.
Titus Pomponius Proculus Vitrasius Pollio, consul iter in AD 178.
Pomponius Porphyrion, an important commentator on the poet Quintus Horatius Flaccus. Lucius Pomponius Liberalis, consul
suffectus in AD 204.
Pomponia Rufina, a Vestal Virgin put to death by Caracalla. 
Marcus Pomponius Maecius Probus, consul suffectus in AD 228. Pomponius Januarianus, consul in AD 288.
^ The gentes which are known to have claimed descent from Numa were the
Aemilii, Calpurnii, Pinarii, and Pomponii, by sons named Mamercus, Calpus, Pinus, and Pompo, respectively; and, through a daughter, Pompilia, the Marcii.
^ a b
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 493 (" Pomponia Gens").
^ Livy, i. 20.
^ Plutarch, "The Life of Numa", 21.
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, pp. 30, 168, 582 (" Aemilia Gens", " Ancus Marcius", " Calpurnia Gens"), vol. II, p. 940 (" Marcia Gens"), vol. III, pp. 366, 367, 493 (" Pinaria Gens", " Pomponia Gens").
Coins of the Roman Republic, ii. p. 311, no. 733; p. 361, no. 62.
^ Michael Grant,
Roman Myths, pp. 123, 139.
Die Etrusker, vol. I, p. 476.
History of Etruria, vol. II, p. 34.
^ Livy, iii. 54.
^ Livy, vii. 4, 5.
De Officiis, iii. 30.
^ Valerius Maximus, v. 4. § 3.
Bellum Samniticum, 2.
^ a b c Broughton, vol. I, p. 85.
^ Livy, v. 13.
^ Livy, v. 29.
^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 89.
^ a b c Broughton, vol. I, p. 224.
^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 225, 226.
^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 306.
CIL VI, 41114, AE 1973, 200.
CIL VI, 41195.
^ Livy, xxi. 15.
^ Livy, xxv. 1, 3.
^ Livy, xlv. 21.
De Claris Rhetoribus, 1.
^ Gellius, xv. 11.
^ Plutarch, "The Life of Gaius Gracchus" 16, 17.
^ Velleius Paterculus, ii. 6.
^ Valerius Maximus, iv. 7 § 2.
^ Aurelius Victor,
De Viris Illustribus, 65.
^ Pliny the Elder, vii. 49. s. 48.
Brutus, 57, 62, 89, 90, De Oratore, iii. 13.
^ Plutarch, "The Life of Lucullus", 15.
Bella Mithridatica, 95.
Epistulae ad Atticum, vi. 15.
^ Asconius Pedianus,
In Ciceronis Pro Milone, p. 33, ed. Orelli.
De Bello Civili, iii. 101.
Bellum Civile, iv. 45.
Annales, ii. 32, 41, vi. 27.
De Illustribus Grammaticis, 22.
^ Cassius Dio, lvii. 17.
Annales, iv. 47, vi. 29.
^ Cassius Dio, lviii. 24.
^ Paul Gallivan,
"The Fasti for the Reign of Claudius", , 28 (1978), pp. 408, 424 Classical Quarterly
Berry, Joanne (2 March 2009). . Pompeya Ediciones Akal. p. 140. ISBN . 9788446029281
Gaspar, V.M. (2012). "Sacerdotes piae: priestesses and other female cult officials in the western part of the Roman Empire from the first century B.C. until the third century A.D." (PDF). University of Amsterdam: 206-218 . Retrieved 2019.
^ Cassius Dio, lxxvii, 16.
Marcus Tullius Cicero, , Brutus , De Officiis , De Oratore . Epistulae ad Atticum
Gaius Julius Caesar, (Commentaries on the Civil War). Commentarii de Bello Civili Titus Livius (
Livy), . History of Rome
Marcus Velleius Paterculus, Compendium of Roman History.
Valerius Maximus, (Memorable Facts and Sayings). Factorum ac Dictorum Memorabilium
Quintus Asconius Pedianus, Commentarius in Oratio Ciceronis (Commentary on Cicero's Oration Pro Milone Pro Milone). Gaius Plinius Secundus (
Pliny the Elder), (Natural History). Naturalis Historia
Publius Cornelius Tacitus, . Annales
Plutarchus, . Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans
Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, De Claris Rhetoribus (On the Eminent Orators), De Illustribus Grammaticis (The Illustrious Grammarians).. Appianus Alexandrinus (
Appian), Bellum Samniticum (History of the Samnite War), Bella Mithridatica (The Mithridatic Wars), Bellum Civile (The Civil War).
Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae (Attic Nights). Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus (
Cassius Dio), Roman History.
Herodianus, History of the Empire from the Death of Marcus.
Sextus Aurelius Victor, (On Famous Men). De Viris Illustribus Elizabeth Johnstone (Mrs. Hamilton) Gray,
The History of Etruria, J. Hatchard and Son, London (1843, 1844, 1868).
, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology William Smith, ed., Little, Brown and Company, Boston (1849).
Karl Otfried Müller, Die Etrusker, Albert Heitz, Stuttgart (1877). George Davis Chase, "The Origin of Roman Praenomina", in
Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, vol. VIII (1897). Herbert A. Grueber,
Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum, William Clowes and Sons, Ltd., London (1910).
T. Robert S. Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic, American Philological Association (1952). Michael Grant, Roman Myths (1971).