Portal:Military of Germany
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Portal:Military of Germany

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While German-speaking people have a long history, Germany as a nation state dates only from 1871. Earlier periods are subject to definition debates. The Franks, for instance, comprised a union of Germanic tribes; nevertheless, some descendants of the Franks later identified themselves as Dutch, Flemish, French and again others as Germans. The capital of the medieval ruler Charlemagne's empire, the city of Aachen, lies in present-day Germany, yet he was a Frank. Though France takes its name from the Franks, the Dutch and Flemish people are the only ones to speak a language that descends directly from Frankish (the language of the Franks). Hence nearly all continental Western European historians can claim Charlemagne's victories as their heritage. The Holy Roman Empire he founded c.  800 was largely - but far from entirely - German-speaking. The Kingdom of Prussia, which unified Germany in the 19th century, had significant territory in what is now Poland. In the early 19th century, the philosopher Schlegel referred to Germany as a Kulturnation - a nation of shared culture and political disunity, analogous to ancient Greece. Until the unification of 1871, Austria was considered a part of Germany - even though much of its empire never formed part of the Holy Roman Empire and was non-German in language and in ethnicity. (Full article...)

Selected article

German uniform m/1936 for a Wehmacht private.

Uniforms of the Heer as the ground forces of the Wehrmacht were distinguished from other branches by two devices: the army form of the Wehrmachtsadler or Hoheitszeichen (national emblem) worn above the right breast pocket, and - with certain exceptions - collar tabs bearing a pair of Litzen (Doppellitze "double braid"), a device inherited from the old Prussian Guard which resembled a Roman numeral II on its side. Both eagle and Litzen were machine-embroidered or woven in white or grey (hand-embroidered in silk, silver or aluminium for officers). Rank was worn on shoulder-straps except for junior enlisted (Mannschaften), who wore plain shoulder-straps and their rank insignia, if any, on the left upper sleeve. NCO's wore a 9mm silver or grey braid around the collar edge.

Shoulder-straps and, in many cases, collar patches were piped or underlaid in Waffenfarbe, a color code which identified the branch of service to which the unit belonged: white for infantry, red for artillery, rose-pink for Panzer troops and so on.

Most belt buckles had the Heeresadler with the inscription "Gott mit uns" ("God with us").

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Selected biography

Frederick II, also known as "the Great", painted by Anton Graff aged 68.

Frederick II (German: Friedrich II.; 24 January 1712 – 17 August 1786) was a King in Prussia (1740-1772) and a King of Prussia (1772-1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. In his role as a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire, he was Frederick IV (Friedrich IV.) of Brandenburg. He was in personal union the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel. He became known as Frederick the Great (Friedrich der Große) and was nicknamed Der Alte Fritz ("Old Fritz").

Interested primarily in music and philosophy and not the arts of war during his youth, Frederick unsuccessfully attempted to flee from his authoritarian father, Frederick William I, with childhood friend, Hans Hermann von Katte, whose execution he was forced to watch after they had been captured. Upon ascending to the Prussian throne, he attacked Austria and claimed Silesia during the Silesian Wars, winning military acclaim for himself and Prussia. Near the end of his life, Frederick physically connected most of his realm by conquering Polish territories in the First Partition of Poland.

Frederick was a proponent of enlightened absolutism. For years he was a correspondent of Voltaire, with whom the king had an intimate, if turbulent, friendship. He modernized the Prussian bureaucracy and civil service and promoted religious tolerance throughout his realm. Frederick patronized the arts and philosophers, and wrote flute music. Frederick is buried at his favorite residence, Sanssouci in Potsdam. Because he died childless, Frederick was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II of Prussia, son of his brother, Prince Augustus William of Prussia. (Read more)

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Bundeswehr in Afghanistan, August 2011.jpg
Bundeswehr in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan (August 2011)

