Pumpkin
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Pumpkin
Pumpkins at the French Market, New Orleans

A pumpkin is a cultivar of winter squash that is round with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and most often deep yellow to orange in coloration.[1] The thick shell contains the seeds and pulp. The name is most commonly used for cultivars of Cucurbita pepo, but some cultivars of Cucurbita maxima, C. argyrosperma, and C. moschata with similar appearance are also sometimes called "pumpkin".[1]

Native to North America (northeastern Mexico and the southern United States),[1] pumpkins are one of the oldest domesticated plants, having been used as early as 7,500 to 5,000 BC.[1] Pumpkins are widely grown for commercial use and are used both for food and recreation. Pumpkin pie, for instance, is a traditional part of Thanksgiving meals in Canada and the United States, and pumpkins are frequently carved as jack-o'-lanterns for decoration around Halloween, although commercially canned pumpkin purée and pumpkin pie fillings are usually made from different kinds of winter squash than the ones used for jack-o'-lanterns.[1]

A pumpkin flower attached to the vine
Cross section of a pumpkin

Etymology and terminology

The word pumpkin originates from the word pepon (), which is Greek for "large melon", something round and large.[2] The French adapted this word to pompon, which the British changed to pumpion and to the later American colonists became known as pumpkin.[3]

The term pumpkin has no agreed upon botanical or scientific meaning,[4] and is used interchangeably with "squash" and "winter squash".[1] In North America and the United Kingdom, pumpkin traditionally refers to only certain round orange varieties of winter squash, predominantly derived from Cucurbita pepo, while in Australian English, pumpkin can refer to winter squash of any appearance.[5]

In New Zealand and Australian English, the term pumpkin generally refers to the broader category called winter squash elsewhere.[5]

Description

Pumpkins, like other squash, originated in northeastern Mexico and southern United States.[1] The oldest evidence were pumpkin fragments dated between 7,000 and 5,500 BC found in Mexico.[1] Pumpkin fruits are a type of botanical berry known as a pepo.[1][6]

Male (top) and female (bottom) pumpkin flowers

Traditional C. pepo pumpkins generally weigh between 3 and 8 kilograms (6 and 18 lb), though the largest cultivars (of the species C. maxima) regularly reach weights of over 34 kg (75 lb).[7]

The color of pumpkins derives from orange carotenoid pigments, including beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha and beta carotene, all of which are provitamin A compounds converted to vitamin A in the body.[8]

Taxonomy

All pumpkins are winter squash, mature fruit of certain species in the genus Cucurbita. Characteristics commonly used to define "pumpkin" include smooth and slightly ribbed skin,[9] and deep yellow to orange[9] color. Circa 2005, white pumpkins had become increasingly popular in the United States.[10] Other colors, including dark green (as with some oilseed pumpkins), also exist.

Cultivation

Pumpkins are grown all around the world for a variety of reasons ranging from agricultural purposes (such as animal feed) to commercial and ornamental sales.[11] Of the seven continents, only Antarctica is unable to produce pumpkins. The traditional American pumpkin used for jack-o-lanterns is the Connecticut field variety.[11][12][13][14]

Production

Pumpkin production - 2017
(includes squash and gourds)
Country (millions of tonnes)
 China
8.0
 India
5.1
 Russia
1.2
 Ukraine
1.2
 United States
1.1
World
27.4
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations[15]

In 2017, world production of pumpkins (including squash and gourds) was 27 million tonnes, with China and India accounting for 47% of the total. Russia, Ukraine, and the United States each had production of about one million tonnes.[15]

In the United States

A pumpkin patch in Winchester, Oregon

As one of the most popular crops in the United States, in 2017 over 680,000,000 kilograms (1.5 billion pounds) of pumpkins were produced.[16] The top pumpkin-producing states include Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and California.[11]

According to the Illinois Department of Agriculture, 95% of the U.S. crop intended for processing is grown in Illinois.[17]Nestlé, operating under the brand name Libby's, produces 85% of the processed pumpkin in the United States, at their plant in Morton, Illinois. In the fall of 2009, rain in Illinois devastated the Nestlé crop, which combined with a relatively weak 2008 crop depleting that year's reserves resulted in a shortage affecting the entire country during the Thanksgiving holiday season.[18] Another shortage, somewhat less severe, affected the 2015 crop.[19][20] The pumpkin crop grown in the western United States, which constitutes approximately 3-4% of the national crop, is primarily for the organic market. [21]

