Portal:Byzantine Empire
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Portal:Byzantine Empire
Portals -> History -> Byzantine Empire

Introduction

Animated map showing the territorial evolution of the Byzantine Empire (in green).

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern Istanbul, formerly Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural and military force in Europe. "Byzantine Empire" is a term created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire simply as the Roman Empire (Greek: ?, tr. Basileia Rh?mai?n; Latin: Imperium Romanum), or Romania (?), and to themselves as "Romans".

Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I (r. 324-337) reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital and legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I (r. 379-395), Christianity became the state religion and other religious practices were proscribed. In the reign of Heraclius (r. 610-641), the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, orientated towards Greek rather than Latin culture and characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity.

Selected article

The Byzantine economy was among the most advanced in Europe and the Mediterranean for many centuries. Constantinople was a prime hub in a trading network that at various times extended across nearly all of Eurasia and North Africa. Some scholars argue that, up until the arrival of the Arabs in the 7th century, the Empire had the most powerful economy in the world. The Arab conquests, however, would represent a substantial reversal of fortunes contributing to a period of decline and stagnation. Constantine V's reforms (c. 765) marked the beginning of a revival that continued until 1204. From the 10th century until the end of the 12th, the Byzantine Empire projected an image of luxury, and travelers were impressed by the wealth accumulated in the capital. All this changed with the arrival of the Fourth Crusade, which was an economic catastrophe. The Palaiologoi tried to revive the economy, but the late Byzantine state would not gain full control of either the foreign or domestic economic forces.

Selected biography

Manuelcomnenus.jpg

Manuel I Komnenos or Comnenus (Greek: ? ?' , Manou?l I Komn?nos, 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180) was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean. Eager to restore his empire to its past glories as the superpower of the Mediterranean world, Manuel pursued an energetic and ambitious foreign policy. In the process he made alliances with the Pope and the resurgent west, invaded Italy, successfully handled the passage of the dangerous Second Crusade through his empire, and established a Byzantine protectorate over the Crusader kingdoms of Outremer. Facing Muslim advances in the Holy Land, he made common cause with the Kingdom of Jerusalem and participated in a combined invasion of Fatimid Egypt. Manuel reshaped the political maps of the Balkans and the east Mediterranean, placing the kingdoms of Hungary and Outremer under Byzantine hegemony and campaigning aggressively against his neighbours both in the west and in the east. However, towards the end of his reign Manuel's achievements in the east were compromised by a serious defeat at Myriokephalon, which in large part resulted from his arrogance in attacking a well-defended Seljuk position.

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September 2019

New articles

554 Anatolia earthquake • Bathys Rhyax • Florentius of Constantinople • Siege of Onoguris • Synthronon

August 2019

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Abd Allah ibn Mas'ada al-Fazari • Basilakes • Battle of Nisibis (541) • Gardiki Castle, Arcadia • Heraclian revolt • Losorion • Manuel Bochalis • Matzouka • Paul of Edessa (translator) • Siege of Ariminum (538) • Sufyan ibn Awf

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Amr ibn Hind

July 2019

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Hagiotheodorites • Makrinitissa Monastery • Tiberius (son of Heraclius)

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Battle of Settepozzi

June 2019

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Aaron (son of Ivan Vladislav)  • Basil Skleros  • John I of Cyprus  • John Kourkouas (9th century)  • Peter the Patrician (9th century)  • Tagaris  • Theodore Kantakouzenos

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Abu Hafs Umar al-Iqritishi • George of Amastris • Presian (son of Ivan Vladislav)

May 2019

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Byzantine Church (Petra) • Euphrosyne Kastamonitissa • Sarjun ibn Mansur • Siege of Edessa (544)

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Battle of Kapetron

April 2019

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Battle of Constantinople (1241) • Exousiastes • Maria Komnene (daughter of Alexios I) • Podestà of Constantinople • Zuhayr ibn Qays

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Demetrios Angelos Doukas

March 2019

New articles

Areobindus (died 546) • Artze • Byzantine-Trapezuntine treaty of 1282 • Demarchos • Eukterion • Eulogios the Persian • Kingdom of the Aures] • Saints Theodore Tyro and Theodore Stratelates Church, Serres • Stephen the Persian

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Arzen • Excubitors • Hikanatoi • ?ewond • Treaty of Safar

