Prince Edward County, Virginia
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Prince Edward County, Virginia

Prince Edward County
Ruffner Hall at Longwood University in Farmville.
Official seal of Prince Edward County
Map of Virginia highlighting Prince Edward County
Location within the U.S. state of Virginia
Map of the United States highlighting Virginia
Virginia's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 37°13?N 78°26?W / 37.22°N 78.44°W / 37.22; -78.44
State Virginia
Named forPrince Edward, Duke of York and Albany
Largest townFarmville
 o Total354 sq mi (920 km2)
 o Land350 sq mi (900 km2)
 o Water3.9 sq mi (10 km2)  1.1%
 o Total23,368
 o Estimate 
 o Density66/sq mi (25/km2)
Time zoneUTC-5 (Eastern)
 o Summer (DST)UTC-4 (EDT)
Congressional district5th

Prince Edward County is located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,368.[2] Its county seat is Farmville.[3]


Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, for whom the county was named

Formation and county seats

Prince Edward County, Virginia was formed in the Virginia Colony in 1754 from Amelia County. It was named for Prince Edward, second son of Frederick, Prince of Wales and younger brother of George III of the United Kingdom.

The original county seat housed the courthouse and was called Prince Edward Courthouse; it is now the village of Worsham.

Near the headwaters of the Appomattox River, the Town of Farmville was formed in 1798, and was incorporated in 1912. The county seat was moved from Worsham to Farmville in 1871.


In the 1850s, the Southside Railroad between Petersburg and Lynchburg was built through Farmville between Burkeville and Pamplin City. The route, which was subsidized by a contribution from Farmville, required an expensive crossing of the Appomattox River slightly downstream which became known as the High Bridge.

The Southside Railroad was heavily damaged during the American Civil War. The High Bridge played a key role during Confederate General Robert E. Lee's final retreat from Petersburg to Appomattox Courthouse, where the surrender to Union General Ulysses S. Grant took place in April 1865.

After the Civil War, under the leadership of former Confederate General William "Billy" Mahone, the Southside Railroad was rebuilt. In 1870, it was combined with the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad and the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad to form Mahone's Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio Railroad (AM&O), which extended 400 miles across the southern tier of Virginia from Norfolk on Hampton Roads to Bristol. After the Financial Panic of 1873, the AM&O fell into default on its debt; it was purchased in the early 1880s by new owners who renamed it the Norfolk and Western (N&W). In 1982, it became part of the current Norfolk Southern Railway system.

Due to the high cost of maintaining the High Bridge over the Appomattox River, the line through Farmville was downgraded and eventually abandoned, in favor of the Farmville Belt Line, which had been built on a more direct line between Burkeville and Pamplin City, as had originally been envisioned in the planning for the Southside Railroad.

Another railroad formerly served Farmville. In the late 19th century, the narrow gauge Farmville and Powhatan Railroad was built from Farmville through Cumberland, Powhatan, and Chesterfield counties to reach Bermuda Hundred on the navigable portion of the James River near its confluence with the Appomattox River at City Point. It was later renamed the Tidewater and Western Railroad, but was dismantled in the early 20th century.


Prince Edward County is the source of Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, a case incorporated into Brown v. Board of Education, which ultimately resulted in the U.S. Supreme Court decision that racially segregated public schools were unconstitutional. This ultimately led to the desegregation of all U.S. public schools. Among the five cases decided under Brown, Davis was the only one initiated by students, after they walked out in 1951 to protest overcrowding and poor conditions at their segregated school under Jim Crow laws.

The all-black R.R. Moton High School, named after Robert Russa Moton, a noted educator from neighboring Amelia County, did not have a gymnasium, cafeteria, or teachers' restrooms. Due to overcrowding, three plywood buildings had been erected, and some students had to take classes in a school bus parked outside. Teachers and students did not have desks or blackboards. The school's requests for additional funds were denied by the all-white school board. On Monday, April 23, 1951, Barbara Johns, the sixteen-year-old niece of Reverend Vernon Johns, a civil rights activist, led students who staged a walkout protesting the conditions.[4] The NAACP took up their case when the students agreed to petition for an integrated school rather than improved conditions at their black school. This vote passed by one count. Howard University-trained attorneys Spottswood W. Robinson and Oliver Hill filed suit against the county school system on behalf of the students. As in other Southern states, since the turn of the twentieth century black voters in Virginia had been largely disenfranchised, which resulted in their lacking political power.

In Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, a state court rejected the suit, agreeing with defense attorney T. Justin Moore that Virginia was vigorously equalizing conditions in black and white schools. The state verdict was appealed to the U.S. District Court, which ruled for the plaintiffs, a decision the school district and the state appealed. Subsequently, it was one of five cases incorporated into Brown v. Board of Education, the landmark case in which the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954 ruled that segregated public schools were unconstitutional.

Massive Resistance

In 1956, the Virginia General Assembly passed a series of laws (the Stanley Plan) to implement Massive Resistance, a policy promoted by the Byrd Organization led by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, to avoid compliance with the Supreme Court ruling in Brown and its direction to integrate public schools.

