The Puerto Rico Portal
Puerto Rico (Spanish for 'Rich Port'; abbreviated PR, Taino: Boriken, Borinquen), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit. 'Free Associated State of Puerto Rico') is an unincorporated territory of the United States. It is located in the northeast Caribbean Sea, approximately 1,000 miles (1,600 km) southeast of Miami, Florida.
Puerto Rico is an archipelago among the Greater Antilles located between the Dominican Republic and the U.S. Virgin Islands; it includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona, Culebra, and Vieques. The capital and most populous city is San Juan. Puerto Rico has roughly 3.2 million residents, exceeding over 20 U.S. states. Spanish and English are the official languages of the executive branch of government, though Spanish predominates.
Originally populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493. It was contested by other European powers, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. Spanish rule led to the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, and settlement primarily from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. Within the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain. By the late 19th century, a distinct Puerto Rican identity began to emerge, centered around a fusion of indigenous, African, and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish-American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico.
Puerto Ricans have been U.S. citizens since 1917, and can move freely between the island and the mainland. However, as residents of an unincorporated territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level, do not vote for the president or vice president, and generally do not pay federal income tax. As it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the U.S. Congress, which governs it under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. Puerto Rico is represented federally solely by one non-voting member of the House called a "Resident Commissioner." Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U.S. citizens residing on the Island to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has consistently been a matter of significant debate. (Full article...)
Entries here consist of Good and Featured articles, which meet a core set of high editorial standards.
(Spanish pronunciation: [barjo 'fino]
: Fine Hood
) is the third studio album
by Puerto Rican rapper Daddy Yankee
, released on July 13, 2004, in the United States by V.I. Music
and El Cartel Records
and internationally by Machete Music
and Polydor Records
. Released two years after his previous studio album, El Cangri.com
(2002), the album was recorded in Puerto Rico between 2003 and 2004. It explores themes ranging from dance, sex, romance, introspection
, and protest
against political corruption
and violence against women
. Barrio Fino
was instrumental in popularizing reggaeton
in the mainstream market, enhancing Daddy Yankee's career, as well as cementing his status as one of the most successful Latin artists of the 2000s. and the album sold 5 million of copias in the world.
Daddy Yankee wrote all the tracks, with co-writing credits on seven, and is credited as executive producer. Four of the 21 songs were released as singles. The first single, "Gasolina
", charted within the top 10 in Denmark, Italy, Norway, Ireland, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Austria, while "Lo Que Pasó, Pasó
" peaked at number two on the US Hot Latin Songs
chart. Barrio Fino
reached number one on the US Tropical Albums
and the Top Latin Albums
charts. It became the first reggaeton recording to debut and peak atop the latter chart. It ranked within the top 30 on the United States
, Portugal, Switzerland and Spain. (Full article...
) is the debut studio album by American merenguero
recording artist Elvis Crespo
. Released by Sony Music Latin
on April 14, 1998, the album popularized merengue music and established Crespo as a leading artist in the Latin music
market. He collaborated with several songwriters and record producers to create an overall tropical music
With romantic ballads
and uptempo songs, Suavemente
received favorable reviews from music critics who found the recording to contain energetic and catchy tracks. The album was commercially successful; it became the first merengue recording to peak at number one on the United States Billboard Top Latin Albums
peaked at number 106 on the US Billboard 200
chart. Two of its singles, "Suavemente
" and "Tu Sonrisa
", topped the US Billboard Hot Latin Songs
chart; Crespo was recognized as becoming the first artist to have placed two merengue singles at number one. Suavemente
was Crespo's commercial breakthrough, introducing him to the popular music
market with the Spanglish
remix of its title track. (Full article...