Pumpkins are a warm-weather crop that is usually planted in early July. The specific conditions necessary for growing pumpkins require that soil temperatures 8 centimetres (3 in) deep are at least 15.5 °C (60 °F) and that the soil holds water well. Pumpkin crops may suffer if there is a lack of water or because of cold temperatures (in this case, below 18 °C or 65 °F; frost can be detrimental), and sandy soil with poor water retention or poorly drained soils that become waterlogged after heavy rain. Pumpkins are, however, rather hardy, and even if many leaves and portions of the vine are removed or damaged, the plant can very quickly re-grow secondary vines to replace what was removed.[16]

Pumpkins produce both a male and female flower; they must be fertilized, usually by bees.[16] Pumpkins have historically been pollinated by the native squash bee Peponapis pruinosa, but this bee has declined, probably at least in part to pesticide (imidacloprid) sensitivity.[22] Ground-based bees such as squash bees and the eastern bumblebee are better suited to handle the larger pollen particles that pumpkins create,[23][24] but today most commercial plantings are pollinated by hives of honeybees, which also allows the production and sale of honey that the bees produce from the pumpkin pollen. One hive per acre (4,000 m2 per hive, or 5 hives per 2 hectares) is recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. If there are inadequate bees for pollination, gardeners often have to hand pollinate. Inadequately pollinated pumpkins usually start growing but abort before full development.

Giant pumpkins

Giant pumpkins at a "heaviest pumpkin" competition

Giant pumpkins are a large squash (within the group of common squash Cucurbita maxima) that can exceed 1 tonne in weight.[25][26] The variety arose from the large squash of South America through the efforts of botanical societies and enthusiast farmers.[25]

Nutrition

In a 100-gram amount, raw pumpkin provides 110 kilojoules (26 kilocalories) of food energy and is an excellent source (20% or more the Daily Value, DV) of provitamin A beta-carotene and vitamin A (53% DV) (table). Vitamin C is present in moderate content (11% DV), but no other nutrients are in significant amounts (less than 10% DV, table). Pumpkin is 92% water, 6.5% carbohydrate, 0.1% fat and 1% protein (table).

Uses

Cooking

Pumpkin pie is a popular way of preparing pumpkin.

Pumpkins are very versatile in their uses for cooking. Most parts of the pumpkin are edible, including the fleshy shell, the seeds, the leaves, and even the flowers. In the United States and Canada, pumpkin is a popular Halloween and Thanksgiving staple.[27] Pumpkin purée is sometimes prepared and frozen for later use.[28]

Roasted pumpkin

When ripe, the pumpkin can be boiled, steamed, or roasted. In its native North America, pumpkins are a very important, traditional part of the autumn harvest, eaten mashed[29] and making its way into soups and purées. Often, it is made into pumpkin pie, various kinds of which are a traditional staple of the Canadian and American Thanksgiving holidays. In Canada, Mexico, the United States, Europe and China, the seeds are often roasted and eaten as a snack.

Pumpkins that are still small and green may be eaten in the same way as summer squash or zucchini. In the Middle East, pumpkin is used for sweet dishes; a well-known sweet delicacy is called halawa yaqtin. In the Indian subcontinent, pumpkin is cooked with butter, sugar, and spices in a dish called kadu ka halwa. Pumpkin is used to make sambar in Udupi cuisine. In Guangxi province, China, the leaves of the pumpkin plant are consumed as a cooked vegetable or in soups. In Australia and New Zealand, pumpkin is often roasted in conjunction with other vegetables. In Japan, small pumpkins are served in savory dishes, including tempura. In Myanmar, pumpkins are used in both cooking and desserts (candied). The seeds are a popular sunflower seed substitute. In Thailand, small pumpkins are steamed with custard inside and served as a dessert. In Vietnam, pumpkins are commonly cooked in soups with pork or shrimp. In Italy, it can be used with cheeses as a savory stuffing for ravioli. Also, pumpkin can be used to flavor both alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages.

