Prefectures of Japan
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Prefectures of Japan
Regions and Prefectures of Japan 2.svg
CategoryFirst level administrative division of a unitary state
Number47 Prefectures
Populations560,517 (Tottori) - 13,843,403 (T?ky?)
Areas1,861.7 km2 (718.8 sq mi) (Kagawa) - 83,453.6 km2 (32,221.6 sq mi) (Hokkaido)

Japan is divided into 47 prefectures (?, tod?fuken), which rank immediately below the national government and form the country's first level of jurisdiction and administrative division. They include 43 prefectures proper (?, ken) two urban prefectures (?, fu: Osaka and Kyoto), one "circuit" or "territory" (?, d?: Hokkaido) and one metropolis (?, to: Tokyo). In 1868, the Meiji Fuhanken sanchisei administration created the first prefectures (urban -fu and rural -ken) to replace the urban and rural administrators (bugy?, daikan, etc.) in the parts of the country previously controlled directly by the shogunate and a few territories of rebels/shogunate loyalists who had not submitted to the new government such as Aizu/Wakamatsu. In 1871, all remaining feudal domains (han) were also transformed into prefectures, so that prefectures subdivided the whole country. In several waves of territorial consolidation, today's 47 prefectures were formed by the turn of the century. In many instances, these are contiguous with the ancient ritsury? provinces of Japan.[1]

Each prefecture's chief executive is a directly elected governor (, chiji). Ordinances and budgets are enacted by a unicameral assembly (, gikai) whose members are elected for four-year terms.

Under a set of 1888-1890 laws on local government[2] until the 1920s, each prefecture (then only 3 -fu and 42 -ken; Hokkai-d? and Okinawa-ken were subject to different laws until the 20th century) was subdivided into cities (?, shi) and districts (?, gun) and each district into towns (?, ch?/machi) and villages (?, son/mura). Hokkaid? has 14 subprefectures that act as General Subprefectural Bureaus (, s?g?-shink?-kyoku) and Subprefectural Bureaus (, shink?-kyoku) of the prefecture. Some other prefectures also have branch offices that carry out prefectural administrative functions outside the capital. Tokyo, the capital of Japan, is a merged city-prefecture; a metropolis, it has features of both cities and prefectures.


The West's use of "prefecture" to label these Japanese regions stems from 16th-century Portuguese explorers' and traders' use of "prefeitura" to describe the fiefdoms they encountered there.[] Its original sense in Portuguese, however, was closer to "municipality" than "province". Today, in turn, Japan uses its word ken (?), meaning "prefecture", to identify Portuguese districts while in Brazil the word "Prefeitura" is used to refer to a city hall.

Those fiefs were headed by a local warlord or family. Though the fiefs have long since been dismantled, merged, and reorganized multiple times, and been granted legislative governance and oversight, the rough translation stuck.

The Meiji government established the current system in July 1871 with the abolition of the han system and establishment of the prefecture system (?, haihan-chiken). Although there were initially over 300 prefectures, many of them being former han territories, this number was reduced to 72 in the latter part of 1871, and 47 in 1888. The Local Autonomy Law of 1947 gave more political power to prefectures, and installed prefectural governors and parliaments.

In 2003, Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi proposed that the government consolidate the current prefectures into about 10 regional states (so-called doshusei). The plan called for each region to have greater autonomy than existing prefectures. This process would reduce the number of subprefecture administrative regions and cut administrative costs.[3] The Japanese government also considered a plan to merge several groups of prefectures, creating a subnational administrative division system consisting of between nine and 13 states, and giving these states more local autonomy than the prefectures currently enjoy.[4] As of August 2012, this plan was abandoned.


Japan is a unitary state. The central government delegates many functions (such as education and the police force) to the prefectures and municipalities, but retains the overall right to control them. Although local government expenditure accounts for 70 percent of overall government expenditure, the central government controls local budgets, tax rates, and borrowing.[5]

Prefectural government functions include the organization of the prefectural police force, the supervision of schools and the maintenance of prefectural schools (mainly high schools), prefectural hospitals, prefectural roads, the supervision of prefectural waterways and regional urban planning. Their responsibilities include tasks delegated to them by the national government such as maintaining most ordinary national roads (except in designated major cities), and prefectures coordinate and support their municipalities in their functions. De facto, prefectures as well as municipalities have often been less autonomous than the formal extent of the local autonomy law suggests, because

  • most of them depend heavily on central government funding - a dependency recently further exacerbated in many regions by the demographic transition which hits rural areas harder/earlier as cities can offset it partly through migration from the countryside, and
  • in many policy areas, the basic framework is set tightly by national laws, and prefectures and municipalities are only autonomous within that framework.

