England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Paleolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law - the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world - developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation.
England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the north (for example, the Lake District and Pennines) and in the west (for example, Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills). The capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and, prior to Brexit, the European Union. England's population of 56.3 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, largely concentrated around London, the South East, and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century.
The Kingdom of England - which after 1535 included Wales - ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland (through another Act of Union) to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. (Full article...)
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Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English general and statesman who, first as a subordinate and later as Commander-in-Chief, led armies of the Parliament of England against King Charles I during the English Civil War, subsequently ruling the British Isles as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658. He acted simultaneously as head of state and head of government of the new republican commonwealth.
Cromwell was born into the middle gentry to a family descended from the sister of Henry VIII
's minister Thomas Cromwell
. Little is known of the first 40 years of his life, as only four of his personal letters survive along with a summary of a speech that he delivered in 1628. He became an Independent Puritan after undergoing a religious conversion in the 1630s, taking a generally tolerant view towards the many Protestant sects of the time; an intensely religious man, Cromwell fervently believed in God guiding him to victory. Cromwell was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in 1628, and for Cambridge in the Short
(1640) and Long
(1640-1649) Parliaments. He entered the English Civil Wars
on the side of the "Roundheads
", or Parliamentarians, and gained the nickname "Old Ironsides
". Cromwell demonstrated his ability as a commander and was quickly promoted from leading a single cavalry troop to being one of the principal commanders of the New Model Army
, playing an important role under General Sir Thomas Fairfax
in the defeat of the Royalist ("Cavalier")
forces. (Full article...
The following are images from various England-related articles on Wikipedia.
Countries where English has official status or is widely spoken
Family-sized meat pie made by Sweeney & Todd of Reading
The Great Fire London, 1666.
The Roman Baths in Bath; a temple was constructed on the site between 60-70CE in the first few decades of Roman Britain. It is a lasting monument from Roman Britain.
Apple pie originated in England and English apple pie recipes go back to the time of Chaucer.
Edward Elgar is one of England's most celebrated classical composers.
The Procession Picture, c. 1600, showing Elizabeth I borne along by her courtiers
Roast beef and Yorkshire pudding
Stonehenge, erected in several stages from c.3000-1500BC
Landing of the Romans on the Coast of Kent (Cassell's History of England, Vol. I - anonymous author and artists, 1909)
Elizabethan theatre costumes
Bodiam Castle, East Sussex
Caesar's first invasion of Britain
Alfred Hitchcock is often regarded as the greatest British filmmaker. He was described as "a straightforward middle-class Englishman who just happened to be an artistic genius."
Stowe Park, Buckinghamshire
The Spanish Armada and English ships in August 1588, (unknown, 16th-century, English School)
The first general laws against child labour, the Factory Acts, were passed in Britain in the first half of the 19th century. Children younger than nine were not allowed to work and the work day of youth under the age of 18 was limited to twelve hours.
Silver brooch imitating a coin of Edward the Elder, c. 920, found in Rome, Italy. British Museum
The rune stone U 344 was raised in memory of a Viking who went to England three times.
Brighton, The Palace Pier.
First played in 1877, the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world.
Sir Francis Drake's voyage 1585-86
First English Civil War at the Battle of Marston Moor, 1644
William Hogarth's depiction of a scene from Shakespeare's The Tempest is an example of how English literature influenced English painting in the 18th century
Kingdoms and tribes in Britain, c.600 AD
The landscape garden at Stourhead. Inspired by the great landscape artists of the seventeenth century, the landscape garden was described as a 'living work of art' when first opened in 1750s.
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English cuisine encompasses the cooking styles, traditions and recipes associated with England. It has distinctive attributes of its own, but also shares much with wider British cuisine, partly through the importation of ingredients and ideas from the Americas, China, and India during the time of the British Empire and as a result of post-war immigration.
Some traditional meals, such as bread
, roasted and stewed meats, meat
and game pies
, boiled vegetables and broths, and freshwater
and saltwater fish
have ancient origins. The fourteenth-century English cookbook, the Forme of Cury
, contains recipes for these, and dates from the royal court of Richard II
. (Full article...
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In the news
- 7 April 2021 - Myanmar-United Kingdom relations
- Myanmar's Ambassador to the United Kingdom, Kyaw Zwar Minn, is dismissed by a military attaché and locked out of the embassy in London. British Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab condemns the "bullying actions" but says the UK has accepted the change. (BBC)
- 29 March 2021 - COVID-19 pandemic
- COVID-19 pandemic in England
- Lockdown restrictions in England are relaxed as new COVID-19 laws enter force, formally ending the government's "stay at home" order, allowing the resumption of outdoor sports, and allowing people to meet in groups of up to six outdoors. (Sky News)
- 25 March 2021 -
- The 2021 redesign of the £50 note, featuring British mathematician Alan Turing on the reverse, is officially unveiled by the Bank of England. It is slated to enter circulation on June 23, Turing's birthday. (ABC News)
- 16 March 2021 - COVID-19 pandemic
- COVID-19 pandemic in England, Variants of SARS-CoV-2
- England reports their first two cases of the new P.3. variant, which was originally detected in the Philippines and has been designated as a "variant of investigation". (The Independent)
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