In the southwestern United States and Mexico, pumpkin and squash flowers are a popular and widely available food item. They may be used to garnish dishes, and they may be dredged in a batter then fried in oil. Pumpkin leaves are a popular vegetable in the Western and central regions of Kenya; they are called seveve, and are an ingredient of mukimo,[30] respectively, whereas the pumpkin itself is usually boiled or steamed. The seeds are popular with children who roast them on a pan before eating them. Pumpkin leaves are also eaten in Zambia, where they are called chibwabwa and are boiled and cooked with groundnut paste as a side dish.[31]

Leaves

Pumpkin leaf kimchi

Pumpkin leaves, usually of C. moschata varieties, are eaten as a vegetable in Korean cuisine.

In various parts of India and Madheshis prepare saag and kachri/pakoda of the leaves and flowers.

Seeds

Salted pumpkin seeds

Pumpkin seeds, also known as pepitas, are edible and nutrient-rich. They are about 1.5 cm (0.5 in) long, flat, asymmetrically oval, light green in color and usually covered by a white husk, although some pumpkin varieties produce seeds without them. Pumpkin seeds are a popular snack that can be found hulled or semi-hulled at most grocery stores. Per ounce serving, pumpkin seeds are a good source of protein, magnesium, copper and zinc.[32]

Pumpkin seed oil

Pumpkin seed oil

Pumpkin seed oil, a thick oil pressed from roasted pumpkin seeds, appears red or green in color depending on the oil layer thickness, container properties and hue shift of the observer's vision.[33][34] When used for cooking or as a salad dressing, pumpkin seed oil is generally mixed with other oils because of its robust flavor.[35] Pumpkin seed oil contains fatty acids, such as oleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid.[36]

Other uses

A can of puréed pumpkin, typically used as the main ingredient in pumpkin pie

Canned pumpkin is often recommended by veterinarians as a dietary supplement for dogs and cats that are experiencing certain digestive ailments such as constipation, diarrhea, or hairballs. The high fiber content aids proper digestion.[37]

Raw pumpkin can be fed to poultry, as a supplement to regular feed, during the winter to help maintain egg production, which usually drops off during the cold months.[38]

Pumpkins have been used as folk medicine by Native Americans to treat intestinal worms and urinary ailments, and this Native American remedy was adopted by American doctors in the early nineteenth century as an anthelmintic for the expulsion of worms.[39][qualify evidence] In Germany and southeastern Europe, seeds of C. pepo were also used as folk remedies to treat irritable bladder and benign prostatic hyperplasia.[40][41][qualify evidence] In China, C. moschata seeds were also used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of the parasitic disease schistosomiasis[42] and for the expulsion of tape worms.[43][qualify evidence] Chinese studies have found that a combination of pumpkin seed and areca nut extracts was effective in the expulsion of Taenia spp. tapeworms in over 89% of cases.[44][45][46]

Culture

Halloween

A pumpkin carved into a jack-o'-lantern for Halloween

Pumpkins are commonly carved into decorative lanterns called jack-o'-lanterns for the Halloween season. Traditionally Britain and Ireland would carve lanterns from vegetables, particularly the turnip, mangelwurzel, or swede, [47] they continue to be popular choices today as carved lanterns in Scotland and Northern Ireland, although the British purchased a million pumpkins for Halloween in 2004.[48]

The practice of carving pumpkins for Halloween originated from an Irish myth about a man named "Stingy Jack".[11] The turnip has traditionally been used in Ireland and Scotland at Halloween,[49] but immigrants to North America used the native pumpkin, which are both readily available and much larger - making them easier to carve than turnips.[49] Not until 1837, does jack-o'-lantern appear as a term for a carved vegetable lantern,[50] and the carved pumpkin lantern association with Halloween is recorded in 1866.[51]

In the United States, the carved pumpkin was first associated with the harvest season in general, long before it became an emblem of Halloween.[52] In 1900, an article on Thanksgiving entertaining recommended a lit jack-o'-lantern as part of the festivities that encourage kids and families to join together to make their own jack-o'-lanterns.[52]