Types of prefecture

Historically, during the Edo period, the Tokugawa shogunate established bugy?-ruled zones () around the nine largest cities in Japan, and 302 township-ruled zones () elsewhere. When the Meiji government began to create the prefectural system in 1868, the nine bugy?-ruled zones became fu (?), while the township-ruled zones and the rest of the bugyo-ruled zones became ken (?). Later, in 1871, the government designated Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyoto as fu, and relegated the other fu to the status of ken. During World War II, in 1943, Tokyo became a to, a new type of pseudo-prefecture.

Despite the differences in terminology, there is little functional difference between the four types of local governments. The subnational governments are sometimes collectively referred to as tod?fuken (?, [todo:?ke?]) in Japanese, which is a combination of the four terms.


Osaka and Kyoto Prefectures are referred to as fu (?, pronounced [] when a separate word but [] when part of the full name of a prefecture, e.g. [k?o?:to] and [] become [k?o:to]). The Classical Chinese character from which this is derived implies a core urban zone of national importance. Before World War II, different laws applied to fu and ken, but this distinction was abolished after the war, and the two types of prefecture are now functionally the same.


43 of the 47 prefectures are referred to as ken (?, pronounced [ke] when a separate word but [?ke?] when part of the full name of a prefecture, e.g. [a?it?i] and [ke] become [ait?ike?]). The Classical Chinese character from which this is derived carries a rural or provincial connotation, and an analogous character is used to refer to the counties of China, counties of Taiwan and districts of Vietnam.


Hokkaid? is referred to as a d? (?, [do?:]) or circuit. This term was originally used to refer to Japanese regions consisting of several provinces (e.g. the T?kaid? east-coast region, and Saikaido west-coast region). This was also a historical usage of the character in China. (In Korea, this historical usage is still used today and was kept during the period of Japanese rule.)

Hokkai-d? (, [hokka?ido:]), the only remaining d? today, was not one of the original seven d? (it was known as Ezo in the pre-modern era). Its current name is believed to originate from Matsuura Takeshiro, an early Japanese explorer of the island. Since Hokkaid? did not fit into the existing d? classifications, a new d? was created to cover it.

The Meiji government originally classified Hokkaid? as a "Settlement Envoyship" (, kaitakushi), and later divided the island into three prefectures (Sapporo, Hakodate, and Nemuro). These were consolidated into a single Hokkaido Department (?, Hokkaido-ch?) in 1886, at prefectural level but organized more along the lines of a territory. In 1947, the department was dissolved, and Hokkaid? became a full-fledged prefecture. The -ken suffix was never added to its name, so the -d? suffix came to be understood to mean "prefecture".

When Hokkaid? was incorporated, transportation on the island was still underdeveloped, so the prefecture was split into several "subprefectures" (, shich?) that could fulfill administrative duties of the prefectural government and keep tight control over the developing island. These subprefectures still exist today, although they have much less power than they possessed before and during World War II. They now exist primarily to handle paperwork and other bureaucratic functions.

"Hokkaid? Prefecture" is, technically speaking, a redundant term because d? itself indicates a prefecture, although it is occasionally used to differentiate the government from the island itself. The prefecture's government calls itself the "Hokkaid? Government" rather than the "Hokkaid? Prefectural Government".


Tokyo is referred to as to (?, [to?]), which is often translated as "metropolis". The Japanese government translates T?ky?-to (, [to:k?o?:to]) as "Tokyo Metropolis" in almost all cases, and the government is officially called the "Tokyo Metropolitan Government".

