Portal:Morocco
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Portal:Morocco

The Morocco Portal

Flag of Morocco.svg
Coat of arms of Morocco.svg

Morocco (; Arabic: ‎, romanizedal-Ma?rib, lit. 'place the sun sets; the west'; Standard Moroccan Tamazight: , romanized: lme?rib; French: Maroc), officially the Kingdom of Morocco (Arabic: ? ‎, romanizedal-Mamlaka al-Ma?ribiyya, lit. 'The Western Kingdom'; Standard Moroccan Tamazight: ? ? , romanized: tageldit n lma?rib; French: Royaume du Maroc), is a country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, with land borders with Algeria to the east and Western Sahara (status disputed) to the south. Morocco also claims the exclaves of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, all of them under Spanish jurisdiction, as well as several small Spanish-controlled islands off its coast. The capital is Rabat and the largest city is Casablanca. Morocco spans an area of 710,850 km2 (274,460 sq mi) and has a population of over 36 million.

Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under Almoravid and Almohad rule, when it spanned parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Portuguese Empire began in Morocco in the 15th century, following Portuguese conquests along the Moroccan coast, founding settlements which lasted into the 17th and 18th centuries. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties resisted foreign domination into the 17th century, allowing Morocco to remain the only northwest African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, which rules to this day, seized power in 1631. The country's strategic location near the mouth of the Mediterranean attracted the interest of Europe, and in 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier. It regained its independence in 1956, and has since remained comparatively stable and prosperous by regional standards, with the fifth largest economy in Africa.

Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a ceasefire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock.

The sovereign state is a unitary Semi-constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The country wields significant influence in both Africa and the Arab world, and is considered a regional power and a middle power. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court.

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A map showing locations central to the Zaian War in the Middle and High Atlas Mountains of Morocco
Map showing the area in which the war was fought

The Zaian (or Zayan) War was fought between France and the Zaian confederation of Berber tribes in Morocco between 1914 and 1921 during the French conquest of Morocco. Morocco had become a French protectorate in 1912, and Resident-General Louis-Hubert Lyautey sought to extend French influence eastwards through the Middle Atlas mountains towards French Algeria. This was opposed by the Zaians, led by Mouha ou Hammou Zayani. The war began well for the French, who quickly took the key towns of Taza and Khénifra. Despite the loss of their base at Khénifra, the Zaians inflicted heavy losses on the French, who responded by establishing groupes mobiles, combined arms formations that mixed regular and irregular infantry, cavalry and artillery into a single force.

The outbreak of the First World War proved significant, with the withdrawal of troops for service in France compounded by the loss of more than 600 French killed at the Battle of El Herri. Lyautey reorganised his available forces into a "living barricade", consisting of outposts manned by his best troops protecting the perimeter of French territory with lower quality troops manning the rear-guard positions. Over the next four years the French retained most of their territory despite intelligence and financial support provided by the Central Powers to the Zaian Confederation and continual raids and skirmishes reducing scarce French manpower.

After the signing of the Armistice with Germany in November 1918, significant forces of tribesmen remained opposed to French rule. The French resumed their offensive in the Khénifra area in 1920, establishing a series of blockhouses to limit the Zaians' freedom of movement. They opened negotiations with Hammou's sons, persuading three of them, along with many of their followers, to submit to French rule. A split in the Zaian Confederation between those who supported submission and those still opposed led to infighting and the death of Hammou in Spring 1921. The French responded with a strong, three-pronged attack into the Middle Atlas that pacified the area. Some tribesmen, led by Moha ou Said, fled to the High Atlas and continued a guerrilla war against the French well into the 1930s. Read more...

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  Location of Central Atlas Tamazight speakers
Central Atlas Tamazight speakers are mostly distributed in a large, contiguous area in central Morocco.

Central Atlas Tamazight or Atlasic (also known as Central Morocco Tamazight, Middle Atlas Tamazight, Tamazight, Central Shilha and, rarely, Beraber or Braber; native name? Tamazight [tæmæ'zt], [?æmæ'z]) is a Berber language of the Afroasiatic language family spoken by almost 5 million people in the Atlas Mountains of Central Morocco as well as by smaller emigrant communities in France and elsewhere.

Central Atlas Tamazight is one of the most-spoken Berber languages, along with Kabyle, Shilha, Riff, Shawiya and Tuareg. In Morocco, it rivals Shilha as the most-spoken. All five languages may be referred to as "Tamazight", but Central Atlas speakers are the only ones who use the term exclusively. As is typical of Afroasiatic languages, Tamazight has a series of "emphatic consonants" (realized as pharyngealized), uvulars, pharyngeals and lacks the phoneme /p/. Tamazight has a phonemic three-vowel system but also has numerous words without vowels. Read more...