Association of pumpkins with harvest time and pumpkin pie at Canadian and American Thanksgiving reinforce its iconic role. Starbucks turned this association into marketing with its pumpkin spice latte, introduced in 2003.[53] This has led to a notable trend in pumpkin and spice flavored food products in North America.[54] This is despite the fact that North Americans rarely buy whole pumpkins to eat other than when carving jack-o'-lanterns. Illinois farmer Sarah Frey is called "the Pumpkin Queen of America" and sells around five million pumpkins annually, predominantly for use as lanterns.[55][56]

Chunking

Pumpkin chunking is a competitive activity in which teams build various mechanical devices designed to throw a pumpkin as far as possible. Catapults, trebuchets, ballistas and air cannons are the most common mechanisms. Some pumpkin chunkers breed and grow special varieties of pumpkin under specialized conditions to improve the pumpkin's chances of surviving a throw.

Pumpkin festivals and competitions

Giant pumpkins cultivated for size competitions

"Giant pumpkins" are orange variants of the giant squash, Cucurbita maxima. Growers of these "pumpkins" often compete to see whose pumpkins are the most massive. Festivals are often dedicated to the pumpkin and these competitions.

The record for the world's heaviest pumpkin, 1,190.5 kg (2,624.6 lb), was established in Belgium in 2016.[26]

In the United States, the town of Half Moon Bay, California, holds an annual Art and Pumpkin Festival, including the World Champion Pumpkin Weigh-Off.[57]

Folklore and fiction

There is a connection in folklore and popular culture between pumpkins and the supernatural, such as:

