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Mexico (Spanish: México ['mexiko] ; Nahuatl languages: M?xihco), officially the United Mexican States (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos [EUM] [es'taðos u'niðoz mexi'kanos] , lit. 'Mexican United States'), is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering 1,972,550 square kilometers (761,610 sq mi), Mexico is the 13th-largest country in the world, and with approximately 128,649,565 inhabitants, it is the world's 10th-most populous country and most populous Spanish-speaking nation. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states, including Mexico City (CDMX), which is the capital city and its largest metropolis. Other major urban areas include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León.
Pre-Columbian Mexico traces its origins to 8,000 BC and is identified as one of six cradles of civilization; it was home to many advanced Mesoamerican tribes, most notably the Mayans and the Aztecs. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico City, which then became known as New Spain. The Catholic Church played an important role as millions of indigenous inhabitants converted. These populations were heavily exploited to mine rich deposits of precious material, which became a major source of wealth for the Spanish. Mexico became an independent nation state after the successful Mexican War of Independence against Spain in 1821.
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The Grass Fight was a small battle during the Texas Revolution, fought between the Mexican Army and the Texian Army. The battle took place on November 26, 1835, just south of San Antonio de Béxar in the Mexican region of Texas. The Texas Revolution had officially begun on October 2 and by the end of the month the Texian had initiated a siege of Béxar, home of the largest Mexican garrison in the province. Bored with the inactivity, many of the Texian soldiers returned home; a smaller number of adventurers from the United States arrived to replace them. After the Texian Army rejected commander-in-chief Stephen F. Austin's call to launch an assault on Béxar on November 22, Austin resigned from the army. The men elected Edward Burleson their new commander-in-chief.
On November 26, Texian scout Deaf Smith
brought news of a Mexican pack train
, accompanied by 50-100 soldiers, that was on its way to Bexar. The Texian camp was convinced that the pack train carried silver to pay the Mexican garrison and purchase supplies. Burleson ordered Colonel James Bowie
to take 45-50 cavalry and intercept the train. An additional 100 infantry followed. On seeing the battle commence, Mexican General Martín Perfecto de Cos
sent reinforcements from Bexar. The Texians repulsed several attacks by Mexican soldiers, who finally retreated to Bexar. When the Texians examined the abandoned pack train they discovered that, instead of silver, the mules carried freshly cut grass to feed the Mexican Army horses. Four Texians were injured, and historian Alwyn Barr
states that three Mexican soldiers were killed, although Bowie and Burleson initially claimed the number was much higher. Read more...
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The economy of Mexico is a developing market economy. It is the 15th largest in the world in nominal terms and the 11th largest by purchasing power parity, according to the International Monetary Fund.
Since the 1994 crisis, administrations have improved the country's macroeconomic fundamentals. Mexico was not significantly influenced by the 2002 South American crisis, and maintained positive, although low, rates of growth after a brief period of stagnation in 2001. However, Mexico was one of the Latin American nations most affected by the 2008 recession with its Gross Domestic Product contracting by more than 6% in that year.
The Mexican economy has had unprecedented macroeconomic stability, which has reduced inflation and interest rates to record lows and has increased per capita income. In spite of this, enormous gaps remain between the urban and the rural population, the northern and southern states, and the rich and the poor. Some of the unresolved issues include the upgrade of infrastructure, the modernization of the tax system and labor laws, and the reduction of income inequality. Tax revenues, altogether 19.6 percent of GDP in 2013, are the lowest among the 34 OECD
countries. Read more...
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Pancho Villa on horseback (undated photo, between 1908 and 1919)
Francisco "Pancho" Villa (, ; Spanish: ['bi?a]; born José Doroteo Arango Arámbula, 5 June 1878 - 20 July 1923) was a Mexican revolutionary general and one of the most prominent figures of the Mexican Revolution.
As commander of the División del Norte
, 'Division of the North', in the Constitutionalist Army
, he was a military-landowner (caudillo
) of the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua
. Given the area's size and mineral wealth, it provided him with extensive resources. Villa was provisional governor of Chihuahua in 1913 and 1914. Villa can be credited with decisive military victories leading to the ousting of Victoriano Huerta
from the presidency in July 1914. Villa fought his erstwhile leader in the coalition against Huerta, "First Chief" of the Constitutionalists Venustiano Carranza
. Villa was in alliance with southern revolutionary Emiliano Zapata
, who remained fighting in his own region of Morelos
. The two revolutionary generals briefly came together to take Mexico City after Carranza's forces retreated from it. Later, Villa's heretofore undefeated División del Norte engaged the military forces of Carranza under Carrancista general Álvaro Obregón
and was defeated in the 1915 Battle of Celaya
. Villa again was defeated by Carranza, 1 November 1915, at the Second Battle of Agua Prieta
, after which Villa's army collapsed as a significant military force. Read more...