The state legislature (overwhelmingly dominated by whites since disfranchisement of African Americans in the state in the early 1900s) created a program of "tuition grants," which could be given to students so they could attend a private school of their choice. In practice, this meant state support of all-white schools that were developed as a way to evade integration of public schools. These newly formed schools became known as the "segregation academies".

As a result of the Brown decision, and changes in Virginia laws, in 1959, the Board of Supervisors for Prince Edward County refused to appropriate any funds at all for the County School Board. It effectively closed all public schools rather than integrate them. The Prince Edward County Public Schools remained closed for five years. While other Virginia and some southern school systems resisted integration, Prince Edward County was the only school district in the country to resort to such extreme measures.

During the interruption in access to Prince Edward County's public schools, white parents established the Prince Edward Foundation. It founded a series of private schools restricted to white children. These schools were supported by the tuition grants from the state and tax credits from the county. Collectively they became known as "Prince Edward Academy", one of Virginia's "segregation academies". Prince Edward Academy operated as the de facto school system and enrolled K-12 students at a number of facilities throughout the county.

From 1959 to 1964, black students in Prince Edward County had to go to school elsewhere or forgo their education altogether. Some got schooling by living with relatives in nearby communities or at makeshift schools the community created in church basements. Others were educated out of state with funds raised by groups such as the Quakers. In the final year (1963-1964), the NAACP-sponsored Prince Edward Free School picked up some of the slack by educating some of the black youth who had been unable to leave the county to attend public schools elsewhere.

In 1963, federal district courts ordered the public schools to open; Prince Edward County appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court. Ruling in Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, the Court unanimously agreed in May 1964 that Prince Edward County's actions violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. At that point, county and state supervisors gave in rather than risk prosecution and prison, ending the era of Massive Resistance in Virginia.[5]

The same summer, following the Griffith ruling, 16 students from Queens College (New York) ventured south to Prince Edward County during their "Student Help Project" Program, a precursor to the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Summer. The students served as teachers to the many African-American children who had been denied an education. These volunteers worked with the students to prepare them to resume classes when schools reopened that fall. The volunteers from Queens College were housed among leading African-American families in the county that summer. They used local churches as school houses during the week. Many of the students involved in the program have since donated their archives to the Queens College Department of Special Collections and Archives.[6]

As a result of Prince Edward County's actions, some students missed part or all of their education for five years. This group has been called the "Lost Generation" of Prince Edward County's youth.

Private education since 1964

Even after the re-opening of the public schools, Prince Edward Academy remained segregated. Many of the segregated academies in Virginia eventually closed; others changed their missions and eliminated discriminatory policies. Some yielded on integration only after the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) revoked the tax-free status of non-profit discriminatory private schools. Prince Edward Academy was one of the latter and lost its tax-exempt status in 1978. In 1986, the school began to accept all students regardless of race or ethnicity. It was renamed the Fuqua School in 1992, in honor of J.B. Fuqua, a wealthy businessman who was born in Farmville and was a strong supporter of the school in its early years. Fuqua remains the only large private school in Prince Edward County, but a few other smaller private schools have been opened in recent decades.

Robert Russa Moton Museum

The former R.R. Moton High School building in Farmville has been recognized as a nationally significant community landmark. In 1998, it was designated a National Historic Landmark. It now houses the Robert Russa Moton Museum, a center for the study of civil rights in education.


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 354 square miles (920 km2), of which 350 square miles (910 km2) is land and 3.9 square miles (10 km2) (1.1%) is water.[7] Most of the county's streams drain into the Appomattox River, a tributary of the James River, but in the southeastern corner of the county, streams drain via the Nottoway River into the Chowan River and thence into Albemarle Sound in North Carolina. The highest point in the county is the top of Leighs Mountain at 714 feet above sea level.[8]

Adjacent counties

Major highways

  • US 15 (Farmville Rd; merges with US 460 to bypass Farmville. US Business 15 goes through the town of Farmville)
  • US 360 (Patrick Henry Hwy)
  • US 460 (Prince Edward Hwy)
  • SR 45 (N. Main St in Farmville)
  • SR 307 (Holly Farms Rd)


As of the census[13] of 2000, there were 19,720 people, 6,561 households, and 4,271 families residing in the county. The population density was 56 people per square mile (22/km2). There were 7,527 housing units at an average density of 21 per square mile (8/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 62.17% White, 35.82% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.55% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, and 0.95% from two or more races. 0.94% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 6,561 households, out of which 29.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.50% were married couples living together, 14.90% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.90% were non-families. 28.90% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.99.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 20.20% under the age of 18, 23.50% from 18 to 24, 22.50% from 25 to 44, 19.60% from 45 to 64, and 14.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 95.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.20 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $31,301, and the median income for a family was $38,509. Males had a median income of $29,487 versus $21,659 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,510.


