Public Policy
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Public Policy

Public policy is the process by which governments translate their political vision into programmes and actions to deliver 'outcomes -- desired changes in the real world'.[] The 'real world' is constantly changing and this has resulted in the movement towards greater use of evidence in policy design, making and implementation. Rational choice theory, or now more frequently known as evidence-based policy, argues that focusing on scientific evidence, instead of history and culture, should guide public policy making.

Overview

The foundation of public policy is composed of national constitutional laws and regulations. Further substrates include both judicial interpretations and regulations which are generally authorized by legislation. Public policy is considered strong when it solves problems efficiently and effectively, serves and supports governmental institutions and policies, and encourages active citizenship.[1]

In his book 'Advanced Introduction to Public Policy', B. Guy Peters defines public policy as "the set of activities that governments engage in for the purpose of changing their economy and society", effectively saying that public policy is legislation brought in with the aim of benefiting or impacting the electorate in some way. [2] In another definition, author B. Dente in his book 'Understanding Policy Decisions' explains public policy as "a set of actions that affect the solution of a policy problem, i.e. a dissatisfaction regarding a certain need, demand or opportunity for public intervention. Its quality is measured by the capacity to create public value."[3]

Other scholars define public policy as a system of "courses of action, regulatory measures, laws, and funding priorities concerning a given topic promulgated by a governmental entity or its representatives."[4] Public policy is commonly embodied in "constitutions, legislative acts, and judicial decisions."[5]

Public policy focuses on the decisions that create the outputs of a political system, such as transport policies, the management of a public health service, the administration of a system schooling and the organization of a defence force.[6]

In the United States, this concept refers not only to the result of policies, but more broadly to the decision-making and analysis of governmental decisions. As an academic discipline, public policy is studied by professors and students at public policy schools of major universities throughout the country. The U.S. professional association of public policy practitioners, researchers, scholars, and students is the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.

Much of public policy is concerned with evaluating decision-making in governments and public bureaucracies.[6]

Public policy making and the Implementation of Public policy

Public policy making can be characterized as a dynamic, complex, and interactive system through which public problems are identified and resolved by creating new public policy or by reforming existing public policy.[7]

Public problems can originate in endless ways and require different policy responses (such as regulations, subsidies, import quotas, and laws) on the local, national, or international level. The public problems that influence public policy making can be of economic, social, or political nature. [8]

The Government holds a legal monopoly to initiate or threaten physical force to achieve its ends when necessary. For instance, in times of chaos when quick decision making is needed.[9]


Public policy making is an exhausting and time-consuming 'policy cycle'. The basic stages of policy cycle are as follows; a problem is identified, a policy response is formulated, the preferred solution is then selected and implemented, and finally the policy is evaluated. However, the evaluation stage takes an in depth look into what can be learnt from the process as a whole, whether the original problem has been solved, and if not, what is recommended as an alternative course of action. Thus, returning policy makers to the very first step; the identification.


Each system is influenced by different public problems and issues, and has different stakeholders; as such, each requires different public policy.[10]

In public policy making, numerous individuals, corporations, non-profit organizations and interest groups compete and collaborate to influence policymakers to act in a particular way.[11]

The large set of actors in the public policy process, such as politicians, civil servants, lobbyists, domain experts, and industry or sector representatives, use a variety of tactics and tools to advance their aims, including advocating their positions publicly, attempting to educate supporters and opponents, and mobilizing allies on a particular issue.[8]

Many actors can be important in the public policy process, but government officials ultimately choose public policy in response to the public issue or problem at hand. In doing so, government officials are expected to meet public sector ethics and take the needs of all project stakeholders into account.[10]

It is however worth noting that what public policy is put forward can be influenced by the political stance of the party in power. Following the 2008/2009 financial crisis, David Cameron's Conservative party looked to implement a policy of austerity in 2010 after winning the General Election that year, to shore up the economy and diminish the UK's national debt. [12] Whilst the Conservatives saw reducing the national debt as an absolute priority, the Labour Party, since the effects of Conservative austerity became apparent, have slated the policy for its 'needless' pressure on the working classes and those reliant on welfare, their 2019 election manifesto stating "Tory cuts [have] pushed our public services to breaking point" and that  "the Conservatives have starved our education system of funding".[13] This is a good example of how varying political beliefs can impact what is perceived as paramount for the electorate.