February 2019

New articles

Baktangios • Barasbakourios • Basil the Younger • Battle of Telephis-Ollaria • Byzantine-Georgian treaty of 1022 • Byzantine-Georgian treaty of 1031 • Charpezikion • Crusader attack on Blachernae (1101) • Michael Apokapes • Nina Garsoïan • Rhabdion • Siege of Petra (541) • Siege of Petra (550-551) • Sisauranon • Sophia Eudokia Laskarina • Terentius (comes et dux Armeniae)

January 2019

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Battle of Anglon • Martin (general) • Sa'id ibn Abd al-Malik

December 2018

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Ambazuces • Amantius (praepositus) • Bishopric of Chariopolis • Cécile Morrisson • Glyki • John Drimys • Photice • Panagia Kontariotissa • Siege of Martyropolis (531)

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Euroea (Epirus) • Hayrabolu

November 2018

New articles

Basilica of St. Achillios • John Phokas • Panagia Olympiotissa Monastery • Siege of Claudiopolis • Siege of Laodicea • Siege of Panormus • Siege of Sozopolis

October 2018

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Byzantine-Venetian treaty of 1268 • ?necik, Tekirda? • Panion • Our Lady of Philermos • Rock-cut architecture of Cappadocia • Siege of Aleppo (994-995) • Vahan (Byzantine commander)

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Aetolofos, Larissa • Allelengyon • Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae

September 2018

New articles

Alexios Komnenos (governor of Dyrrhachium) • Amicus of Giovinazzo • Bardas Hikanatos • Battle of Saint George • Centre for Byzantine Research • John Komnenos (parakoimomenos) • John Komnenos (son of Andronikos I) • Joscelin of Molfetta • Paolo Cesaretti • Scriptor Incertus • Sententiae Syriacae • Siege of Dyrrhachium (1107-1108) • Syro-Roman law book

August 2018

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Battle of Horreum Margi • Eusebius of Thessalonica • Gento (Goth) • Guntarith • Iatrosophia • Metropolitanate of Tourkia • Prokathemenos • Triarius

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Isaac Komnenos (son of Alexios I) • Isaac Komnenos (son of John II) • John IV of Ohrid • Michael Glykas


External links and resources

Societies of Byzantine studies

Journals of Byzantine studies

Byzantine studies and research institutes

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Bibliography and primary sources

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Prosopography

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Selected image

Irenekirken.jpg

Photo credit:Nina-no

A simple cross, an example of iconoclast art from the Hagia Irene.

Recognised content

This is a list of articles related to the Byzantine Empire that have been recognized by the popflock.com resource community as being of particular quality.

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Featured articles:

Basiliscus  • Battle of Dyrrhachium (1081)  • Battle of Kalavrye  • Battle of Settepozzi  • Byzantine civil war of 1341-1347  • Byzantine Empire  • Byzantine navy  • Chariot racing  • Greece runestones  • Gregory of Nazianzus  • Istanbul  • Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria  • Manuel I Komnenos  • Maximus the Confessor  • Paul Palaiologos Tagaris  • Roman-Persian Wars  • Sack of Amorium  • Siege of Constantinople (674-678)  • Siege of Constantinople (717-718)  • Siege of Thessalonica (1422-1430)  • Simeon I of Bulgaria  • Theodore Komnenos Doukas  • Thomas the Slav  • Treaty of Devol  • Jovan Vladimir

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A-class articles:

Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor (782)  • Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor (806)  • Abu'l-Aswar Shavur ibn Fadl  • Ahmad ibn Tulun  • Al-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith  • Bardanes Tourkos  • Battle of Andrassos  • Battle of Azaz (1030)  • Battle of Kapetron  • Battle of Lalakaon  • Battle of Petroe  • Battle of Solachon  • Bessas (general)  • Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602-628  • John Kourkouas  • John Troglita  • Junayd of Ayd?n  • Priscus (general)  • Sviatoslav's invasion of Bulgaria  • Vitalian (general)

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Good articles:

