|President of the Senate
Presidente del Senado
|Senate of Spain|
|Style||The Most Excellent|
|Seat||Palacio del Senado,|
|Term length||The duration of the Senate's meeting; normally four years with no limit.|
|Constituting instrument||Royal Statue (original)|
Spanish Constitution (current)
|Formation||April 16, 1834|
|First holder||The Duke of Bailén|
July 17, 1834
|Deputy||Vice Presidents of the Senate|
|Salary||EUR177,000 annually (2017)|
The President of the Senate of Spain is the speaker of the Spanish Senate, the upper house of Spain's Cortes Generales. It is the fourth authority of the country after the Monarch (Head of State), the Prime Minister (Head of Government) and the President of the Congress of Deputies (Speaker of the Lower House). He or she is elected among and by the incumbent senators and when unable to exercise power, he or she is replaced by the Vice Presidents of the Senate.
Although it shares the representation of the Cortes Generales with the President of the Congress, the constitutional preponderance granted to the latter due to the asymmetry of the Spanish bicameralism, allows the President of the Congress to assume the leadership of the Cortes, leaving the President of the Senate in background.
The functions of the President of the Senate of Spain are:
The President of the Senate is elected during the constitutive session which follows the General Elections of the Kingdom or during the next session following the resignation of the incumbent President.
The election of the President needs an absolute majority in the House. If an absolute majority is not reached in the first vote, a second vote is held immediately after the announcement of the results by the Acting President of the House (the elder senator). The second vote needs only a simple majority (i.e., more "yes" than "no" votes). Each senator is free to write the name he wants on his ballot, even if those senators of the majority group vote for a candidate predefined by their party.
The President's term ends in case of death, resignation, loss of the status of senator or after the dissolution of the Senate, prior to a new general election.
According to the Standing Rules of the Senate, there are two Vice Presidents of the Senate elected in the constitutive session after the election of the President (Part I § 5). The Vice Presidents do not need an absolute majority, they are elected in a unique voting and the two most voted candidates are elected (Part I § 5).
The only task that the standing orders entrust to the Vice Presidents is that to replace the President in cases of vacancy, absence or impossibility to exercise (Part I § 40).
Since its creation in 1834, 42 people have served as president in 61 presidencies. The first president was the Duke of Bailé who served for 60 days before resigning. The shortest presidency was that of the Marquess of Miraflores which was president briefly between August 3 and August 12, 1836 and the longest was that of Javier Rojo serving 7 years, 8 months and 10 days. Many presidents have served in non-consecutive terms in office; The Marquess of Miraflores and Eugenio Montero Ríos served in five non-consecutives terms. The first woman who have served as president was Esperanza Aguirre, between 1999 and 2002. The current and 61st President is Pilar Llop.