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Puni%C5%A1a Ra%C4%8Di%C4%87
Puni?a Ra?i?
Punisa Racic.jpg
Puni?a Ra?i?, c. 1925
Member of Parliament in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes

27 September 1927 - 20 June 1928
Personal details
Born(1886-07-12)12 July 1886
Slatina, Montenegro
Died16 October 1944(1944-10-16) (aged 58)
Belgrade, Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia
Political partyPeople's Radical Party (NRS)

Puni?a Ra?i? (Serbian Cyrillic: ; 12 July 1886 - 16 October 1944) was a Montenegrin Serb leader and People's Radical Party (NRS) politician. He assassinated Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) representatives Pavle Radi? and ?uro Basari?ek and mortally wounded HSS leader Stjepan Radi? in a shooting which took place on the floor of the Yugoslav parliament on 20 June 1928. He was tried and handed a sixty-year sentence, which was immediately reduced to twenty years. He served most of his sentence under house arrest and was killed by the Yugoslav Partisans in October 1944.

Early life and political career

Puni?a Ra?i? was born on 12 July 1886 in the village of Slatina, near Andrijevica, Principality of Montenegro.[1] He entered the employ of politician Nikola Pa?i? as a sixteen-year-old in 1902. Pa?i? regarded Ra?i? as a son and encouraged his political ambitions. Ra?i? became active in Serbian nationalist circles and claimed to have organized assassination attempts against King Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, King Constantine I of Greece and Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany. Following World War I, he earned a reputation for suppressing pro-Bulgarian movements in Macedonia.[2] He was one of many Chetnik leaders who formed Serbian cultural societies in the region.[3] On 27 September 1927,[4] he was elected to the parliament of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes as a representative of the People's Radical Party (NRS).[5]

Ra?i? is reported to have had connections with the ruling Kara?or?evi? dynasty.[6] He was the leader of the Association of Serbian Chetniks "Petar Mrkonji?" - For King and Fatherland until 1928.[5] The movement was established following a split in the Chetniks in 1924 and built up a vast network across Bosnia and Herzegovina in the ensuing years. It maintained a close relationship with the Serbian National Youth (Serbian: Srpska nacionalna omladina, SRNAO).[7]

Parliament shooting

Puni?a Ra?i?, 1926
Ra?i? shooting a member of parliament, 20 June 1928.

On 19 June 1928, Ra?i? and twenty-three of his colleagues requested that Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) leader Stjepan Radi? be examined by doctors to determine if he was mentally ill and, if it was discovered that he was not, that he be punished to the maximum extent for describing several Serbian ministers as "plunderers", "bandits" and "outlaws" and thus violating the parliament's rules of procedure.[8] At that day's session of parliament, Ra?i? and fellow Serbian radical Toma Popovi? shouted: "Heads are going to roll here and until someone kills Stjepan Radi? there can be no peace."[9] The atmosphere that day prompted Radi? to remark that "a psychological mood for murder" was being created.[10] Several individuals in Serbia had made death threats against Radi? in the preceding days. The Croatian People's Party (Croatian: Hrvatska pu?ka stranka, HPS), which stood opposed to Radi?'s anti-Clericalism and pan-Slavic ideas, also called for his removal from public life.[6] Serbian newspapers such as Politika (Politics), Samouprava (Self-administration) and Jedinstvo (Unity) demonized Croat politicians, including Radi?, and called for their murder.[11]

Out of caution, Radi? was quieter than usual at the following evening's session of parliament.[4] A verbal confrontation erupted that night when HSS deputy Ivan Pernar shouted insults at several Serbian politicians, questioning their wartime record and suggesting they were responsible for committing atrocities.[9] Croatian politician Lubomir Ma?tovi? then made a speech protesting how the death threats against Radi? made by Popovi? and Ra?i? the previous day had gone unpunished by the president of the Assembly, Ninko Peri?. Popovi? responded by saying "...if Stjepan Radi?, who shames the Croatian people, further continues with his insults, I guarantee that his head will fall."[12] The opposition benches reacted by shouting insults and death threats at the NRS party deputies, who responded in similar fashion. Peri? ordered a five-minute recess and retreated to his private chamber, where he spoke with Ra?i?.[13] Ra?i? was given the floor when the session was resumed.[12] In his speech, he asserted that Serbian interests had never been in greater danger and stated that he would not refrain from using "other weapons, as need be, to defend the interests of Serbdom".[14] Opposing politicians, especially Pernar, responded by taunting Ra?i? and shouting as he spoke. Ra?i? demanded that Peri? penalize those jeering at his speech.[12] Pernar then shouted "you plundered beys!", accusing Ra?i? of looting Muslim homes in Macedonia. Seeing that Peri? was not going to reprimand Pernar, Ra?i? reached into his pocket and produced a handgun. The Minister of Justice, Milorad Vuji?i?, who was sitting behind the podium, grabbed Ra?i? by the back while the former Minister of Religion, Obradovi?, seized his right shoulder. Ra?i? pushed both men away and shot Pernar first.[13] He then turned his attention to Ivan Gran?a and shot him.[11] He attempted to shoot Svetozar Pribi?evi? just as HSS deputy ?uro Basari?ek jumped to the podium. Ra?i? aimed at Pribi?evi? but shot Basari?ek instead. He then shot Radi? in the hand and stomach. Radi?'s nephew, Pavle, rushed to help his uncle.[12] Upon seeing him, Ra?i? yelled "I was waiting for you!" and shot him at point-blank range.[13] He then fled the chamber.[14] Basari?ek and Radi?'s nephew died immediately. Pernar and Gran?a were wounded but survived.[11] Radi? was seriously wounded and was taken to hospital immediately, where he was visited by King Alexander I.[12]