Following the capitulation of shogunate Edo in 1868, T?ky?-fu (an urban prefecture like Kyoto and Osaka) was set up and encompassed the former city area of Edo under the Fuhanken sanchisei. After the abolition of the han system in the first wave of prefectural mergers in 1871/72, several surrounding areas (parts of Urawa, Kosuge, Shinagawa and Hikone prefectures) were merged into Tokyo, and under the system of (numbered) "large districts and small districts" (daiku-sh?ku), it was subdivided into eleven large districts further subdivided into 103 small districts, six of the large districts (97 small districts) covered the former city area of Edo.[6] When the ancient ritsury? districts were reactivated as administrative units in 1878, Tokyo was subdivided into 15 [urban] districts (-ku) and initially six [rural] districts (-gun; nine after the Tama transfer from Kanagawa in 1893, eight after the merger of East Tama and South Toshima into Toyotama in 1896). Both urban and rural districts, like everywhere in the country, were further subdivided into urban units/towns/neighbourhoods (-ch?/-machi) and rural units/villages (-mura/-son). The yet unincorporated communities on the Izu (previously part of Shizuoka) and Ogasawara (previously directly Home Ministry-administrated) island groups became also part of Tokyo in the 19th century. When the modern municipalities - [district-independent] cities and [rural] districts containing towns and villages - were introduced under the Yamagata-Mosse laws on local government and the simultaneous Great Meiji merger was performed in 1889, the 15 -ku became wards of Tokyo City, initially Tokyo's only independent city (-shi), the six rural districts of Tokyo were consolidated in 85 towns and villages.[7] In 1893, the three Tama districts and their 91 towns and villages became part of Tokyo. As Tokyo city's suburbs grew rapidly in the early 20th century, many towns and villages in Tokyo were merged or promoted over the years. In 1932, five complete districts with their 82 towns and villages were merged into Tokyo City and organised in 20 new wards. Also, by 1940, there were two more cities in Tokyo: Hachi?ji City and Tachikawa City.

In 1943, Tokyo City was abolished, T?ky?-fu became T?ky?-to, and Tokyo-shi's 35 wards remained Tokyo-to's 35 wards, but submunicipal authorities of Tokyo-shi's wards which previously fell directly under the municipality, with the municipality now abolished, fell directly under prefectural or now "Metropolitan" authority. All other cities, towns and villages in Tokyo-fu stayed cities, towns and villages in Tokyo-to. The reorganisation's aim was to consolidate the administration of the area around the capital by eliminating the extra level of authority in Tokyo. Also, the governor was no longer called chiji, but ch?kan (~"head/chief [usually: of a central government agency]") as in Hokkaid?). The central government wanted to have greater control over all local governments due to Japan's deteriorating position in World War II - for example, all mayors in the country became appointive as in the Meiji era - and over Tokyo in particular, due to the possibility of emergency in the metropolis.

After the war, Japan was forced to decentralise Tokyo again, following the general terms of democratisation outlined in the Potsdam Declaration. Many of Tokyo's special governmental characteristics disappeared during this time, and the wards took on an increasingly municipal status in the decades following the surrender. Administratively, today's special wards are almost indistinguishable from other municipalities.

The postwar reforms also changed the map of Tokyo significantly: In 1947, the 35 wards were reorganised into the 23 special wards, because many of its citizens had either died during the war, left the city, or been drafted and did not return.[] In the occupation reforms, special wards, each with their own elected assemblies (kugikai) and mayors (kuch?), were intended to be equal to other municipalities even if some restrictions still applied. (For example, there was during the occupation a dedicated municipal police agency for the 23 special wards/former Tokyo City, yet the special wards public safety commission was not named by the special ward governments, but by the government of the whole "Metropolis". In 1954, independent municipal police forces were abolished generally in the whole country, and the prefectural/"Metropolitan" police of Tokyo is again responsible for the whole prefecture/"Metropolis" and like all prefectural police forces controlled by the prefectural/"Metropolitan" public safety commission whose members are appointed by the prefectural/"Metropolitan" governor and assembly.) But, as part of the "reverse course" of the 1950s some of these new rights were removed, the most obvious measure being the denial of directly elected mayors. Some of these restrictions were removed again over the decades. But it was not until the year 2000 that the special wards were fully recognised as municipal-level entities.

Independently from these steps, as Tokyo's urban growth again took up pace during the postwar economic miracle and most of the main island part of Tokyo "Metropolis" became increasingly core part of the Tokyo metropolitan area, many of the other municipalities in Tokyo have transferred some of their authority to the Metropolitan government. For example, the Tokyo Fire Department which was only responsible for the 23 special wards until 1960 has until today taken over the municipal fire departments in almost all of Tokyo. A joint governmental structure for the whole Tokyo metropolitan area (and not only the western suburbs of the special wards which are part of the Tokyo prefecture/Metropolis") as advocated by some politicians such as former Kanagawa governor Shigefumi Matsuzawa[8] has not been established (see also D?sh?sei). Existing cross-prefectural fora of cooperation between local governments in the Tokyo metropolitan area are the Kant? regional governors' association (Kant? chih? chijikai)[9][10] and the "Shutoken summit" (formally "conference of chief executives of nine prefectures and cities", 9 to-ken-shi shun? kaigi).[11] But, these are not themselves local public entities under the local autonomy law and national or local government functions cannot be directly transferred to them, unlike the "Union of Kansai governments" (Kansai k?iki-reng?)[12] which has been established by several prefectural governments in the Kansai region.