The Okeechobee hurricane
of 1928, also known as the San Felipe Segundo hurricane
, was one of the deadliest hurricanes in the recorded history of the North Atlantic basin, and the third deadliest hurricane in the United States
, only behind the 1900 Galveston hurricane
and Hurricane Maria
. The hurricane killed an estimated 2,500 people in the United States; most of the fatalities occurred in the state of Florida
, particularly in Lake Okeechobee
. It was the fourth tropical cyclone, third hurricane, and only major hurricane of the year's hurricane season
. It developed off the west coast of Africa on September 6 as a tropical depression, but it strengthened into a tropical storm later that day, shortly before passing south of the Cape Verde
islands. Further intensification was slow and halted late on September 7. About 48 hours later, the storm strengthened and became a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale
. Still moving westward, the system reached Category 4 intensity before striking Guadeloupe
on September 12, where it brought great destruction and resulted in 1,200 deaths. The islands of Martinique
, and Nevis
also reported damage and fatalities, but not nearly as severe as in Guadeloupe.
Around midday on September 13, the storm strengthened into a Category 5 hurricane and peaked with sustained winds of 160 mph (260 km/h). About six hours later, the system made landfall in Puerto Rico
; it remains the only tropical cyclone on record to strike the island at Category 5 intensity. Very strong winds resulted in severe damage in Puerto Rico; 24,728 homes were destroyed and 192,444 were damaged throughout the island, leaving over 500,000 people homeless. Heavy rainfall also led to extreme damage to vegetation and agriculture. On Puerto Rico alone, there were 312 deaths and about US$50 million ($744 million today) in damage. While crossing the island and emerging into the Atlantic, the storm weakened slightly, falling to Category 4 intensity. It began crossing through the Bahamas on September 16, where it resulted in 18 fatalities. (Full article...
Álvaro E. Betancourt
(born 8 February 1994) is a Puerto Rican retired international footballer
who played as a midfielder
. He appeared at the senior level for High Performance FC
, Conquistadores de Guaynabo, Bayamón
, and Metropolitan FA
, split around a two-year stint at Valparaiso University
A native of Caguas, Puerto Rico
, Betancourt played youth football for Fraigcomar
while attending the Colegio San Ignacio de Loyola
. He made his senior debut at 15 years old, spending two seasons with High Performance FC followed by a year with Conquistadores de Guaynabo. He left his home island to attend college in the United States, spending two years with the men's soccer program at Valparaiso
. After returning to Puerto Rico, Betancourt played the sport for four more years, splitting time between Bayamón and Metropolitan FA. He stepped away from the game in 2017, aged just 23. (Full article...
The 65th Infantry Regiment,
nicknamed "The Borinqueneers" during the Korean War
for the original Taíno
Indian name for Puerto Rico
(Borinquen), is a Puerto Rican
regiment of the United States Army
. The regiment's motto is Honor et Fidelitas
, Latin for Honor and Fidelity
. The Army Appropriation Bill created by an act of Congress
on 2 March 1899, authorized the creation of the first body of native troops in Puerto Rico. On 30 June 1901, the "Porto Rico Provisional Regiment of Infantry" was organized. On 1 July 1908, Congress incorporated the regiment into the Regular Army as the Puerto Rico Regiment of Infantry, United States Army. On 14 May 1917, the regiment was activated and additional men were assigned, with the unit being sent to serve at Panama. On 4 June 1920, the regiment was renamed 65th Infantry. During World War II, the regiment saw action throughout Europe, especially France and Germany, participating in Naples-Foggia, Rome-Arno and Rhin. Several Purple Hearts were awarded posthumously to members of the 65th Regiment.
The 65th Infantry Regiment participated in World War I
, World War II
, the Korean War
, and in what is known by the United States Department of Defense as the Global War on Terrorism
. On 10 June 2014, the 65th Infantry was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal
. (Full article...