Selected fare or cuisine -
, sometimes referred to as crema espesa
: "thick cream"), and referred to as crema fresca
(English: "fresh cream") in Mexico
, is a Mexican dairy product
prepared with heavy cream
. Salt and lime juice may also be used in its preparation. Its fat content can range from 18 percent to 36 percent. In Mexico, it is sold directly to consumers by ranches outside large cities, and is available in Mexican and Latino grocery stores in the United States. Crema is used as a food topping, a condiment
and as an ingredient in sauces. It is similar in texture and flavor to France's crème fraîche
and sour cream
. Read more...
The following are images from various Mexico-related articles on Wikipedia.
A map of Mexico 1845 after Texas annexation by U.S.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz by Friar Miguel de Herrera (1700-1789)
Cristeros (Catholic rebels) hung in Jalisco.
1890 perhaps the streets of no other city present so diversified a picture as those of the city of Mexico. Every variety of costume, civil and religious, Indian and European, of the city and country, is intermingled in the crowd.
Comanchería, territory controlled by the Comaches, prior to 1850.
El Chapo in US custody after his extradition from Mexico.
Logo of the Partido Nacional Revolucionario, with the colors of the Mexican flag
A detachment of Rurales during the Porfiriato
The National film library.
Detail of a relief from Palenque, a Classic-era city. Maya script is the only known complete writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas and enabled the beginning of recorded history.
The identities of the Olmec colossal are uncertain, but their individualized features and distinctive headgear, as well as later Maya practice, suggest that these heads portray rulers rather than deities.
President Enrique Peña Nieto with President of China Xi Jinping
A pilot standing in front of his P-47D with a maintenance crew after a combat mission
Mexico City street market
1903. Slogan on the protest banner reads: "The Constitution has died" (La Constitución ha muerto).
Northern Dance in Nuevo Leon
President Obregón. Note that he lost his right arm in the Battle of Celaya (1915), earning him the nickname of Manco de Celaya ("the one-armed man of Celaya").
A family in northern Mexico in 1915.
Entry into Mexico City by the Mexican army.
The dahlia was declared the national flower of Mexico in 1963.
Chacmool, Maya, from the Platform of the Eagles, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800-90 CE. Stone, 4' 10.5" high. National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico city. Chacmools represent fallen warriors reclining on their backs with receptacles on their chests to receive sacrificial offerings. Excavators discovered one in the burial chamber inside the Castilloyo
The Castillo, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800-900 CE. A temple to Kukulkan sits atop this pyramid with a total of 365 stars on its four sides. At the spring and fall equinoxes, the sun casts a shadow in the shape of a serpent along the northern staircase.
Maximilian receiving a Mexican delegation at Miramare Castle in Trieste. Painting by Cesare dell'Acqua (1821-1905).
Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc, Maya, lintel 24 of temple 23, Yaxchilan, Mexico, ca. 725 ce. Limestone, 3'7" × 2' 6.5". British Museum, London. The Maya built vast complexes of temples, palaces, and plazas and decorated many with painted reliefs.
José Mariano Salas Mexican general and Conservative politician who supported the Conservative parallel government and Conservatives' invitation to Maximilian to be emperor.
Flag and coat of arms of the Mexican Empire superimposed a map of its territorial limits. Note the crown on the eagle.
Monument to Mexico becoming Mestizo
Flag of the Second Mexican Empire
Rebel soldiers moving by rail during the Mexican Revolution.
Goddess, mural painting from the Tetitla apartment complex at Teotihuacan, Mexico, 650-750 CE. Pigments over clay and plaster. Elaborate mural paintings adorned Teotihuacan's elite residential compound. This example may depict the city's principal deity, a goddess wearing a jade mask and a large feathered headdress.
The Storming of the temple in Tenochtitlan by Cortés and his Troops. Emanuel Leutze, 1848. Wadsworth Museum.
On 14 March 2020 sport events such as female football matches were open to public. At Estadio Olímpico Universitario, authorities were pouring hand sanitizer at the entrance.
Since the 16th century, the poinsettia, a native plant from Mexico, has been associated with Christmas carrying the Christian symbolism of the Star of Bethlehem; in that country it is known in Spanish as the Flower of the Holy Night.
Spanish and Portuguese empires in 1790
Teotihuacan view of the Avenue of the Dead and the Pyramid of the Sun, from the Pyramid of the Moon. At its peak around 600 CE, Teotihuacan was the sixth-largest city in the world. It featured a rational grid plan and a two-mile-long main avenue. Its monumental pyramids echo the shapes of surrounding mountains.
Battle of Centla, first time a horse was use in battle in a war in the Americas. Mural in the Palacio Municipal of Paraíso, Tabasco
Moctezuma Xocoyotzin was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520. The first contact between indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when Conquistador Hernán Cortés and his men fought to escape from the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan.
Colossal atlantids, pyramid B, Toltec, Tula, Mexico, ca. 900-1180 CE. Stone, each 16' high. The colossal statue-columns of Tula portraying warriors armed with darts and spear-throwers reflect the military regime of the Toltecs, whose arrival in central Mexico coincided with the decline of the Maya.
A unit of Cristeros preparing for battle.
Logo of Nacional Financiera (NAFIN), the state development bank.
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