Since societies have changed in the past decades, the public policy making system changed too. In the 2010s, public policy making is increasingly goal-oriented, aiming for measurable results and goals, and decision-centric, focusing on decisions that must be taken immediately.[10]

Furthermore, mass communications and technological changes such as the widespread availability of the Internet have caused the public policy system to become more complex and interconnected.[14] The changes pose new challenges to the current public policy systems and pressures leaders to evolve to remain effective and efficient.[10]

Public policies come from all governmental entities and at all levels: legislatures, courts, bureaucratic agencies, and executive offices at national, local and state levels. On the federal level, public policies are laws enacted by Congress, executive orders issued by the president, decisions handed down by the US Supreme Court, and regulations issued by bureaucratic agencies.[15]

On the local, public policies include city ordinances, fire codes, and traffic regulations. They also take the form of written rules and regulations of city governmental departments: the police, fire departments, street repair, or building inspection. On the state level, public policies involve laws enacted by the state legislatures, decisions made by state courts, rules developed by state bureaucratic agencies, and decisions made by governors.[15]

Data-driven policy

Data-driven policy is a policy designed by a government based on existing data, evidence, rational analysis and use of information technology to crystallize problems and highlight effective solutions.[16] Data-driven policy making aims to make use of data and collaborate with citizens to co-create policy.[17] Policy makers can now make use of new data sources and technological developments like Artificial Intelligence to gain new insights and make policy decisions which contribute to societal development.

Small System dynamics model

The Small System dynamics model is a method of condensing and simplifying the understanding of complex issues related to overall productivity. [18]

Rational choice theory/ Evidence-based policy

Evidence-based policy is a term now commonly used to refer to Rational Choice Theory[]. This transition occurred because political actors[who?] did not want to carry the connotations that rational choice theory does. Therefore, the theory has simply become associated with evidence, what rational choice theory admires most[]. This approach to public policy attempts to ensure that every decision is of high-quality and focused on logic.


Some have promoted particular types of evidence as 'best' for policymakers to consider, including scientifically rigorous evaluation studies such as randomized controlled trials to identify programs and practices capable of improving policy-relevant outcomes. However, some areas of policy-relevant knowledge are not well served by quantitative research, leading to debate about the methods and instruments that are considered critical for the collection of relevant evidence. For instance, policies that are concerned with human rights, public acceptability, or social justice may require other evidence than what randomized trials provide, or may require moral philosophical reasoning in addition to considerations of evidence of intervention effect (which randomised trials are principally designed to provide [19]). Good data, analytical skills and political support to the use of scientific information, as such, are typically seen as the important elements of an evidence-based approach.[20]

In the UK

Although evidence-based policy can be traced as far back as the fourteenth century, it was more recently popularized by the Blair Government in the United Kingdom.[21] The Blair Government said they wanted to end the ideological led-based decision making for policy making.[21] For example, a UK Government white paper published in 1999 ("Modernising Government") noted that Government must "produce policies that really deal with problems, that are forward-looking and shaped by evidence rather than a response to short-term pressures; that tackle causes not symptoms".[22]

Evidence-based policy is associated with Adrian Smith because in his 1996 presidential address to the Royal Statistical Society, Smith questioned the current process of policy making and urged for a more "evidence-based approach" commenting that it has "valuable lessons to offer".[23]

Some policy scholars now avoid using the term evidence-based policy, using others such as evidence informed. This language shift allows continued thinking about the underlying desire to improve evidence use in terms of its rigor or quality, while avoiding some of the key limitations or reductionist ideas at times seen with the evidence-based language. Still, the language of evidence-based policy is widely used and, as such, can be interpreted to reflect a desire for evidence to be used well or appropriately in one way or another - such as by ensuring systematic consideration of rigorous and high quality policy relevant evidence, or by avoiding biased and erroneous applications of evidence for political ends.[24]

In the USA

Unlike the UK, the USA has a largely devolved government, with power at local, state and federal level. Due to these various levels of governance it can often be difficult to coordinate passing bills and legislation, and there is often disagreement. Despite this, the system allows for citizens to be relatively involved in inputting legislation. Furthermore, each level of government is set up in a similar way with similar rules, and all pump money into creating what is hoped to be effective legislation. Policy creation in America is often seen as unique to other states.[25]

Academic discipline

As an academic discipline, public policy brings in elements of many social science fields and concepts, including economics, sociology, political economy, social policy, program evaluation, policy analysis, and public management, all as applied to problems of governmental administration, management, and operations.[26] At the same time, the study of public policy is distinct from political science or economics, in its focus on the application of theory to practice. While the majority of public policy degrees are master's and doctoral degrees, there are several universities that offer undergraduate education in public policy. Notable institutions includes:

Sciences Po, Havre Campus

Traditionally, the academic field of public policy focused on domestic policy. However, the wave of economic globalization that occurred in the late 20th and early 21st centuries created a need for a subset of public policy that focused on global governance, especially as it relates to issues that transcend national borders such as climate change, terrorism, nuclear proliferation, and economic development.[27] Consequently, many traditional public policy schools had to adjust their curricula to better suit this new policy landscape, as well as develop entirely new curricula altogether.[28]

The Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation (JASSS) is an inter-disciplinary journal for the exploration and understanding of social processes by means of computer simulation.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Characteristics of Successful Public Policy". Norwich University Public Administration. Norwich University Public Administration. Retrieved 2014.
  2. ^ Peters, B.G. (2015). Advanced Introduction to Public Policy. Edward Elgar. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-78195-576-5.
  3. ^ Dente, Bruno (2013-12-05), "Understanding Policy Decisions", SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology, Springer International Publishing, pp. 1-27, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-02520-9_1, ISBN 978-3-319-02519-3 Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ "Definitions of Public Policy and the Law". mainweb-v.musc.edu.
  5. ^ Schuster, W. Michael (31 December 2008). "For the Greater Good: The Use of Public Policy Considerations in Confirming Chapter 11 Plans of Reorganization". SSRN 1368469. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. ^ a b John, Peter (1998). Analyzing Public Policy. London: Continuum. p. 10. ISBN 9780203136218.
  7. ^ John, Peter (1998). Analysing Public Policy. Continuum.
  8. ^ a b Sharkansky, Ira; R. Hofferbert. "Dimensions of State Politics, Economics, and Public Policy". The American Political Science Review.
  9. ^ Dusza, Karl (1989). "Max Weber's conception of the state". International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society. 3: 71-105. doi:10.1007/BF01430691.
  10. ^ a b c d Thei, Geurts; Be Informed (2010). "Public Policy: The 21st Century Perspective". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. ^ Kilpatrick
  12. ^ Stanley, Liam (2016-03-07). "Legitimacy gaps, taxpayer conflict, and the politics of austerity in the UK" (PDF). The British Journal of Politics and International Relations. 18 (2): 389-406. doi:10.1177/1369148115615031. ISSN 1369-1481.
  13. ^ "Rebuild our Public Services". The Labour Party. Retrieved .
  14. ^ Schramm, Wilbur (165). The Process and Effects of mass communication. Urbana, University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0252001970.
  15. ^ a b Wilson, Carter (2006). Public Policy: Continuity and Change. Illinois: Waveland Press. p. 18. ISBN 1478636718.
  16. ^ Esty, Daniel; Rushing, Reece (1970-01-01). "The Promise of Data-Driven Policymaking | Issues in Science and Technology". Retrieved .
  17. ^ van Veenstra, Anne Fleur; Kotterink, Bas (2017), "Data-Driven Policy Making: The Policy Lab Approach" (PDF), Electronic Participation, Springer International Publishing, pp. 100-111, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-64322-9_9, ISBN 978-3-319-64321-2
  18. ^ Ghaffarzadegan, Navid; Lyneis, John; Richardson, George P. (2011). "How small system dynamics models can help the public policy process". System Dynamics Review. 27 (1): 22-44. doi:10.1002/sdr.442. ISSN 1099-1727.
  19. ^ Petticrew, M (2003). "Evidence, hierarchies, and typologies: Horses for courses". Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 57 (7): 527-9. doi:10.1136/jech.57.7.527. PMC 1732497. PMID 12821702.
  20. ^ Head, Brian. (2009). Evidence-based policy: principles and requirements Archived 2010-11-28 at the Wayback Machine. University of Queensland. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  21. ^ a b Banks, Gary (2009). Evidence-based policy making: What is it? How do we get it? Archived 2013-04-25 at the Wayback Machine. Australian Government, Productivity Commission. Retrieved 4 June 2010
  22. ^ Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (21 September 2006). "Evidence-based policy making". Archived from the original on 14 January 2011. Retrieved 2010.
  23. ^ Boaz, Ashby, Young (2002). Systematic Reviews: What have they got to offer evidence based policy and practice? ESRC UK Centre for Evidence Based Policy and Practice. Retrieved 7 May 2016
  24. ^ Parkhurst, Justin (2017). The Politics of Evidence: from Evidence Based Policy to the Good Governance of Evidence. London: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315675008. ISBN 9781138939400.[page needed]
  25. ^ Peters, B. Guy. American public policy : promise and performance (Tenth ed.). Los Angeles. ISBN 978-1-4833-9150-2. OCLC 908375236.
  26. ^ Pellissery, Sony (2015). "Public Policy". The SAGE Encyclopedia of World Poverty. Sage.
  27. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-26. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ Stone, Diane. "Global public policy, transnational policy communities, and their networks." Policy studies journal 36, no. 1 (2008): 19-38

Further reading


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