Aaron (son of Ivan Vladislav)  • Abdallah al-Battal  • Abu Taghlib  • Adrianos Komnenos  • Alexios Apokaukos  • Alexios Komnenos (governor of Dyrrhachium)  • Alexios Komnenos (protosebastos)  • Alexios Philanthropenos  • Alexios Strategopoulos  • Alexios V Doukas  • Andronikos Doukas Angelos  • Andronikos Komnenos (son of Alexios I)  • Artabanes (general)  • Avar-Byzantine wars  • Bardas  • Basil II  • Baths of Zeuxippus  • Battle of Akroinon  • Battle of Alexandretta  • Battle of Anzen  • Battle of Apamea  • Battle of Arcadiopolis (970)  • Battle of Bathys Ryax  • Battle of Constantinople (922)  • Battle of Kleidion  • Battle of Kopidnadon  • Battle of Krasos  • Battle of Manzikert  • Battle of Mauropotamos  • Battle of the Gates of Trajan  • Battle of the Olive Grove of Koundouros  • Battle of Yarmouk  • Byzantine-Arab Wars  • Byzantine-Bulgarian war of 894-896  • Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos dynasty  • Byzantine Greeks  • Byzantine-Ottoman Wars  • Byzantine-Venetian treaty of 1268  • Chalke  • Chlemoutsi  • Church of St. Polyeuctus  • Constantine V  • Constantine (son of Leo V)  • Constantine Angelos  • Constantine Dalassenos (duke of Antioch)  • Constantine Diogenes  • Constantine Doukas (usurper)  • Constantine Komnenos Angelos  • Constantine Lekapenos  • Constantine the Great  • Cutzinas  • David III of Tao  • Domestic of the Schools  • Droungarios of the Fleet  • Droungarios of the Watch  • Emirate of Crete  • Eustathios Argyros (general under Leo VI)  • Eustathios Daphnomeles  • Eutharic  • Euthymius I of Constantinople  • Gabras  • Genoese occupation of Rhodes  • Geoffrey of Briel  • George Mouzalon  • Germanus (cousin of Justinian I)  • Glarentza  • Gothic War (535-554)  • Gubazes II of Lazica  • Guy Pallavicini  • Harald Hardrada  • Heraclius  • Heraclius (son of Constans II)  • Heraclius the Elder  • Isaac I Komnenos  • Isaac Komnenos (brother of Alexios I)  • Isaac Komnenos (son of Alexios I)  • Isaac Komnenos (son of John II)  • John Doukas (megas doux)  • John Doukas (sebastokrator)  • John I Doukas of Thessaly  • John II Komnenos  • John IV of Ohrid  • John Komnenos (Domestic of the Schools)  • John Komnenos Asen  • John Komnenos the Fat  • John of Brienne  • John Palaiologos (brother of Michael VIII)  • John Tzelepes Komnenos  • Justin (consul 540)  • Justinian I  • Konstantios Doukas  • Law School of Beirut  • Leo II (emperor)  • Leo Tornikios  • Licario  • Mansur ibn Lu'lu'  • Manuel Erotikos Komnenos  • Manuel the Armenian  • Marianos Argyros  • Martino Zaccaria  • Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik  • Maurice (emperor)  • Mauro-Roman Kingdom  • Megas logothetes  • Michael I Komnenos Doukas  • Michael IV the Paphlagonian  • Michael VIII Palaiologos  • Michael Bourtzes  • Michael Dokeianos  • Michael Lachanodrakon  • Momchil  • al-Muktafi  • Muslim conquest of Sicily  • Nikephoros (Caesar)  • Nikephoros Diogenes  • Nikephoros Komnenos  • Nikephoros Komnenos (brother of Alexios I)  • Nikephoros Melissenos  • Nikephoros Phokas Barytrachelos  • Nikephoros Phokas the Elder  • Nikephoros Xiphias  • Orphanotrophos  • Ottoman conquest of Lesbos  • Peter the Patrician  • Protostrator  • Sack of Damietta (853)  • Sa'd al-Dawla  • Salih ibn Mirdas  • Sayf al-Dawla  • Shahrbaraz  • Siege of Berat (1280-1281)  • Siege of Constantinople (860)  • Siege of Damascus (634)  • Siege of Jerusalem (637)  • Siege of Kamacha (766)  • Siege of Nicaea (727)  • Siege of Patras (805 or 807)  • Siege of Shaizar  • Siege of Syracuse (877-878)  • Siege of Tyana  • Solomon (Byzantine general)  • Staurakios (eunuch)  • Stephen Lekapenos  • Stylianos Zaoutzes  • Syrgiannes Palaiologos  • Theodore Synadenos  • Theodosius (son of Maurice)  • Theophylact (son of Michael I)  • Theoktistos  • Treaty of Gallipoli  • Turahan Bey  • Type of Constans  • Tzachas  • Umar al-Aqta  • Uprising of Ivaylo  • Vandalic War  • Walls of Constantinople

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