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SMS Prinzregent Luitpold


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Battlecruisers of Germany

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Albert Kesselring o Albert Speer o Axis naval activity in Australian waters o Battle of Arras (1917) o Battle of Austerlitz o Battle of Bicocca o Battle of Blenheim o Battle of Ceresole o Battle of Dürenstein o Battle of Greece o Battle of Moscow o Battle of Ramillies o Battle of Schellenberg o Battle of Verrières Ridge o Battle of Villers-Bocage o Battle of Vimy Ridge o Bayern-class battleship o Bert Trautmann o Black Friday (1945) o Cologne War o Derfflinger-class battlecruiser o Ernest Augustus I of Hanover o Ernst Lindemann o Falaise pocket o Finnish Civil War o Frederick III, German Emperor o Helgoland-class battleship o Helmut Lent o Hermann Detzner o IG Farben Building o Inner German border o Italian War of 1521-1526 o Italian War of 1542-1546 o Johann von Klenau o Kaiser-class battleship o König-class battleship o Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp o Moltke-class battlecruiser o Nassau-class battleship o Omaha Beach o Operation Brevity o Operation Charnwood o Operation Cobra o Operation Epsom o Operation Perch o Operation Teardrop o Operation Tractable o Operation Uranus o Operation Varsity o Panzer I o Pigeon photography o Rheinmetall 120 mm gun o SMS Baden  o SMS Bayern  o SMS Blücher o SMS Derfflinger o SMS Friedrich der Grosse  o SMS Goeben o SMS Grosser Kurfürst  o SMS Helgoland o SMS Hindenburg o SMS König o SMS Kronprinz  o SMS Lützow o SMS Markgraf o SMS Moltke  o SMS Rheinland o SMS Seydlitz o SMS Von der Tann o SMS Westfalen o SM U-66 o Second Ostend Raid o TAM (tank) o Ulm Campaign o Unification of Germany o Walter Model o War of the Bavarian Succession o War of the Fifth Coalition o War of the League of Cambrai

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List of Commando raids on the Atlantic wall o List of German World War II jet aces o List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients o List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients of the Kriegsmarine o List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients of the U-boat service o List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves recipients (1940-1941) o List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves recipients (1942) o List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves recipients (1943) o List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves recipients (1944) o List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves recipients (1945) o List of armored cruisers of Germany o List of battlecruisers of Germany o List of battleships of Germany o List of foreign recipients of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross

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Action of 28 January 1945 o Arado E.381 o Design A-150 battleship o Battle of Aachen o Battle of Bita Paka o Bombardment of Papeete o Cold War o Deutschland-class battleship o Egmont Prinz zur Lippe-Weißenfeld o German battleship Tirpitz o Heinrich Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein o Hermann Fegelein o Heuschrecke 10 o Juno Beach o Kaunas Fortress o Le Paradis massacre o Max-Hellmuth Ostermann o Moro River Campaign o Operation Freshman o Operation Lüttich o Operation Postmaster o Operation Totalize o Operation Windsor o Operation Winter Storm o Order of Saint Hubert o Organization of the Luftwaffe (1933-1945) o SMS Deutschland  o SMS Hannover o SMS Kaiser  o SMS Kaiserin o SMS Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm o SMS Nassau o SMS Ostfriesland o SMS Posen o SM U-68 o Sd.Kfz. 10 o Second Battle of Kharkov o Walter Nowotny o Wehrmacht forces for the Ardennes Offensive o Wolfgang Lüth

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Armored cruisers of Germany o Battleships of Austria-Hungary o Battleships of Germany o German Type IXA submarines o German Type U 66 submarines o German Type UB I submarines o Prinz Adalbert-class armored cruisers o Roon-class armored cruisers o Scharnhorst-class armored cruisers o U-1-class submarines (Austria-Hungary) o U-3-class submarines o U-5-class submarines o U-20-class submarines o U-27-class submarines (Austria-Hungary) o U-43-class submarines (Austria-Hungary)