This list of Governors of Puerto Rico
includes all persons who have held that post, either under Spanish or American rule. The Governor of Puerto Rico
is the Head of Government
of the Commonwealth
of Puerto Rico
. The position was first established by the Spanish Empire
during the 16th century following the archipelago's colonization
The first person to officially occupy the position was Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León
At the time, the Spanish monarchy
was responsible for appointing the functionary who would perform this office. The first native Puerto Rican
to perform the function was Juan Ponce de León II
, as interim governor in 1579. During this administration, all of those appointed to take the position had served another function within the empire's government or the Roman Catholic Church
. In 1898, the United States invaded Puerto Rico and the Spanish government ceded control of the island to the United States. During the first two years, the entire government in Puerto Rico was appointed by the President of the United States
. In 1900, the American government approved the establishment of the Foraker Act
as a federal law, this act established a civilian government in the island. In 1947, the federal Elective Governor Act was enacted, which created a new system where, since 1948, the governor is elected
through a democratic process every four years. The governor is in charge of Puerto Rico's executive branch and is responsible for appointing executive branch agency heads, including the Secretary of State, who fulfills the role of lieutenant governor, the legislative branch's Ombudsman
and all judges in the judicial branch. (Full article...
Luis Muñoz Rivera
(July 17, 1859 - November 15, 1916) was a Puerto Rican poet
. He was a major figure in the struggle for political autonomy
of Puerto Rico.
In 1887, Muñoz Rivera became part of the leadership of a newly formed Autonomist Party. In 1889, he successfully ran a campaign for the position of delegate in the district of Caguas
. Subsequently, Muñoz Rivera was a member of a group organized by the party to discuss proposals of autonomy with Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
, who would grant Puerto Rico an autonomous government following his election. He served as Chief of the Cabinet of this government. (Full article...
The Puerto Rican amazon
), also known as the Puerto Rican parrot
, cotorra puertorriqueña or iguaca
, is the only extant parrot endemic
to the archipelago
of Puerto Rico
, and belongs to the Neotropical
. Measuring 28-30 cm (11.0-11.8 in), the bird is a predominantly green parrot
with a red forehead and white rings around the eyes. Two subspecies have been described, although there are doubts regarding the distinctiveness of the form gracilipes
from Culebra Island
, extinct since 1912. Its closest relatives are believed to be the Cuban amazon
and the Hispaniolan amazon
The Puerto Rican amazon reaches sexual maturity at between three and four years of age. It reproduces once a year and is a cavity nester
. Once the female lays eggs she will remain in the nest and continuously incubate them until hatching. The chicks are fed by both parents and will fledge
60 to 65 days after hatching. This parrot's diet is varied and consists of flowers, fruits, leaves, bark and nectar obtained from the forest canopy
. (Full article...
was a North Atlantic hurricane
that hit the Leeward Islands
from the west in November of the 1984 Atlantic hurricane season
. Forming from a broad area of low pressure on November 5, Klaus maintained a northeast movement throughout much of its path. After making landfall on extreme eastern Puerto Rico
, it passed to the north of the Leeward Islands
, resulting in strong southwesterly winds and rough seas. Klaus attained hurricane status and reached peak winds of 90 mph (145 km/h) before becoming extratropical over cooler waters on November 13. The storm dropped heavy rainfall in Puerto Rico, causing minor flooding and light damage. Klaus caused heavy marine damage in the Leeward Islands, including wrecking at least three ships. The Virgin Islands experienced heavy damage as well. (Full article...
Tropical Storm Dean
was a strong tropical storm that affected at least twelve islands along its path from the tropical Atlantic Ocean
to east of Atlantic Canada
in August 2001. Dean developed from a tropical wave
on August 22 over the Lesser Antilles
, and was initially predicted to intensify further to reach hurricane status. However, strong wind shear
quickly weakened Dean to cause it to dissipate on August 23. The remnants turned northward, and redeveloped on August 26 to the north of Bermuda
. Located over warm waters and in an area of favorable conditions, Dean steadily strengthened while moving to the northeast, and peaked just below hurricane status on August 27 about 465 miles (750 km) southwest of Newfoundland
. The storm subsequently weakened over cooler waters, and became extratropical
on August 28.
The precursor tropical wave dropped heavy rainfall and produced moderate winds throughout the Lesser Antilles
, though no serious damage was reported. In Puerto Rico
, rainfall of up to 12.7 inches (322 mm) produced widespread flooding across the island. Thousands were left without power or water, and two houses lost their roofs from the storm. The passage of Dean resulted in $7.7 million (2001 USD, $9.4 million 2008 USD) in damage in Puerto Rico. The storm produced light to moderate rainfall in Bermuda
and later in Newfoundland
, though no damage was reported. (Full article...
