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In addition to the vowels, *H, and *r? could function as the syllabic core.
Two palatal series
Proto-Indo-Iranian is hypothesized to have contained two series of stops or affricates in the palatal to postalveolar region. The phonetic nature of this contrast is not clear, and hence they are usually referred to as the primary or first series (*? * *, continuing Proto-Indo-European palatovelar *? *? *) and the second or secondary series (*? *? *, continuing Proto-Indo-European plain and labialized velars, *k, *g, *g? and *k?, *g?, *g, in palatalizing contexts).
The following table shows the most common reflexes of the two series (Proto-Iranian is the hypothetical ancestor to the Iranian languages, including Avestan and Old Persian):
? ([ts]) / ?
j ([dz]) / z
? / ?
Proto-Indo-European is usually hypothesized to have had three to four laryngeal consonants, each of which could occur in either syllabic or non-syllabic positions. In Proto-Indo-Iranian, the laryngeals merged as one phoneme /*H/. Beekes suggests that some instances of this /*H/ survived into Rigvedic Sanskrit and Avestan as unwritten glottal stops as evidenced by metrics.
Like Proto-Indo-European and Vedic Sanskrit (and also Avestan, though it was not written down), Proto-Indo-Iranian had a pitch accent system similar to present-day Japanese, conventionally indicated by an acute accent over the accented vowel.
A fuller list of some of the hypothesized sound changes from Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranian follows:
The Satem shift, consisting of two sets of related changes. The PIE palatals *? *? * are fronted or affricated, eventually resulting in PII *?, *, *, while the PIE labiovelars *k? *g? *g merge with the velars *k *g *g?.
Bartholomae's law: an aspirate immediately followed by a voiceless consonant becomes voiced stop + voiced aspirate. In addition, d? + t > d?d?.
'woven' / 'made of woven material'
The Ruki rule: *s is retracted to *? when immediately following a liquid (*r *r? *l *l?), a high vowel (*i *u), a PIE velar (*? *? * *k *g *g? *k? *g? *g) or the syllabic laryngeal *H?. Its allophone *z likewise becomes *?.
'to like, taste'
'flea, noxious insect'
Before a dental occlusive, *? becomes *? and *? becomes *?. * also becomes *?, with aspiration of the occlusive.