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1939 German ultimatum to Lithuania o 1st Parachute Brigade (United Kingdom) o 28 cm SK L/40 gun o 30.5 cm SK L/50 gun o Action off Lofoten o Adlertag o Admiral Hipper-class cruiser o Adolf Eichmann o Adolf Galland o Adolf Hitler o Agnes von Mansfeld-Eisleben o Amon Göth o Auschwitz concentration camp o Battle of Amiens (1918) o Battle of Arnhem o Battle of Bautzen (1945) o Battle of Belgium o Battle of Dover Strait (1916) o Battle of Fort Eben-Emael o Battle of Grunwald o Battle of Hill 70 o Battle of Lanzerath Ridge o Battle of Merville Gun Battery o Battle of Messines o Battle of Mont Sorrel o Battle of Ngomano o Battle of Romani o Battle of San Marino o Battle of Schliengen o Battle of Sedan (1940) o Battle of Vauchamps o Battle of Waterloo o Battle of the Heligoland Bight (1939) o Battle of the Netherlands o Battle of the Strait of Otranto (1917) o Battle off Texel o Bismarck-class battleship o Black Brunswickers o Brandenburg-class battleship o Braunschweig-class battleship o Brummer-class cruiser o Charles Fryatt o Christmas truce o Convoy Faith o Cöln-class cruiser o Death of Adolf Hitler o Dornier Do 17 o Dunkirk evacuation o Einsatzgruppen o Emil Lang (fighter ace) o Erich von Manstein o Ersatz Yorck-class battlecruiser o Étienne Marie Antoine Champion de Nansouty o First Ostend Raid o Franz von Hipper o Friedrich Foertsch o Friedrich Geißhardt o Friedrich Wilhelm, Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Kirchberg o Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg o German Type IXA submarine o German Type UB I submarine o German Type U 66 submarine o German U-boat bases in occupied Norway o German aircraft carrier I (1915) o German aircraft carrier I (1942) o German attacks on Nauru o German battleship Bismarck o German battleship Gneisenau o German battleship Scharnhorst o German cruiser Admiral Graf Spee o German cruiser Admiral Hipper o German cruiser Admiral Scheer o German cruiser Blücher o German cruiser Deutschland o German cruiser Lützow  o German cruiser Prinz Eugen o German cruiser Seydlitz o Geman destroyer Z8 Bruno Heinemann o Geman destroyer Z9 Wolfgang Zenker o Geman destroyer Z11 Bernd von Arnim o German involvement in the Spanish Civil War o German submarine U-27  o German submarine U-28  o German submarine U-30  o German submarine U-36  o German submarine U-37  o German submarine U-38  o German submarine U-39  o German submarine U-40  o German submarine U-41  o German submarine U-42  o German submarine U-43  o German submarine U-44  o German submarine U-47  o German submarine U-64  o German submarine U-104  o German submarine U-105  o German submarine U-111  o German submarine U-162  o German submarine U-255 o German submarine U-853 o German submarine U-2336 o Gold Beach o Greater Germanic Reich o Günther Specht o H-class battleship proposals o Heinkel He 111 o Heinrich Himmler o Hermann Göring o High Seas Fleet o Hindu-German Conspiracy o JRM Zmaj o Jade-class aircraft carrier o Joachim Helbig o Johann Jakob von Wunsch o Josef Mengele o Joseph Goebbels o Junkers Ju 87 o Kaiser Friedrich III-class battleship o Kristallnacht o Kurt Welter o L 20 ?-class battleship o Liberation of Arnhem o Mackensen-class battlecruiser o Madagascar Plan o Martin Bormann o Nazi Germany o Normandy landings o Odin-class coastal defense ship o Operation Aquatint o Operation Bodenplatte o Operation Deadstick o Operation Donnerkeil o Operation Doomsday o Operation Iskra o Operation Overlord o Operation Paula o Operation Slapstick o Oskar Schindler o Otto Kittel o Panzer 35(t) o Preussen-class ironclad o Prinz Adalbert-class cruiser o Prussian uprisings o Reinhard Heydrich o Reinhard Scheer o Reinhold von Werner o Rommelspargel o Rudolf Hess o Rudyard Kipling (ship) o Schindler's List o Schutzstaffel o SMS Arminius o SMS Brandenburg o SMS Braunschweig o SMS Bremse o SMS Brummer o SMS Deutschland  o SMS Dresden  o SMS Elsass o SMS Friedrich Carl o SMS Friedrich Carl  o SMS Friedrich der Grosse  o SMS Fürst Bismarck  o SMS Gneisenau o SMS Grosser Kurfürst  o SMS Hansa  o SMS Hela o SMS Hessen o SMS Kaiser  o SMS Kaiser Barbarossa o SMS Kaiser Friedrich III o SMS Kaiser Karl der Grosse o SMS Kaiser Wilhelm II o SMS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse o SMS Kronprinz  o SMS König Albert o SMS König Wilhelm o SMS Lothringen o SMS Mecklenburg o SMS Pommern o SMS Preussen  o SMS Preussen  o SMS Prinz Adalbert  o SMS Prinz Adalbert  o SMS Prinz Heinrich o SMS Prinzregent Luitpold o SMS Radetzky o SMS Roon o SMS Schlesien o SMS Schleswig-Holstein o SMS Schwaben o SMS Thüringen o SMS Weissenburg o SMS Wettin o SMS Wittelsbach o SMS Wörth o SMS Yorck o SMS Zähringen o SM U-1 (Austria-Hungary) o SM U-3 (Austria-Hungary) o SM U-4 (Austria-Hungary) o SM U-10 (Austria-Hungary) o SM U-11 (Austria-Hungary) o SM U-67 o SM U-69 o SM U-70 o SM UB-2 o SM UB-3 o SM UB-4 o SM UB-5 o SM UB-6 o SM UB-7 o SM UB-8 o SM UB-9 o SM UB-11 o SM UB-12 o SM UB-13 o SM UB-17 o SM UB-42 o SM UB-44 o SM UB-46 o SM UB-47 o SM UB-50 o Sachsen-class ironclad o Scharnhorst-class battleship o Scharnhorst-class cruiser o Scuttling of the German fleet in Scapa Flow o Sd.Kfz. 8 o Sd.Kfz. 9 o Second Battle of Passchendaele o Siegfried-class coastal defense ship o St Nazaire Raid o Swabian War o Tallinn Offensive o Tartu Offensive o The Hardest Day o Tiger II o U-43-class submarine (Austria-Hungary) o U-52-class submarine o Utah Beach o Walter Oesau o Walter Ohmsen o Wannsee Conference o Wittelsbach-class battleship o World War II o Zyklon B

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