Potiphar (Hebrew: , romanized: Pfar, lit. 'he whom Ra has given'), also known as Aziz in Islam, is a figure in the Hebrew Bible and the Quran. Potiphar (Hebrew: ) is the shortened form of ? "Potiphera" from Late Egyptian p?-dj-p?-r? "he whom Ra has given." This is analogous to the name "Theodore"="God's gift" in the Western world.
Potiphar is the captain of Pharaoh's guard who is said to have purchased Joseph as a slave and, impressed by his intelligence, makes him the master of his household. Unfortunately, Potiphar's wife, who was known for her infidelities, took a liking to Joseph, and attempted to seduce him. When Joseph refused her advances, and ran off, she retaliated by falsely accusing him of trying to rape her, and Potiphar had Joseph imprisoned. According to G.J. Wenham (IVP New Bible Commentary), execution was normal in rape cases, and so the story implies that Potiphar had doubts about his wife's account.
What happened to Potiphar after that is unclear; some sources identify him as Potipherah, an Egyptian priest whose daughter, Asenath, marries Joseph. The false accusation by Potiphar's wife plays an important role in Joseph's narrative, because had he not been imprisoned, he would not have met the fellow prisoner who introduced him to Pharaoh.
The medieval Sefer HaYashar, a commentary on the Torah, gives Potiphar's wife's name as Zuleikha, as do many Islamic traditions - thus the Persian poem called Yusuf and Zulaikha from Jami's Haft Awrang ("Seven thrones").
The story became a very common subject in Western art during the Renaissance and Baroque periods, usually depicting the moment when Joseph tears himself away from the bed containing a more-or-less naked figure of Potiphar's wife. Persian miniatures often illustrate Yusuf and Zulaikha in Jami's Haft Awrang ("Seven thrones").
It is difficult to tie Potiphar or Joseph accurately to a particular pharaoh or time period. According to the Jewish calendar, Joseph was purchased in the year 2216, which is 1544 BC, at the end of the Second Intermediate Period or very beginning of the New Kingdom. The Torah in which the story appears (see also the Bible and the Quran), was the earliest written of the three: c. 600 BC during the Babylonian Exile. According to the documentary hypothesis, the story of Potiphar and his wife is credited to the Yahwist source, and stands in the same place that the stories of the butler and the baker and Pharaoh's dreams stand in the Elohist text.
The Book of Abraham, included in the Pearl of Great Price, one of the standard works of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) and by churches of the Latter Day Saint movement, refers to a "Potiphar`s Hill" in Egypt (Abraham 1:10, 20).
The story is first related in Quran 12:21-35: An Egyptian purchases Joseph and proposes to adopt him. The Egyptian's wife endeavours to seduce Joseph but he was preserved from her enticements. She accuses Joseph of an attempt to dishonour her. The rent in his garment testifies Joseph's innocence. Azeez believes Joseph and condemns his wife. The sin of Azeez's wife becomes known in the city (Q12:30). The wives of other noblemen, seeing Joseph's beauty, call him an angel. Azeez's wife declares her purpose to imprison Joseph unless he yield to her solicitations. Joseph seeks protection from God who hears his prayer and turns aside their snares but Joseph is imprisoned notwithstanding his innocence.
from the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle
Joseph and Potiphar's Wife by Ludovico Cigoli
Guercino, Joseph and Potiphar's Wife, 1649
Joseph and Potiphar's Wife by Bartolomé Esteban Perez Murillo
Joseph and Potiphar's Wife by Jean-Baptiste Nattier
Joseph and Potiphar's Wife by Rembrandt, 1634