Portal:Military of Germany
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Portal:Military of Germany

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While German-speaking people have a long history, Germany as a nation state dates only from 1871. Earlier periods are subject to definition debates. The Franks, for instance, were a union of Germanic tribes; nevertheless, some of the Franks later identified themselves as Dutch, Flemish, French and again others as Germans. The capital of medieval ruler Charlemagne's empire was the city of Aachen, now part of Germany, yet he was a Frank. France was named after the Franks and the Dutch and Flemish people are the only ones to speak a language that descends from Frankish (the language of the Franks). Hence nearly all continental Western European historians can claim his victories as their heritage. The Holy Roman Empire he founded was largely but far from entirely German speaking. The Kingdom of Prussia, which unified Germany in the 19th century, had significant territory in what is now Poland. In the early 19th century, the philosopher Schlegel referred to Germany as a Kulturnation, a nation of shared culture and political disunity, analogous to ancient Greece. Until the unification of 1871, Austria was considered a part of Germany even though much of its empire was not in the Holy Roman Empire and was non-German.

Selected article

Tiger II at the Bovington Tank Museum

Tiger II is the common name of a German heavy tank of the Second World War. The final official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen Tiger Ausf. B, often shortened to Tiger B. The ordnance inventory designation was Sd.Kfz. 182. It is also known under the informal name Königstiger (the German name for the Bengal tiger), often translated literally as Royal Tiger, or somewhat incorrectly as King Tiger by Allied soldiers, especially by American forces.

The Tiger II was the successor to the Tiger I, combining the latter's thick armour with the armour sloping used on the Panther medium tank. The tank weighed almost 70 tonnes, and was protected by 100 to 185 mm (3.9 to 7.3 in) of armour to the front. It was armed with the long barrelled 8.8 cm KwK 43 L/71 anti-tank cannon. The chassis was also the basis for the Jagdtiger turretless tank destroyer.

The Tiger II was issued to heavy tank battalions of the Army and the Waffen-SS. It was first used in combat with 503rd Heavy Panzer Battalion during the Allied Invasion of Normandy on 11 July 1944; on the Eastern Front, the first unit to be outfitted with Tiger IIs was the 501st Heavy Panzer Battalion, which by 1 September 1944 listed 25 Tiger IIs operational.

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Selected biography

Manstein in 1938

Erich von Manstein (24 November 1887 - 9 June 1973) was a German commander of the Wehrmacht, Nazi Germany's armed forces during the Second World War. He attained the rank of field marshal.

Born into an aristocratic Prussian family, Manstein joined the army at a young age and served in the First World War (1914-18). He rose to the rank of captain by the end of the war and was active in the inter-war period. In September 1939, during the invasion of Poland at the beginning of the Second World War, he was serving as Chief of Staff to Gerd von Rundstedt's Army Group South. Adolf Hitler chose Manstein's strategy for the invasion of France of May 1940, a plan later refined by Franz Halder and other members of the OKH, the Sichelschnitt ("sickle cut"). Attaining the rank of general at the end of the campaign, he was a senior commander in the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. He led the Axis forces in the Siege of Sevastopol (1941-1942) and the Battle of the Kerch Peninsula, and was promoted to field marshal on 1 July 1942, after which he participated in the Siege of Leningrad.

Germany's fortunes in the war had taken an unfavourable turn in December 1941, and in the following year during the catastrophic Battle of Stalingrad, Manstein commanded a failed relief effort, Operation Winter Storm, in December. Later known as the "backhand blow", Manstein's counteroffensive in the Third Battle of Kharkov (February-March 1943) resulted in the defeat of the overstretched Soviet offensive. He was one of the primary commanders at the Battle of Kursk (July-August 1943). Following Germany's defeat in the Battle of the Dnieper, he was dismissal in March 1944. Following the end of the war, he was interned by the British.

Manstein gave testimony at the main Nuremberg trials of the "major war criminals" in August 1946, and prepared a memorandum that, along with his later memoirs, helped cultivate the myth of the clean Wehrmacht--the myth that the German armed forces were not culpable for the atrocities of the Holocaust. In 1949, he was tried for war crimes and was convicted on nine of seventeen counts, including the maltreatment of prisoners of war and failing to protect civilian lives in his sphere of operations. His sentence of eighteen years in prison was later reduced to twelve, and he served only four years before being released in 1953. As a military advisor to the West German government in the mid-1950s, he helped re-establish the armed forces. His exculpatory memoir, Verlorene Siege (1955), translated into English as Lost Victories, was highly critical of Hitler's leadership and dealt with only the military aspects of the war, ignoring its political and ethical contexts. Manstein died near Munich in 1973. (Read more)

Selected picture

Bundeswehr in Afghanistan, August 2011.jpg
Bundeswehr in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan (August 2011)

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Grabmal für Albin Köbis und Max Reichpietsch


