Two hip hop DJs creating new music by mixing tracks from multiple record players. Pictured are DJ Hypnotize (left) and Baby Cee (right).
, is a culture
and art movement
that began in the Bronx
in New York City
during the early 1970s. The origin of the word is often disputed. It is also argued as to whether Hip Hop started in the South
or West Bronx
. While the term hip hop
is often used to refer exclusively to hip hop music
(also called rap
), hip hop is characterized by nine elements, of which only four elements are considered essential to understand hip hop musically. The main elements of hip hop consist of four main pillars. Afrika Bambaataa
of the hip hop collective Zulu Nation
outlined the pillars of hip hop culture, coining the terms: "rapping
" (also called MC or Microphone Commander), a rhythmic vocal rhyming style (orality); DJing
), which is making music with record players
and DJ mixers
(aural/sound and music creation); b-boying/b-girling/breakdancing
(movement/dance); and graffiti art
. Other elements of hip hop subculture and arts movements beyond the main four are: hip hop culture and historical knowledge of the movement (intellectual/philosophical); beatboxing
, a percussive vocal style; street entrepreneurship
; hip hop language; and hip hop fashion and style, among others.
The fifth element is commonly considered either street knowledge, hip hop fashion, or beatboxing; however, it is often debated.
The Bronx Hip Hop scene emerged in the mid-1970s from neighborhood block parties thrown by the Black Spades, an African-American group that has been described as being a gang, a club, and a music group. Hip hop culture has spread to both urban and suburban communities throughout the United States and subsequently the world. These elements were adapted and developed considerably, particularly as the art forms spread to new continents and merged with local styles in the 1990s and subsequent decades. Even as the movement continues to expand globally and explore myriad styles and art forms, including hip hop theater and hip hop film, the four foundational elements provide coherence and a strong foundation for Hip Hop culture. Hip Hop is simultaneously a new and old phenomenon; the importance of sampling tracks, beats, and basslines from old records to the art form means that much of the culture has revolved around the idea of updating classic recordings, attitudes, and experiences for modern audiences. Sampling older culture and reusing it in a new context or a new format is called "flipping" in hip hop culture. Hip hop music follows in the footsteps of earlier African-American-rooted musical genres such as blues, jazz, rag-time, funk, and disco to become one of the most practiced genres worldwide. It is the language of urban environments and the youth around the world. According to KRS-One, "Hip hop is the only place where you see Martin Luther King Jr.'s 'I Have A Dream Speech' in real life." He also notes that hip hop is beyond something as race, gender, or nationality; it belongs to the world. In 1990, while working with the rap group Snap!, Ronald "Bee-Stinger" Savage, a former member of the Zulu Nation, is credited for coining the term "Six elements of the Hip Hop Movement" by being inspired by Public Enemy's recordings. The "Six Elements Of The Hip Hop Movement" are: Consciousness Awareness, Civil Rights Awareness, Activism Awareness, Justice, Political Awareness, and Community Awareness in music. Ronald Savage is known as the Son of The Hip Hop Movement.