Aftermath

Demonstrations erupted in Zagreb at the news of the shooting. Five people were killed and many more were wounded in clashes with police in the ten days following the attack. Deputies from the HSS-Democratic Party coalition withdrew from the parliament in protest.[15] The shooting was the most significant political murder of Croat politicians during the inter-war period. It destroyed popular support for the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in Croatia.[6] On 4 August, the editor of Jedinstvo--one of the newspapers which had called for the murder of Radi? and Pribi?evi?--was assassinated by Josip Suni?, a member of the youth wing of the Croatian Party of Rights (Croatian: Hrvatska stranka prava, HSP).[16]

Radi? was operated on shortly after he was shot and his surgeon predicted that he would recover. Within two months of the shooting, his condition deteriorated unexpectedly and he died on 8 August 1928.[17]Vladko Ma?ek, Radi?'s successor as head of the HSS, suggested that diabetes had led to an infection which caused his heart to fail and suggested this as his cause of death.[12] A week before his death, Radi? had alleged that Ra?i? was only the executor of "a plot conceived of and agreed to in one part of the Radical [parliamentary] club" and stated that his shooting had likely occurred with the knowledge and approval of Peri? and Prime Minister Velimir Vuki?evi?.[18]

Ra?i? was celebrated as a hero through much of Serbia.[19] He turned himself into the authorities shortly after the shooting[12] and was tried and sentenced to 60 years in prison. This was immediately reduced to 20 years.[19] His shooting of HSS deputies led to King Alexander suspending the Vidovdan Constitution on 6 January 1929, renaming the country to Yugoslavia and proclaiming a royal dictatorship.[20]

Later life and death

Ra?i? spent most of his sentence under house arrest in a comfortable villa, where he was attended by three servants and was free to enter and leave at will.[19] The leniency of his sentence likely came as a result of his connection with the Chetniks.[21] He was released from house arrest on 27 March 1941.[1] The Usta?e used Ra?i?'s shooting of Croatian deputies as one of their excuses for persecuting and massacring Serbs during World War II.[22] Ra?i? was killed by the Yugoslav Partisans on 16 October 1944 during the liberation of Belgrade from the Axis powers.[1]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Ve?ernje novosti & 20 June 2013.
  2. ^ Glenny 2012, pp. 410-411.
  3. ^ Newman 2012, p. 155.
  4. ^ a b Ramet 2006, p. 71.
  5. ^ a b Tomasevich 1975, p. 119.
  6. ^ a b c Tomasevich 2001, p. 25.
  7. ^ Ramet 2006, p. 59.
  8. ^ Dragnich 1983, pp. 50-51.
  9. ^ a b Glenny 2012, p. 410.
  10. ^ Dragnich 1983, p. 50.
  11. ^ a b c Ramet 2006, p. 73.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Dragnich 1983, p. 51.
  13. ^ a b c Glenny 2012, p. 411.
  14. ^ a b Tanner 2001, p. 123.
  15. ^ Goldstein 1999, pp. 120-121.
  16. ^ Ramet 2006, p. 74.
  17. ^ Glenny 2012, p. 412.
  18. ^ Biondich 2000, p. 240.
  19. ^ a b c Despalatovi? 2000, p. 87.
  20. ^ Vucinich 1969, p. 18.
  21. ^ Singleton 1985, p. 150.
  22. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 406.

References

Books
Websites

External links

  • Parker, James Reid (1960). "The Archimandrite's Niece". In London, Ephraim (ed.). The World of Law; a Treasury of Great Writing about and in the Law, Short Stories, Plays, Essays, Accounts, Letters, Opinions, Pleas, Transcripts of Testimony; from Biblical Times to the Present. I. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 506 – via Internet Archive.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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