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Battlecruisers of Germany

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List of Commando raids on the Atlantic wall o List of German World War II jet aces o List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients o List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients of the Kriegsmarine o List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients of the U-boat service o List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves recipients (1940-1941) o List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves recipients (1942) o List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves recipients (1943) o List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves recipients (1944) o List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves recipients (1945) o List of armored cruisers of Germany o List of battlecruisers of Germany o List of battleships of Germany o List of foreign recipients of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross

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Action of 28 January 1945 o Arado E.381 o Design A-150 battleship o Battle of Aachen o Battle of Bita Paka o Bombardment of Papeete o Cold War o Deutschland-class battleship o Egmont Prinz zur Lippe-Weißenfeld o German battleship Tirpitz o Heinrich Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein o Hermann Fegelein o Heuschrecke 10 o Juno Beach o Kaunas Fortress o Le Paradis massacre o Max-Hellmuth Ostermann o Moro River Campaign o Operation Freshman o Operation Lüttich o Operation Postmaster o Operation Totalize o Operation Windsor o Operation Winter Storm o Order of Saint Hubert o Organization of the Luftwaffe (1933-1945) o SMS Deutschland  o SMS Hannover o SMS Kaiser  o SMS Kaiserin o SMS Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm o SMS Nassau o SMS Ostfriesland o SMS Posen o SM U-68 o Sd.Kfz. 10 o Second Battle of Kharkov o Walter Nowotny o Wehrmacht forces for the Ardennes Offensive o Wolfgang Lüth

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Armored cruisers of Germany o Battleships of Austria-Hungary o Battleships of Germany o German Type IXA submarines o German Type U 66 submarines o German Type UB I submarines o Prinz Adalbert-class armored cruisers o Roon-class armored cruisers o Scharnhorst-class armored cruisers o U-1-class submarines (Austria-Hungary) o U-3-class submarines o U-5-class submarines o U-20-class submarines o U-27-class submarines (Austria-Hungary) o U-43-class submarines (Austria-Hungary)

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1939 German ultimatum to Lithuania o 1st Parachute Brigade (United Kingdom) o 28 cm SK L/40 gun o 30.5 cm SK L/50 gun o Action off Lofoten o Adlertag o Admiral Hipper-class cruiser o Adolf Eichmann o Adolf Galland o Adolf Hitler o Agnes von Mansfeld-Eisleben o Amon Göth o Auschwitz concentration camp o Battle of Amiens (1918) o Battle of Arnhem o Battle of Bautzen (1945) o Battle of Belgium o Battle of Dover Strait (1916) o Battle of Fort Eben-Emael o Battle of Grunwald o Battle of Hill 70 o Battle of Lanzerath Ridge o Battle of Merville Gun Battery o Battle of Messines o Battle of Mont Sorrel o Battle of Ngomano o Battle of Romani o Battle of San Marino o Battle of Schliengen o Battle of Sedan (1940) o Battle of Vauchamps o Battle of Waterloo o Battle of the Heligoland Bight (1939) o Battle of the Netherlands o Battle of the Strait of Otranto (1917) o Battle off Texel o Bismarck-class battleship o Black Brunswickers o Brandenburg-class battleship o Braunschweig-class battleship o Brummer-class cruiser o Charles Fryatt o Christmas truce o Convoy Faith o Cöln-class cruiser o Death of Adolf Hitler o Dornier Do 17 o Dunkirk evacuation o Einsatzgruppen o Emil Lang (fighter ace) o Erich von Manstein o Ersatz Yorck-class battlecruiser o Étienne Marie Antoine Champion de Nansouty o First Ostend Raid o Franz von Hipper o Friedrich Foertsch o Friedrich Geißhardt o Friedrich Wilhelm, Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Kirchberg o Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg o German Type IXA submarine o German Type UB I submarine o German Type U 66 submarine o German U-boat bases in occupied Norway o German aircraft carrier I (1915) o German aircraft carrier I (1942) o German attacks on Nauru o German battleship Bismarck o German battleship Gneisenau o German battleship Scharnhorst o German cruiser Admiral Graf Spee o German cruiser Admiral Hipper o German cruiser Admiral Scheer o German cruiser Blücher o German cruiser Deutschland o German cruiser Lützow  o German cruiser Prinz Eugen o German 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Scharnhorst-class battleship o Scharnhorst-class cruiser o Scuttling of the German fleet in Scapa Flow o Sd.Kfz. 8 o Sd.Kfz. 9 o Second Battle of Passchendaele o Siegfried-class coastal defense ship o St Nazaire Raid o Swabian War o Tallinn Offensive o Tartu Offensive o The Hardest Day o Tiger II o U-43-class submarine (Austria-Hungary) o U-52-class submarine o Utah Beach o Walter Oesau o Walter Ohmsen o Wannsee Conference o Wittelsbach-class battleship o World War II o Zyklon B

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