There are some differences in terminology between Tokyo and other prefectures: police and fire departments are called ch? (?) instead of honbu (), for instance. But the only functional difference between T?ky?-to and other prefectures is that Tokyo administers wards as well as cities. Today, since the special wards have almost the same degree of independence as Japanese cities, the difference in administration between Tokyo and other prefectures is fairly minor.

In Osaka, several prominent politicians led by T?ru Hashimoto, then mayor of Osaka City and former governor of Osaka Prefecture, proposed an Osaka Metropolis plan, under which Osaka City, and possibly other neighboring cities, would be replaced by special wards similar to Tokyo's. The plan was narrowly defeated in a 2015 referendum, though a second referendum [ja] is currently planned for autumn 2020.[needs update?]

Lists of prefectures

Prefectures of Japan with coloured regions

The different systems of parsing frame the ways in which Japanese prefectures are perceived:

By Japanese ISO

The prefectures are also often grouped into eight regions (Chih?). Those regions are not formally specified, they do not have elected officials, nor are they corporate bodies. But the practice of ordering prefectures based on their geographic region is traditional.[1] This ordering is mirrored in Japan's International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coding.[13] From north to south (numbering in ISO 3166-2:JP order), the prefectures of Japan and their commonly associated regions are:

Hokkaid? T?hoku Kant? Ch?bu Kansai Ch?goku Shikoku Ky?sh?