  • A commonplace motif of people being turned into pumpkins by witches.
  • The jack-o-lantern custom derives from Halloween folklore to ward off imaginary demons.
  • In the folk tale Cinderella, the fairy godmother turns a pumpkin into a carriage, but at midnight it reverts to a pumpkin.
  • In some iterations of the folk tale The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, the headless horseman is said to use a pumpkin as a substitute head.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Cucurbita pepo L." Kew Science, Plants of the World, Royal Botanic Garden, UK. 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  2. ^ Paris, Harry S. (1989). "Historical Records, Origins, and Development of the Edible Cultivar Groups of Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae)". Economic Botany. New York Botanical Garden Press. 43 (4): 423-443. doi:10.1007/bf02935916. JSTOR 4255187.
  3. ^ "The Pumpkin Patch". 2007. Retrieved 2008.
  4. ^ "Horticulture Questions and Answers". Garden Help FAQ. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  5. ^ a b Ferriol, María; Picó, Belén (2007). "3". Handbook of Plant Breeding: Vegetables I. New York: Springer. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-387-72291-7. The common terms "pumpkin", "squash", "gourd", "cushaw", "ayote", "zapallo", "calabaza", etc. are often applied indiscriminately to different cultivated species of the New World genus Cucurbita L. (Cucurbitaceae): C. pepo L., C.  maxima Duchesne, C. moschata Duchesne, C. argyrosperma C. Huber and C. ficifolia Bouché.
  6. ^ Schrager, Victor (2004). The Compleat Squash: A Passionate Grower's Guide to Pumpkins, Squash, and Gourds. New York: Artisan. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-57965-251-7.
  7. ^ "Pumpkin". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  8. ^ Provesi JG, Dias CO, Amante ER (2011). "Changes in carotenoids during processing and storage of pumpkin puree". Food Chemistry. 128 (1): 195-202. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.03.027. PMID 25214348.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  9. ^ a b "Pumpkins in Florida". Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
  10. ^ "White Pumpkins Hit the Halloween Market". NBC News. Associated Press. October 26, 2005. Retrieved 2013.
  11. ^ a b c d Wolford, Ron; Banks, Drusilla (2008). "Pumpkins and More". University of Illinois Extension. Retrieved 2008.
  12. ^ Richardson, R. W. "Squash and Pumpkin" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2015. Retrieved 2014.
  13. ^ Stephens, James M. "Pumpkin -- Cucurbita spp". University of Florida. Retrieved 2014.
  14. ^ Baggett, J. R. "Attempts to Cross Cucurbita moschata (Duch.) Poir. 'Butternut' and C. pepo L. 'Delicata'". North Carolina State University. Retrieved 2014.
  15. ^ a b "Pumpkin production in 2017 (includes squash and gourds), Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2018. Retrieved 2019.
  16. ^ a b c Astill, Gregory (2018). "Pumpkins: Background & Statistics". United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service. Retrieved 2018.
  17. ^ Illinois Department of Agriculture (22 Oct 2004). "Illinois Leads Nation in Pumpkin Production".
  18. ^ Hirsch, Jerry (18 November 2009). "Pumpkin pie could become scarce after Thanksgiving". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015.
  19. ^ https://www.theweathernetwork.com/news/articles/pumpkin-shortage-in-the-us-has-canada-to-the-rescue/58621/
  20. ^ https://fortune.com/2015/11/26/thanksgiving-pumpkin-shortage/
  21. ^ Severson, Kim (November 17, 2009). "Libby's Warns of a Canned Pumpkin Shortage". The New York Times.
  22. ^ Williams, Roger (2009). "Effects of imidacloprid-based Insecticides on the Native Cucurbit Pollinator, Peponapis pruinosa". US Interagency IPM Projects. Retrieved 2013.
  23. ^ Canto-Aguilar, M.L.; Parra-Tabla, V. (2000). "Importance of Conserving Alternative Pollinators: Assessing the Pollination Efficiency of the Squash Bee, Peponapis limitaris in Cucurbita moschata (Cucurbitaceae)". Journal of Insect Conservation. 4 (3): 201-208. doi:10.1023/A:1009685422587.
  24. ^ Tepedino, V. J. (April 1981). "The pollination efficiency of the squash bee (Peponapis pruinosa) and the honey bee (Apis mellifera) on summer squash (Cucurbita pepo)". Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 54 (2): 359-377. JSTOR 25084168.
  25. ^ a b Borrell, Brenda (October 2011). "The Great Pumpkin". The Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2016.
  26. ^ a b Barron, Christina (17 October 2016). "Belgian man's pumpkin sets world record at a whopping 2,624 pounds". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2016.
  27. ^ Hogan, C. Michael (2011). "Thanksgiving". Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment.
  28. ^ Roberts, Tammy. "Many uses for pumpkin". MissouriFamilies. University of Missouri Extension.
  29. ^ Stavely, Keith W.F. and Fitzgerald, Kathleen. America's Founding Food: The Story of New England Cooking. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8078-2894-7
  30. ^ "Cock and Bull Stories". Ngishili.com. Retrieved .