About 14.6 percent of families and 18.9 percent of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4 percent of those under age 18 and 15.9 percent of those ages 65 and over. Persons below poverty in the year of 2007 were 20.3 percent compared to 9.9 percent of Virginia. Native Americans accounted for 71.8 percent in 2000. There is a relatively large number of children between the ages of 12 and 17. This age group accounts for 27 percent of the poverty.[14]

Unemployment accounted for 10.3 percent in Prince Edward County compared to 7.2 in all of Virginia.[15]


Prince Edward County Public Schools operates the following schools, all located on the same multi-school campus in the Town of Farmville:

Also located within the multi-school campus is the Prince Edward County Career & Technical Education Center, offering a range of specialized courses, such as business law, carpentry, agriculture and automotive technology.

The Fuqua School, member of the Virginia Association of Independent Schools, is the primary K-12 alternative to the public schools for Prince Edward County. It, like each of the county's public schools, is located in Farmville.

The private men's college Hampden-Sydney College is located in Price Edward County.


Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results[16]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2020 46.3% 4,434 51.9% 4,973 1.7% 167
2016 44.9% 4,101 50.2% 4,591 4.9% 451
2012 42.8% 3,952 55.6% 5,132 1.7% 155
2008 44.5% 4,174 54.3% 5,101 1.2% 113
2004 48.8% 3,571 49.6% 3,632 1.5% 113
2000 50.5% 3,214 45.9% 2,922 3.6% 227
1996 44.6% 2,530 47.2% 2,678 8.3% 470
1992 44.8% 2,858 43.5% 2,775 11.8% 750
1988 55.0% 3,147 42.6% 2,434 2.4% 139
1984 56.1% 3,454 42.1% 2,589 1.8% 113
1980 49.6% 2,774 45.6% 2,553 4.8% 271
1976 50.4% 2,734 45.1% 2,448 4.6% 247
1972 66.0% 3,199 32.7% 1,585 1.4% 66
1968 39.8% 1,857 33.6% 1,567 26.6% 1,242
1964 62.6% 2,545 37.2% 1,512 0.2% 7
1960 53.6% 1,721 45.4% 1,459 1.1% 34
1956 31.4% 932 14.7% 437 53.8% 1,596
1952 59.3% 1,359 40.4% 926 0.2% 5
1948 26.7% 459 43.1% 740 30.2% 519
1944 28.5% 425 71.3% 1,063 0.3% 4
1940 21.8% 313 77.4% 1,110 0.8% 12
1936 17.9% 253 81.8% 1,153 0.3% 4
1932 16.4% 196 81.0% 970 2.6% 31
1928 41.4% 494 58.6% 699
1924 16.2% 140 82.7% 714 1.0% 9
1920 19.6% 189 80.2% 774 0.2% 2
1916 13.9% 108 86.1% 668
1912 10.2% 72 83.1% 584 6.7% 47



Census-designated place

Other places

See also

Notable people


  1. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved 2019.
  2. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 24, 2016. Retrieved 2014.
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011.
  4. ^ Both Victors And Victims: Prince Edward County, Virginia, The NAACP, And Brown, Virginia Law Review, accessed September 24, 2011
  5. ^ Saxon, Wolfgang (January 25, 1995). "Albertis S. Harrison Jr., 88, Dies; Led Virginia as Segregation Fell". The New York Times.
  6. ^ [1], Queens College, CUNY
  7. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  8. ^ "Leigh Mountain (variant: Leighs Mountain)". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  9. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014.
  10. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved 2014.
  11. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014.
  12. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014.
  13. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011.
  14. ^ Income and Poverty in Prince Edward County, Virginia Archived February 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "Recovery Tracker". Retrieved 2011.
  16. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Retrieved 2020.
  17. ^ Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896. Marquis Who's Who. 1967.

Further reading

  • Bonastia, Christopher. Southern stalemate: Five years without public education in Prince Edward County, Virginia (U of Chicago Press, 2012).
  • Brookover, Wilbur B. "Education in Prince Edward County, Virginia, 1953-1993." Journal of Negro Education 62.2 (1993): 149-161. online
  • Green, Kristen. Something Must Be Done About Prince Edward County: A Family, a Virginia Town, a Civil Rights Battle. Harper, 2015.
  • Ogline, Jill L. (2007). A Mission to a Mad County: Black Determination, White Resistance and Educational Crisis in Prince Edward County, Virginia. ProQuest. ISBN 978-0-549-17053-2. Retrieved 2012.
  • Peeples, Edward H. "Edward H. Peeples Prince Edward County (Va.) Public Schools Collection". VCU Libraries. Retrieved 2013.
  • Smith, Robert Collins. They Closed Their Schools: Prince Edward County, Virginia, 1951-1964 (U of North Carolina Press, 1965).
  • Stolarick, Kevin M., et al. "Creativity, tourism and economic development in a rural context: The case of Prince Edward County." Journal of Rural and Community Development 5.1 (2011). online
  • Turner, Kara Miles. "Both Victors and Victims: Prince Edward County, Virginia, the NAACP, and" Brown"." Virginia Law Review (2004): 1667-1691. online

External links

Coordinates: 37°13?N 78°26?W / 37.22°N 78.44°W / 37.22; -78.44

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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