1. Hokkaid?

2. Aomori
3. Iwate
4. Miyagi
5. Akita
6. Yamagata
7. Fukushima

8. Ibaraki
9. Tochigi
10. Gunma
11. Saitama
12. Chiba
13. T?ky?
14. Kanagawa

15. Niigata
16. Toyama
17. Ishikawa
18. Fukui
19. Yamanashi
20. Nagano
21. Gifu
22. Shizuoka
23. Aichi

24. Mie
25. Shiga
26. Ky?to
27. ?saka
28. Hy?go
29. Nara
30. Wakayama

31. Tottori
32. Shimane
33. Okayama
34. Hiroshima
35. Yamaguchi

36. Tokushima
37. Kagawa
38. Ehime
39. K?chi

40. Fukuoka
41. Saga
42. Nagasaki
43. Kumamoto
44. ?ita
45. Miyazaki
46. Kagoshima
47. Okinawa

By English name

The default alphabetic order in this sortable table can be altered to mirror the traditional Japanese regions and ISO parsing.
Prefecture Capital Region Major Island Population¹ Area²[14] Density³ Distr. ISO
 Aichi Nagoya ? Ch?bu Honsh? 7,484,094 5,173.07 1,446.9 7 54 JP-23 052
 Akita Akita T?hoku Honsh? 1,022,839 11,637.52 87.9 6 25 JP-05 018
 Aomori Aomori T?hoku Honsh? 1,308,649 9,645.64 135.7 8 40 JP-02 017
 Chiba Chiba Kant? Honsh? 6,224,027 5,157.57 1,206.8 6 54 JP-12 043
 Ehime Matsuyama Shikoku Shikoku 1,385,840 5,676.19 244.2 7 20 JP-38 089
 Fukui Fukui Ch?bu Honsh? 787,099 4,190.52 187.8 7 17 JP-18 077
 Fukuoka Fukuoka Ky?sh? Ky?sh? 5,102,871 4,986.51 1,023.4 12 60 JP-40 092
 Fukushima Fukushima T?hoku Honsh? 1,913,606 13,784.14 138.8 13 59 JP-07 024
 Gifu Gifu Ch?bu Honsh? 2,032,533 10,621.29 191.4 9 42 JP-21 058
 Gunma Maebashi Kant? Honsh? 1,973,476 6,362.28 310.2 7 35 JP-10 027
 Hiroshima Hiroshima Ch?goku Honsh? 2,844,963 8,479.65 335.5 5 23 JP-34 082
 Hokkaido Sapporo Hokkaid? Hokkaid? 5,383,579 83,424.44 68.6 66 180 JP-01 011-016
 Hy?go K?be Kansai Honsh? 5,536,989 8,401.02 659.1 8 41 JP-28 073
 Ibaraki Mito Kant? Honsh? 2,917,857 6,097.39 478.6 7 44 JP-08 029
 Ishikawa Kanazawa Ch?bu Honsh? 1,154,343 4,186.21 275.8 5 19 JP-17 076
 Iwate Morioka T?hoku Honsh? 1,279,814 15,275.01 83.8 10 33 JP-03 019
 Kagawa Takamatsu Shikoku Shikoku 976,756 1,876.78 520.5 5 17 JP-37 087
 Kagoshima ? Kagoshima ? Ky?sh? Ky?sh? 1,648,752 9,187.06 179.4 8 43 JP-46 099
 Kanagawa ? Yokohama Kant? Honsh? 9,127,323 2,416.11 3,778.2 6 33 JP-14 045
 K?chi KochiK?chi Shikoku Shikoku 728,461 7,103.63 102.5 6 34 JP-39 088
 Kumamoto Kumamoto Ky?sh? Ky?sh? 1,786,969 7,409.46 241.2 9 45 JP-43 096
 Kyoto Kyoto Kansai Honsh? 2,610,140 4,612.20 565.9 6 26 JP-26 074
 Mie Tsu Kansai Honsh? 1,815,827 5,774.49 314.5 7 29 JP-24 059
 Miyagi Sendai T?hoku Honsh? 2,334,215 7,282.29 320.5 10 35 JP-04 022
 Miyazaki Miyazaki Ky?sh? Ky?sh? 1,104,377 7,735.22 142.8 6 26 JP-45 098
 Nagano Nagano Ch?bu Honsh? 2,099,759 13,561.56 154.8 14 77 JP-20 026
 Nagasaki Nagasaki Ky?sh? Ky?sh? 1,377,780 4,130.98 333.4 4 21 JP-42 095
 Nara Nara Kansai Honsh? 1,365,008 3,690.94 369.8 7 39 JP-29 074
 Niigata Niigata Ch?bu Honsh? 2,305,098 12,583.96 183.2 9 30 JP-15 025
 ?ita Oita?ita Ky?sh? Ky?sh? 1,166,729 6,340.76 184 3 18 JP-44 097
 Okayama Okayama Ch?goku Honsh? 1,922,181 7,114.33 270.2 10 27 JP-33 086
 Okinawa Naha Ky?sh? Ry?ky? Islands 1,434,138 2,282.59 628.7 5 41 JP-47 098
 Osaka ?saka Kansai Honsh? 8,838,908 1,905.32 4,639.9 5 43 JP-27 06x
 Saga Saga Ky?sh? Ky?sh? 833,245 2,440.69 341.4 6 20 JP-41 095
 Saitama Saitama Kant? Honsh? 7,261,271 3,797.75 1,912 8 63 JP-11 048
 Shiga ?tsu Kansai Honsh? 1,413,184 4,017.38 351.8 3 19 JP-25 077
 Shimane Matsue Ch?goku Honsh? 694,188 6,707.89 103.5 5 19 JP-32 085
 Shizuoka Shizuoka Ch?bu Honsh? 3,701,181 7,777.35 475.8 5 35 JP-22 054
 Tochigi Utsunomiya ? Kant? Honsh? 1,974,671 6,408.09 308.2 5 26 JP-09 028
 Tokushima Tokushima Shikoku Shikoku 756,063 4,146.75 182.3 8 24 JP-36 088
 Tokyo Shinjuku Kant? Honsh? 13,513,734 2,194.03 6,168.1 1 39 JP-13 03x
 Tottori Tottori Ch?goku Honsh? 573,648 3,507.14 163.6 5 19 JP-31 085
 Toyama Toyama Ch?bu Honsh? 1,066,883 4,247.58 251.2 2 15 JP-16 076
 Wakayama ? Wakayama ? Kansai Honsh? 963,850 4,724.65 204 6 30 JP-30 075
 Yamagata Yamagata T?hoku Honsh? 1,122,957 9,323.15 120.4 8 35 JP-06 023
 Yamaguchi Yamaguchi Ch?goku Honsh? 1,405,007 6,112.54 229.9 4 19 JP-35 083
 Yamanashi K?fu Ch?bu Honsh? 835,165 4,465.27 187 5 27 JP-19 055