Puerto Rican recording artist Ricky Martin
has released ten studio albums
, seven compilation albums
, two live albums
, one soundtrack album
and four box sets
. Martin has sold over 70 million records, making him one of the best-selling Latin music artists of all time
. His self-titled debut
studio album was released in November 1991 by Sony Discos
. Two years later, Columbia Records
released Martin's second studio album, Me Amaras
. Despite both albums failing to achieve a significant commercial success, they pushed Martin towards superstar status in many Latin American countries. His third studio album, A Medio Vivir
, was released in September 1995 by Sony Latin
. The album features a "harder rock edge style" than his previous efforts, while being mixed with Latin
references such as flamenco
. A Medio Vivir
charted in several countries and peaked at number seven in Spain and number 11 on the US Latin Albums
In 1998, Martin released his fourth studio album, Vuelve
, which became his first record to chart on the US Billboard 200
chart, peaking at number 40; it became the highest-selling Latin album of 1999 and is the tenth bestselling Latin album of all-time in the country
. Additionally, it peaked at number one on the US Latin Albums chart and in Spain, where it was certified six-times platinum by Promusicae
. He released his fifth studio and second eponymous
album in 1999; it was a commercial success reaching number one in Australia, Finland, Spain and in the United States, and number two in the United Kingdom. It was certified seven-times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America
(RIAA), denoting shipments of over seven million copies in the United States. As of April 2011, Ricky Martin
has sold over 15 million copies worldwide, making it his best selling-album. (Full article...
(November 19, 1919 - August 1, 2010) was a Puerto Rican nationalist
who was convicted of attempted murder and other crimes after carrying out an armed attack on the United States Capitol
in 1954, which resulted in the wounding of five members of the United States Congress
. She was released from prison in 1979 after being granted clemency by President Jimmy Carter
. Lebrón was born and raised in Lares
, Puerto Rico
, where she joined the Puerto Rican Liberal Party
. In her youth she met Francisco Matos Paoli
, a Puerto Rican poet
, with whom she had a relationship. In 1941, Lebrón migrated to New York City
, where she joined the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
, gaining influence within the party's leadership.
In the early 1950s, the Nationalist Party began a series of revolutionary actions, including the 1950 Jayuya Uprising
against American presence on the island. They conducted these attacks to protest the false and misleading claims by the United States government
and Luis Muñoz Marín
that Puerto Rico would no longer be dominated by the United States. As part of this initiative, Pedro Albizu Campos
ordered Lebrón to organize attacks in the United States, focusing on locations that were "the most strategic to the enemy." Lebrón led a group of nationalists that attacked
the United States House of Representatives
in 1954. (Full article...
Selected picture -
Photo credit: USGS
The 1985 Mameyes landslide in Ponce was one of the worst landslide disasters in North American history. Caused by excessive rains, it destroyed more than 100 homes and killed anywhere from 129 to 300 residents.
Selected anniversaries for February
- February 3, 1977 - Birth of Daddy Yankee (Ramón "Raymond" Ayala), international reggaeton star
- February 4, 1862 - Bacardi, the spirits and rum company, was founded
- February 4, 1922 - Birth of Tommy Muñiz, comedian, dramatic actor, network owner and producer
- February 5, 1953 - Birth of Giannina Braschi, poet, novelist, essayist.