  31. ^ "Pumpkin Leaves Chibwabwa". Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 2017.
  32. ^ "Nutrition facts for pumpkin seeds, whole, roasted, without salt". SELF Nutritiondata. Condé Nast Publications. Retrieved 2012.
  33. ^ Kreft, S.; Kreft, M. (2007). "Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour" (PDF). Naturwissenschaften. 94 (11): 935-939. Bibcode:2007NW.....94..935K. doi:10.1007/s00114-007-0272-9. PMID 17534588.
  34. ^ Kaernbach, C.; Dörre, C. (2006). Gula, B.; Vitouch, O. (eds.). "On the color of transparent substances, in Current Psychological Research in Austria" (PDF). Proceedings of the 7th scientific conference of the Austrian Psychological Society (ÖGP). Klagenfurt. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-11-04.
  35. ^ Tyler Herbst, Sharon (2001). "Pumpkin-Seed Oil". The New Food Lover's Companion (3rd ed.). Barron. p. 550. Retrieved 2008.
  36. ^ Bavec F, Grobelnik Mlakar S, Rozman ?, Bavec M (2007). "Oil Pumpkins: Niche for Organic Producers" (PDF). Issues in new crops and new uses. Purdue University Agriculture, Horticulture and Landscape Architecture. Retrieved 2012.
  37. ^ "Tip 75 - Pumpkin for cats - pumpkin for dogs - Pumpkin for diarrhea or constipation". Pets.ca - Canada's Pet Information Centre. Retrieved 2011.
  38. ^ Jacob, J. P.; Wilson, H. R.; Miles, R. D.; Butcher, G. D.; Mather, F. B. "Factors Affecting Egg Production in Backyard Chicken Flocks". University of Florida IFAS Extension. Retrieved 2013.
  39. ^ Robert E. Henshaw, ed. (2011). Environmental History of the Hudson River. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-4026-2.
  40. ^ Volker Schulz, ed. (2004). Rational Phytotherapy: A Reference Guide for Physicians and Pharmacists (5th ed.). Munich: Springer. pp. 304-305. ISBN 978-3-540-40832-1.
  41. ^ "Pumpkin seed (Cucurbitae peponis semen)". Heilpflanzen-Welt Bibliothek. Retrieved 2015.
  42. ^ Xiao, S. H.; Keiser, J.; Chen, M. G.; Tanner, M.; Utzinger, J. (2010). "Research and Development of Antischistosomal Drugs in the People's Republic of China a 60-year review". Advances in Parasitology. 73: 231-295. doi:10.1016/S0065-308X(10)73009-8. PMID 20627145.
  43. ^ Wu, Yan; Fischer, Warren (1997). Practical Therapeutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Taos, NM: Paradigm Publications. pp. 282-283. ISBN 978-0-912111-39-1.
  44. ^ Hson-Mou Chang, Paul P. H., eds. (2000). title Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Materia Medica, Volume 2. Singapore: World Scientific Publications. pp. 832-836. ISBN 978-981-02-3692-2.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
  45. ^ Xiao, Ning; Yao, Jia-Wen; Ding, Wei; Giraudoux, Patrick; Craig, Philip S.; Ito, Akira (2013). "Priorities for Research and Control of Cstode Zoonoses in Asia". Infectious Diseases of Poverty. 2 (1:16). doi:10.1186/2049-9957-2-16. PMC 3750256. PMID 23915395.
  46. ^ Ito, Akira; Li, T.; Chen, X.; Long, C.; Yanagida, T.; Nakao, M.; Sako, Y.; Okamoto, M.; Wu, Y.; Raoul, F.; Giraudoux, P.; Craig, P. S. (2013). "Mini Review on Chemotherapy of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis Due to Taenia Solium in Asia, and a Case Report With 20 Tapeworms in China" (PDF). Tropical Biomedicine. 30 (2): 164-73. PMID 23959481.
  47. ^ Fowler, Julian (28 October 2005). "Turnip battles with pumpkin for Hallowe'en". BBC. Retrieved 2007.
  48. ^ "Pumpkins Passions". BBC. 31 October 2005. Retrieved 2006.
  49. ^ a b The Oxford companion to American food and drink. Oxford University Press. 2007. p. 269. ISBN 978-0-19-530796-2. Retrieved 2011.
  50. ^ Hawthorne, Nathaniel (1837). "The Great Carbuncle". Twice-Told Tales. Hide it [the great carbuncle] under thy cloak, say'st thou? Why, it will gleam through the holes, and make thee look like a jack-o'-lantern!
  51. ^ Daily News (Kingston, Ontario), November 1, 1866:
    The old time custom of keeping up Hallowe'en was not forgotten last night by the youngsters of the city. They had their maskings and their merry-makings, and perambulated the streets after dark in a way [that] was no doubt amusing to themselves. There was a great sacrifice of pumpkins from which to make transparent heads and face, lighted up by the unfailing two inches of tallow candle.
  52. ^ a b The Day We Celebrate: Thanksgiving Treated Gastronomically and Socially, The New York Times, Nov. 24, 1895, p. 27. "Odd Ornaments for Table," The New York Times, Oct. 21, 1900, p. 12.
  53. ^ Christopher Mims. "The untold history of Starbucks' Pumpkin Spice Latte". Quartz.
  54. ^ "Considering Pumpkin Spice and Seasonal Synesthesia". The American Conservative.
  55. ^ "Pumpkins: from decoration to delicacy". Produce Retailer. August 25, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  56. ^ "Elaine Reeves: For love of gourd". The Mercury. Mar 4, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  57. ^ "Half Moon Bay Art & Pumpkin Festival: A Brief History". Miramar Events. 2016. Retrieved 2016.

Further reading

  • Ott, Cindy (2012). Pumpkin: The Curious History of an American Icon. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-99195-X.

External links


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