Notes: ¹ as of 2015; ² km2; ³ per km2

Former prefectures



Prefecture Japanese Year of
Kanazawa 1869 Renamed as Ishikawa
Sendai 1871 Renamed as Miyagi
Morioka 1872 Renamed as Iwate
Nagoya ? 1872 Renamed as Aichi
Nukata 1872 Merged into Aichi
Nanao 1872 Merged into Ishikawa and Shinkawa
Iruma 1873 Merged into Kumagaya and Kanagawa
Inba 1873 Merged into Chiba
Kisarazu ? 1873 Merged into Chiba
Utsunomiya ? 1873 Merged into Tochigi
Asuwa 1873 Merged into Tsuruga
Kashiwazaki 1873 Merged into Niigata
Ichinoseki->Mizusawa->Iwai ->-> 1875 Merged into Iwate and Miyagi
Okitama 1875 Merged into Yamagata
Niihari 1875 Merged into Ibaraki and Chiba
Sakata->Tsuruoka -> 1876 Merged into Yamagata
Taira->Iwasaki -> 1876 Merged into Fukushima and Miyagi
Wakamatsu 1876 Merged into Fukushima
Chikuma 1876 Merged into Nagano and Gifu
Tsuruga 1876 Merged into Ishikawa and Shiga
Niikawa 1876 Merged into Ishikawa
Sakai 1881 Merged into Osaka
Ashigara 1876 Merged into Kanagawa and Shizuoka
Kumagaya 1876 Merged into Gunma and Saitama
Aikawa 1876 Merged into Niigata
Hamamatsu 1876 Merged into Shizuoka
Hakodate 1886 Merged into Hokkaid?
Sapporo 1886 Merged into Hokkaid?
Nemuro 1886 Merged into Hokkaid?
Tokyo 1943 Reorganized as Tokyo Metropolis ()

Lost after World War II

Here are some territories that were lost after World War II. This doesn't include all the territories of the Empire of Japan such as Manchukuo.

See also



  1. ^ a b Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric, 2002: "Provinces and prefectures" in Japan encyclopedia, p. 780.
  2. ^ prefectural code [ja] (, fukensei), district code [ja] (, gunsei), city code [ja] (, shisei), town and village code [ja] (, ch?sonsei)
  3. ^ Mabuchi, Masaru, "Municipal Amalgamation in Japan", World Bank, 2001.
  4. ^ "Doshusei Regional System" Archived 2006-09-26 at the Wayback Machine National Association for Research Advancement.
  5. ^ Mochida, "Local Government Organization and Finance: Japan", in Shah, Anwar (2006). Local Governance in Industrial Countries. World Bank.
  6. ^ National Archives of Japan:
  7. ^ Tokyo Metropolitan Archives: 35~1523~23?
  8. ^ The Japan Times, December 4, 2003: Few warm to greater-Tokyo assembly idea. Kanagawa chief pushes new administrative body to deal with regional issues
  9. ^ Kanagawa prefectural government: ?
  10. ^ Saitama prefectural government: ?
  11. ^ "".
  12. ^ "-".
  13. ^ See ISO 3166
  14. ^ " (10?1) [Areas of prefectures, cities, towns and villages (October 1)]" (PDF). Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism. October 1, 2020. p. 5. Retrieved 2021.
  15. ^ Post-war administrative division changes are not reflected in this table. The capital of the former Japanese administration is not necessarily the capital of the present-day equivalent.
  16. ^ Administered by the United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands. Returned to Japan in 1972
  17. ^ Due to the division of Korea, K?gen (Kangwon/Gangwon), Keiki (Gyeonggi) and K?kai (Hwanghae) are divided between North Korea and South Korea. While each Korea has its own Kangwon/Gangwon Province, the North Korean portion of Gyeonggi and the South Korean portion of Hwanghae have been absorbed into other provinces.
  18. ^ Shunsen (Chuncheon) is in present-day South Korea.
  19. ^ Leased from Qing dynasty, subsequently Republic of China and Manchukuo.
  20. ^ After World War II, the Soviet Union occupied the territory. The Soviet Union turned it over to the People's Republic of China in 1955.
  21. ^ League of Nations mandate
  22. ^ Then administered by the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

External links

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