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Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil; Brazilian Portuguese: [b?a'ziw]), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the sixth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populous city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states and the Federal District. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world; as well as the most populous Roman Catholic-majority country.

Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi). It borders all other countries in South America except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest, environmental degradation through processes like deforestation has direct impacts on global issues like climate change and biodiversity loss.

Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808 when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Brazil is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. It is considered an advanced emerging economy, having the twelfth largest GDP in the world by nominal, and eighth by PPP measures. It is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries. (Full article...)

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Paullinia cupana - Köhler-s Medizinal-Pflanzen-234.jpg

Guarana ( from the Portuguese guaraná [?wa'na]), Paullinia cupana, syns. P. crysan, P. sorbilis) is a climbing plant in the family Sapindaceae, native to the Amazon basin and especially common in Brazil. Guarana has large leaves and clusters of flowers and is best known for the seeds from its fruit, which are about the size of a coffee bean.

As a dietary supplement or herb, guarana seed is an effective stimulant: it contains about twice the concentration of caffeine found in coffee seeds (about 2-4.5% caffeine in guarana seeds, compared to 1-2% for coffee seeds). The additive has gained notoriety for being used in energy drinks. As with other plants producing caffeine, the high concentration of caffeine is a defensive toxin that repels herbivores from the berry and its seeds. (Full article...)

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Bobby Robson
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One day, someone will end a football game scoring more than Brazil. This MIGHT be the time that they lose!

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Scenes from various battles and naval engagements during the Platine War

The Platine War (18 August 1851 - 3 February 1852) was fought between the Argentine Confederation and an alliance consisting of the Empire of Brazil, Uruguay, and the Argentine provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes. The war was part of a long-running dispute between Argentina and Brazil for influence over Uruguay and Paraguay, and hegemony over the Platine region (areas bordering the Río de la Plata). The conflict took place in Uruguay and northeastern Argentina, and on the Río de la Plata. Uruguay's internal troubles, including the longrunning Uruguayan Civil War (La Guerra Grande - "The Great War"), were heavily influential factors leading to the Platine War.

In 1850, the Platine region was politically unstable. Although the Governor of Buenos Aires, Juan Manuel de Rosas, had gained dictatorial control over other Argentine provinces, his rule was plagued by a series of regional rebellions. Meanwhile, Uruguay struggled with its own civil war, which started after gaining independence from the Brazilian Empire in 1828 in the Cisplatine War. Rosas backed the Uruguayan Blanco party in this conflict, and further desired to extend Argentine borders to areas formerly occupied by the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. This meant asserting control over Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia. This threatened Brazilian interests and sovereignty since the old Spanish Viceroyalty had also included territories which had long been incorporated into the Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul. (Full article...)

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Baciu ca. 1940

?tefan Aurel Baciu (Portuguese: Estêvão Baciu, Spanish: Esteban Baciu; October 29, 1918 - January 6, 1993) was a Romanian and Brazilian poet, novelist, publicist and academic who lived his later life in Hawaii. A precocious, award-winning, young author in interwar Romania, he was involved in editing several literary magazines. Attracted into left-wing democratic politics and the Social Democratic Party (PSDR), he camouflaged his views while working for the fascist press under dictatorial regimes, but returned in 1944 to manage the PSDR's Libertatea newspaper. Witnessing first-hand the gradual communist takeover, Baciu managed to have himself assigned to a diplomatic posting in Switzerland, and ultimately defected in 1948. A resident and then citizen of Brazil, and a traveler throughout Latin America, he wrote works in Portuguese, Spanish, English and German, as well as in his native Romanian.

Involved with the Congress for Cultural Freedom and a friend of independent socialists such as Juan Bosch, Baciu spoke out against South American communism and criticized Fidel Castro. He eventually moved to the United States, as a professor at the University of Washington, and, from 1964, the University of Hawaii. He put out the international magazine Mele, which, although rudimentarily printed and little circulated, remains a noted source of information about avant-garde writers of the Romanian diaspora, from Andrei Codrescu to Dolfi Trost and Sesto Pals. Baciu was also a preeminent historian and anthologist of South and Central American surrealism, as well as a translator of Latin American literature into Romanian and German. (Full article...)

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Goiania Skyline
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Goiânia , is the capital and the largest city in the Brazilian state of Goiás. With a population of 1,265,394 people, it is the second largest city in the Central-West Region and the thirteenth largest in the country. Its metropolitan area has a total population of 2,063,744, being the eleventh largest in Brazil.

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2008 Brazilian Grand Prix o Afonso, Prince Imperial of Brazil o Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias o Mário de Andrade o Brazilian cruiser Bahia o Empire of Brazil o Pedro Álvares Cabral o Chagas disease o Drymoreomys o Euryoryzomys emmonsae o Fôrça Bruta o Gol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907 o Joaquim José Inácio, Viscount of Inhaúma o Jaguar o Lundomys o Princess Maria Amélia of Brazil o Master System o Brazilian battleship Minas Geraes o Minas Geraes-class battleship o Noronha skink o Noronhomys o USS Orizaba o Honório Hermeto Carneiro Leão, Marquis of Paraná o José Paranhos, Viscount of Rio Branco o Pedro I of Brazil o Pedro II of Brazil o Pedro Afonso, Prince Imperial of Brazil o Manuel Marques de Sousa, Count of Porto Alegre o Brazilian battleship São Paulo o Sonic: After the Sequel o South American dreadnought race o Thalassodromeus o Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies o Uruguayan War o Giant otter o Hawksbill sea turtle

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1995 Brazilian Grand Prix o 2000 Brazilian Grand Prix o 2000 Rio 200 o 2010 Brazilian Grand Prix o 2010 São Paulo Indy 300 o 2012 Brazilian Grand Prix o 2014 Brazilian Grand Prix o 2015 Brazilian Grand Prix o A Puro Dolor o Archaeological interest of Pedra da Gávea o Arena Corinthians o Arise (Sepultura album) o Clube Atlético Mineiro o Brainstorm (2000 film) o Brazil v Germany (2014 FIFA World Cup) o Brazil at the 1994 Winter Olympics o Brazil at the 1998 Winter Olympics o Brazil at the 2014 Winter Paralympics o Gisele Bündchen o Capybara o Dorival Caymmi o o César Cielo o Clube Atlético Mineiro in international club football o Cavalera Conspiracy o Diego Costa o Ethanol fuel in Brazil o Flexible-fuel vehicles in Brazil o Fortress of Humaitá o Fruta Fresca o Ganga Bruta o Gilberto Gil o Maurício Gugelmin o History of ethanol fuel in Brazil o Hurricane Catarina o Jorge Ben (album) o Mitsuyo Maeda o RMS Magdalena (1948) o Mango Yellow o Marquinhos o The Naturalist on the River Amazons o Legacy of Pedro II of Brazil o Decline and fall of Pedro II of Brazil o Early life of Pedro II of Brazil o Pelé o Brazilian monitor Piauí o Platine War o Potential superpowers o Marie Rennotte o Revolt of the Lash o Rio de Janeiro bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics o Samba rock o Sarcófago o Basil Smallpeice o TAM Airlines Flight 3054 o Tectoy o Amon Tobin o University of Campinas o Vinicius and Tom o Martha Watts

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