Moroccan cities

List of cities in Morocco

Rank City Population
(2014 census)[1][2]
Region
1 Casablanca[a] 3,359,818 Casablanca-Settat
2 Fez[b] 1,112,072 Fès-Meknès
3 Tangier[c] 947,952 Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
4 Marrakesh[d] 928,850 Marrakesh-Safi
5 Salé[e] 890,403 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
6 Meknes[f] 632,079 Fès-Meknès
7 Rabat[g] 577,827 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
8 Oujda 494,252 Oriental
9 Kenitra 431,282 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
10 Agadir 421,844 Souss-Massa
11 Tetouan 380,787 Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
12 Temara 313,510 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
13 Safi 308,508 Marrakesh-Safi
14 Mohammedia 208,612 Casablanca-Settat
15 Khouribga 196,196 Béni Mellal-Khénifra
16 El Jadida 194,934 Casablanca-Settat
17 Beni Mellal 192,676 Béni Mellal-Khénifra
18 Aït Melloul 171,847 Souss-Massa
19 Nador 161,726 Oriental
20 Dar Bouazza 151,373 Casablanca-Settat
21 Taza 148,456 Fès-Meknès
22 Settat 142,250 Casablanca-Settat
23 Berrechid 136,634 Casablanca-Settat
24 Khemisset 131,542 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
25 Inezgane 130,333 Souss-Massa
26 Ksar El Kebir 126,617 Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
27 Larache 125,008 Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
28 Guelmim 118,318 Guelmim-Oued Noun
29 Khenifra 117,510 Béni Mellal-Khénifra
30 Berkane 109,237 Oriental
31 Taourirt 103,398 Oriental
32 Bouskoura 103,026 Casablanca-Settat
33 Fquih Ben Salah 102,019 Béni Mellal-Khénifra
34 Dcheira El Jihadia 100,336 Souss-Massa
35 Oued Zem 95,267 Béni Mellal-Khénifra
36 El Kelaa Des Sraghna 95,224 Marrakesh-Safi
37 Sidi Slimane 92,989 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
38 Errachidia 92,374 Drâa-Tafilalet
39 Guercif 90,880 Oriental
40 Oulad Teima 89,387 Souss-Massa
41 Ben Guerir 88,626 Marrakesh-Safi
42 Tifelt 86,709 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
43 Lqliaa 83,235 Souss-Massa
44 Taroudant 80,149 Souss-Massa
45 Sefrou 79,887 Fès-Meknès
46 Essaouira 77,966 Marrakesh-Safi
47 Fnideq 77,436 Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
48 Sidi Kacem 75,672 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
49 Tiznit 74,699 Souss-Massa
50 Tan-Tan 73,209 Guelmim-Es Semara
51 Ouarzazate 71,067 Drâa-Tafilalet
52 Souk El Arbaa 69,265 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
53 Youssoufia 67,628 Marrakesh-Safi
54 Lahraouyine 64,821 Casablanca-Settat
55 Martil 64,355 Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
56 Ain Harrouda 62,420 Casablanca-Settat
57 Suq as-Sabt Awlad an-Nama 60,076 Béni Mellal-Khénifra
58 Skhirat 59,775 Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
59 Ouazzane 59,606 Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
60 Benslimane 57,101 Casablanca-Settat
61 Al Hoceima 56,716 Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
62 Beni Ansar 56,582 Oriental
63 M'diq 56,227 Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
64 Sidi Bennour 55,815 Casablanca-Settat
65 Midelt 55,304 Drâa-Tafilalet
66 Azrou 54,350 Fès-Meknès
67 Drargua[h] 50,946 Souss-Massa


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  1. ^ In the 2014 census, the High Commission for Planning gave the legal population of Casablanca as 3,359,818,[1] which corresponds to the population of Casablanca Prefecture.[2]
  2. ^ In the 2014 census, the High Commission for Planning gave the legal population of Fez as 1,112,072,[1] which corresponds to the combined population of those parts of Fez Prefecture not within the cercle of Fez Banlieue ("suburbs").[2]
  3. ^ In the 2014 census, the High Commission for Planning gave the legal population of Tangier as 947,952,[1] which corresponds to the combined population of the four arrondissements of Bni Makada, Charf-Mghogha, Charf-Souani and Tanger-Médina.[2]
  4. ^ In the 2014 census, the High Commission for Planning gave the legal population of Marrakesh as 928,850,[1] which corresponds to the combined population of the municipality of Méchouar-Kasba and the five arrondissements of Annakhil, Gueliz, Marrakech-Médina, Ménara and Sidi Youssef Ben Ali.[2]
  5. ^ In the 2014 census, the High Commission for Planning gave the legal population of Salé as 890,403,[1] which corresponds to the combined population of the five arrondissements of Bab Lamrissa, Bettana, Hssaine, Layayda and Tabriquet.[2]
  6. ^ In the 2014 census, the High Commission for Planning gave the legal population of Meknes as 632,079,[1] which corresponds to the combined population of the municipalities of Meknes, Al Machouar - Stinia, Toulal and Ouislane.[2]
  7. ^ In the 2014 census, the High Commission for Planning gave the legal population of Rabat as 577,827,[1] which corresponds to the population of Rabat Prefecture.[2]
  8. ^ The population figure refers only to the urban centre (HCP geographic code [fr] 09.001.05.09.3) of the rural commune of Drargua.
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Note de présentation des premiers résultats du Recensement Général de la Population et de l'Habitat 2014" (in French). High Commission for Planning. 20 March 2015. p. 8. Retrieved 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "POPULATION LÉGALE DES RÉGIONS, PROVINCES, PRÉFECTURES, MUNICIPALITÉS, ARRONDISSEMENTS ET COMMUNES DU ROYAUME D'APRÈS LES RÉSULTATS DU RGPH 2014" (in Arabic and French). High Commission for Planning. 8 April 2015. Retrieved 2017.

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