- February 5, 1968 - Birth of Roberto Alomar, former Mayor League Baseball second baseman
- February 6, 1939 - Birth of Orlando Parga, politician and Puerto Rico Senator
- February 13, 1962 - Birth of Aníbal Acevedo Vilá, 8th democratically-elected Governor of Puerto Rico
- February 17, 1904 - Birth of Luis A. Ferré, 3rd democratically-elected Governor of Puerto Rico (d. 2003)
- February 18, 1898 - Birth of Luis Muñoz Marín, 1st democratically-elected Governor of Puerto Rico (d. 1980)
- February 18, 2007 - Death of Juan "Pachín" Vicéns, basketball player (d. 1934)
- February 19, 1913 - Birth of Roberto Sánchez Vilella, 2nd democratically-elected Governor of Puerto Rico (d. 1997)
- February 21, 1994 - Death of Oscar Collazo, one of two Puerto Ricans who attempted to assassinate U.S. President Harry S. Truman (b. 1914)
- February 22, 1964 - Birth of Gigi Fernández, professional tennis player
- February 23, 1959 - Death of Luis Palés Matos, poet credited with creating the genre known as Afro-Antillano (b. 1898)
- February 24, 1974 - Birth of Mike Lowell, Mayor League Baseball third baseman
- February 25, 1964 - Birth of Enrique Figueroa, Olympic sailor
- February 27, 1833 - The Municipality of Guayanilla is founded.
- February 29, 1756 - The Municipality of Yauco is founded.
- February 21, 1979 - Birth of Carly Colón, professional wrestler
Selected article -
Map of the departments
of Puerto Rico during Spanish provincial times (1886).
The history of Puerto Rico began with the settlement of the Ortoiroid people between 430 BC and AD 1000. At the time of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World in 1493, the dominant indigenous culture was that of the Taínos. The Taíno people's numbers went dangerously low during the later half of the 16th century because of new infectious diseases carried by Europeans, exploitation by Spanish settlers, and warfare.
Located in the northeastern Caribbean, Puerto Rico formed a key part of the Spanish Empire from the early years of the exploration, conquest and colonization of the New World
. The island was a major military post during many wars between Spain and other European powers for control of the region in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. (Full article...
Selected biography -
Ramón Luis Ayala Rodríguez (born February 3, 1976), known professionally as Daddy Yankee, is a Puerto Rican singer, rapper, songwriter, actor, and record producer. He was born in Río Piedras, Puerto Rico, and was raised in the Villa Kennedy Housing Projects neighborhood. Daddy Yankee is the artist who coined the word Reggaeton in 1994 to describe the new music genre that was emerging from Puerto Rico that synthesized hip-hop, Latin Caribbean music, and reggae rhythms with Spanish rapping and singing. He is known as the "King of Reggaetón" by music critics and fans alike. Daddy Yankee is often cited as an influence by other Latin urban performers.
Ayala aspired to be a professional baseball player, and tried out for the Seattle Mariners
of Major League Baseball
. Before he could be officially signed, he was hit by a stray round from an AK-47
rifle while taking a break from a studio recording session with reggaeton artist DJ Playero
. Ayala spent roughly one and a half years recovering from the wound; the bullet was never removed from his hip, and he credits the shooting incident with allowing him to focus entirely on a music career. In 2004, Daddy Yankee released his international hit single "Gasolina
", which is credited with introducing Reggaeton to audiences worldwide, and making the music genre a global phenomenon. Since then, he has sold around 20 million records, making him one of the best-selling Latin music artists
. Daddy Yankee's album Barrio Fino
made history when it became the top-selling Latin music
album of the decade between 2000-2009. In 2017, Daddy Yankee, in collaboration with Latin pop singer Luis Fonsi
, released the hit single "Despacito
". It became the first Spanish-language song to hit number one on the Billboard Hot 100
" in 1996. The single gained global success. The video for "Despacito" on YouTube received its billionth view on April 20, 2017, and became the most watched video
on the platform. Its success led Daddy Yankee to become the most listened artist worldwide on the streaming service Spotify
in June 2017, the first Latin artist to do so. (Full article...
Did you know -
Recreated interior of James Fort at Jamestown Settlement
- ... that In 1509, Juan Garrido, a conquistador in Juan Ponce de León's entourage, became the first African to set foot on the island?
- ... that the island of Puerto Rico was originally christened as "San Juan Bautista" (St. John the Baptist), whose capital was called Puerto Rico? That over the years, the names of the island and the capital were exchanged, and San Juan Bautista became the name of the capital while Puerto Rico became the name of the island?
- ... that the state of Florida was discovered by Puerto Rico's first governor, Don Juan Ponce de León?
