The Egypt Portal
Egypt ( EE-jipt; Arabic: ? Mi?r), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip (Palestine) and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.
Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage along the Nile Delta back to the 6th-4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, and often assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman Turkish, and Nubian. Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was largely Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority.
From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: the Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, and many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, and declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, and occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967. In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords, officially withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a semi-presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, which has been described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian or heading an authoritarian regime.
Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 100 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, and the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa (after Nigeria and Ethiopia), and the thirteenth-most populous in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
Selected article -
The following are images from various Egypt-related articles on Wikipedia.
Map of ancient Egypt, showing major cities and sites of the Dynastic period (c. 3150 BC to 30 BC)
The Amr ibn al-As mosque in Cairo, recognized as the oldest in Africa
The maximum territorial extent of ancient Egypt (circa 1450 BC)
Egyptian literacy rate among the population aged 15 years and older by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Glassmaking was a highly developed art.
Punishment in ancient Egypt
Amenemhat III, the last great ruler of the Middle Kingdom
Egyptians celebrated feasts and festivals accompanied by music and dance.
President el-Sisi with US President Donald Trump, 21 May 2017
Egypt under Muhammad Ali dynasty
Tanoura dancers performing in Wekalet El Ghoury, Cairo.
A typical Naqada II jar decorated with gazelles. (Predynastic Period)
Muizz Street. Old Cairo has the greatest concentration of medieval architectural treasures in the Islamic world.
Egypt's population density (people per km2).
The Ka statue provided a physical place for the Ka to manifest.
Kushari, one of Egypt's national dishes.
Female nationalists demonstrating in Cairo, 1919
An offshore platform in the Darfeel Gas Field.
Tutankhamun's burial mask is one of the major attractions of the Egyptian Museum of Cairo
Sennedjem plows his fields with a pair of oxen, used as beasts of burden and a source of food.
Ancient Egyptian medical instruments depicted in a Ptolemaic period inscription on the temple at Kom Ombo
Seagoing ship from Hateshepsut's Deir el-Bahari temple relief of a Punt Expedition
Early tomb painting from Nekhen, c. 3500 BC, Naqada, possibly Gerzeh, culture
Anubis was the ancient Egyptian god associated with mummification and burial rituals; here, he attends to a mummy.
Smart Village, a business district established in 2001 to facilitate the growth of high-tech businesses.
The pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt.
Painted limestone relief of a noble member of Ancient Egyptian society during the New Kingdom (note the large sistrum) - Brooklyn Museum
Egyptian tanks advancing in the Sinai desert during the Yom Kippur War, 1973
Protesters from the Third Square movement, which supported neither the former Morsi government nor the Armed Forces, 31 July 2013
Green irrigated land along the Nile amidst the desert and in the delta
Measuring and recording the harvest is shown in a wall painting in the tomb of Menna, at Thebes (Eighteenth Dynasty).
Egyptian honor guard soldiers during a visit of U.S. Navy Adm. Mike Mullen
A tomb relief depicts workers plowing the fields, harvesting the crops, and threshing the grain under the direction of an overseer, painting in the tomb of Nakht.
Hieroglyphs on stela in Louvre, c. 1321 BC
The pharaoh was usually depicted wearing symbols of royalty and power.
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Selected biography -
Cleopatra VII Philopator (Koin? Greek: , Kleopátra Philopát?r; 69 – 10 or 12 August 30 BC) was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, she was a descendant of its founder Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general and companion of Alexander the Great. After the death of Cleopatra, Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire, marking the end of the second to last Hellenistic state and the age that had lasted since the reign of Alexander (336-323 BC). Her native language was Koine Greek, and she was the only Ptolemaic ruler to learn the Egyptian language.
In 58 BC, Cleopatra presumably accompanied her father, Ptolemy XII
, during his exile to Rome after a revolt in Egypt (a Roman client state
) allowing his daughter Berenice IV
to claim the throne. Berenice was killed in 55 BC when Ptolemy returned to Egypt with Roman military assistance. When he died in 51 BC, the joint reign of Cleopatra
and her brother Ptolemy XIII
began, but a falling-out between them led to open civil war
. After losing the 48 BC Battle of Pharsalus
against his rival Julius Caesar
(a Roman dictator
) in Caesar's Civil War
, the Roman
fled to Egypt. Pompey had been a political ally of Ptolemy XII, but Ptolemy XIII, at the urging of his court eunuchs, had Pompey ambushed and killed before Caesar arrived and occupied Alexandria
. Caesar then attempted to reconcile the rival Ptolemaic siblings, but Ptolemy's chief adviser Potheinos
viewed Caesar's terms as favoring Cleopatra, so his forces besieged her and Caesar at the palace
. Shortly after the siege was lifted by reinforcements, Ptolemy XIII died in the 47 BC Battle of the Nile
; Cleopatra's half-sister Arsinoe IV
was eventually exiled to Ephesus
for her role in carrying out the siege. Caesar declared Cleopatra and her brother Ptolemy XIV
joint rulers, but maintained a private affair with Cleopatra that produced a son, Caesarion
. Cleopatra traveled to Rome as a client queen in 46 and 44 BC, where she stayed at Caesar's villa
. After the assassinations of Caesar
and (on her orders) Ptolemy XIV in 44 BC, she named Caesarion co-ruler. Read more...
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