- ... that slaves in Puerto Rico were branded on the forehead with a stamp so people would know they were brought in legally and it prevented them from being kidnapped? The method of hot branding was no longer used after 1784. See: African immigration to Puerto Rico
- ... that La Fortaleza in San Juan is the oldest executive mansion in the New World?
- ... that the Puerto Rican coat of arms is the oldest official national seal still used in the Americas?
- ... that in 1596, Sir Francis Drake, the famed British Admiral who defeated the Spanish Armada, was defeated twice in his attempts to take San Juan and that he died of dysentery while attacking the island?
- ... that the English settlers who established Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in America, first stopped in Puerto Rico for provisions before heading towards Virginia? Yes, from April 5-10, 1607 the ships Godspeed, Susan Constant and Discovery made stops in Vieques, southern Puerto Rico, and Mona and Monito Islands on their way to Virginia.
- ... that on February 17, 1797, the Spanish-appointed governor of Puerto Rico, Brigadier Ramón de Castro believed that the local residents and foreigners of English and Irish descent supported the anti-Spanish military campaign and ordered to place them under surveillance, plus that many were given eight days to leave the island and those who did not leave were imprisoned? Many of the people in Puerto Rico, among them Treasury official Felipe Antonio Mejía, were outraged at Castro's actions and came to the defense of the Irish. See: Irish immigration to Puerto Rico
- ... that in 1821, Marcos Xiorro, a bozal slave, planned and conspired to lead a slave revolt against the sugar plantation owners and the Spanish Colonial government in Puerto Rico?
The following are images from various Puerto Rico-related articles on Wikipedia.
Flag flown by Fidel Vélez and his men during the "Intentona de Yauco" revolt.
The first Supreme Court of Puerto Rico, established in 1900 CE.
Hurricanes Irma and Maria sharply reduced the availability of electricity throughout the island
El Imparcial headline: "Aviation (US) bombs Utuado" during Nationalist revolts.
Picture by journalist Carlos Torres Morales of the Ponce massacre, March 21, 1937.
Sugar cane workers resting at the noon hour, Rio Piedras. Photograph by Jack Delano, a photographer for the Farm Security Administration. Ca. 1941.
US and Puerto Rico flags on a building in Puerto Rico
Royal Decree of Graces, 1815, which allowed foreigners to enter Puerto Rico.
The original Lares revolutionary flag. The first "Puerto Rican Flag" used in the unsuccessful Grito de Lares (Lares Uprising).
"El desastre es la colonia" (the disaster is the colony), words seen on light meter six months after Hurricane Maria
The 45-star flag, used by the United States during the invasion of Puerto Rico, was also the official flag of Puerto Rico from 1899 to 1908.
Four men playing dominoes in San Juan, Puerto Rico
Map of the departments of Puerto Rico during Spanish provincial times (1886).
An 1899, caricature by Louis Dalrymple (1866-1905), showing Uncle Sam harshly lecturing four black children labelled Philippines, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and Cuba
'La escuela del Maestro Cordero' by Puerto Rican artist Francisco Oller.
Raising the US Flag over San Juan, October 18, 1898.
Selected quote -
||If you want to sell your vote, go ahead; it's a free country. But be sure you get something for it... You can't get both justice and the two dollars.
|-- Luis Muñoz Marín, first elected Governor of Puerto Rico, commenting on Puerto Rican jíbaros accepting $2 bribes for their votes, quoted by TIME Magazine on March 31, 1941.
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How you can help
- ^ Aimery Caron. The First West African on St. Croix? University of the Virgin Islands, Retrieved May 9, 2008
- ^ African Aspects of the Puerto Rican Personality, Retrieved July 20, 2007
- ^ Irish Indentured Servants, Papists and Colonists in Spanish Colonial Puerto Rico 2, ca. 1650-1800, Retrieved November 29, 2008
- ^ "Slave revolts in Puerto Rico: conspiracies and uprisings, 1795-1873"; by: Guillermo A. Baralt; Publisher Markus Wiener Publishers; ISBN 1558764631, 9781558764637