Punk rock in Yugoslavia was the punk subculture of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which continues in the former Yugoslav republics. The most developed punk scenes across the federation existed in Slovenia, Vojvodina, Belgrade and Ni?. Notable acts include: Pankrti, Paraf, Dobri Isak, Pekin?ka Patka, KUD Idijoti, Niet, Patareni, KBO!, Fleke.
The Non-Aligned Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was never part of the Eastern Bloc, and it was open to western influences. The Yugoslav pop and rock scene was socially accepted, well developed and covered in the media. The former Yugoslav punk scene emerged in the late 1970s, influenced by the first wave of punk rock bands from the United Kingdom and United States, such as Sex Pistols, The Clash, The Damned, Ramones, Generation X, The Ruts, Buzzcocks and The Jam, as well as the proto-punk acts such as The Stooges and New York Dolls. The DIY punkzine scene also started to develop in Yugoslavia.
The Yugoslav punk bands were the first punk bands ever formed in a socialist state. Some of the first ones were formed in the then SR Slovenia and SR Croatia: Pankrti from Ljubljana, formed in 1977, and Paraf from Rijeka, formed either in 1976 or 1977. (depending on the source). The Slovenian and Croatian scene of the day was featured in the Novi Punk Val compilation album, compiled by Igor Vidmar, which included Pankrti, Paraf, Buldogi, Termiti, Berlinski Zid, Grupa 92 and the early Prljavo kazali?te, who went mainstream later.
The late-1970s and early 1980s bands from Belgrade, the capital of both SR Serbia and Yugoslavia included: Defektno Efektni, Urbana Gerila and Radni?ka Kontrola (feat. Cane who later came into prominence as frontman of Partibrejkers and Sr?an Todorovi?, later an eminent movie actor). This generation of bands was included on the Artisti?ka Radna Akcija compilation. Elektri?ni Orgazam was also a punk band during its early period, although it became a more mainstream act later. The other musicians from this period included: the prominent punkabilly artist, Toni Montano, from Belgrade; a former singer of Radost Evrope; the punk band Pekin?ka Patka, led by the charismatic Profesor ?onta, from Novi Sad; and the notable Yugoslav punk writer, Ivan Gli?i?, who emerged from ?abac, in Serbia Proper.
The first punk band in Skopje, Socialist Republic of Macedonia, is considered to be Fol Jazik, formed in 1978. Other notable acts from Skopje included Badmingtons and Saraceni, both led by Vladimir Petrovski Karter. The bass player of Saraceni, Goran Trajkoski, previously played in the punk band Afektiven naboj from Struga. Later he was the frontman of Padot na Vizantija and rose to international prominence as the frontman of Anastasia and Mizar. In Sarajevo, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the following artists emerged: Ozbiljno pitanje (which later evolved into the mainstream act Crvena Jabuka), ?eva (later Bombaj ?tampa led by Branko ?uri?), and the cult band Zabranjeno Pu?enje. These Sarajevian bands formed the punk-inspired New Primitives movement.
In the late 1970s, some punk bands were affiliated with the Yugoslav new wave scene, and were labeled as both punk rock and new wave. During a certain period, the term new wave music was interchangeable with punk. One of the most important compilations of the Yugoslav new wave era is Paket Aran?man.
The end of the 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s saw the emergence of various subgenres of punk rock, such as streetpunk and Oi!, later followed by hardcore punk, crust punk, crossover thrash, and grindcore. Notable acts during the 1980s included, the hardcore punk bands such as Niet, Odpadki Civilizacije, To?ibabe, Epidemija and U.B.R. from Ljubljana, S.O.R. from Idrija and Ujetniki svobode from La?ko, Slovenia; Patareni from Zagreb, KUD Idijoti from Pula and Apatridi from Slavonska Po?ega, Croatia; The Dissidents from Prijedor and ?enevski Dekret from Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; KBO! and Trula koalicija from Kragujevac, Nade iz Inkubatora, Giuseppe Carabino, Marselyeza and Process from Subotica, Incest from Novi Be?ej and Napred U Pro?lost from Banatsko Novo Selo and the Oi!/streetpunk bands Dva minuta mr?nje, Vrisak generacije and Ritam Nereda from Novi Sad, Serbia. A notable mainstream pop punk band was Psihomodo Pop from Croatia (heavily influenced by the Ramones).[clarification needed]
Many eminent foreign punk bands played concerts in the former Yugoslavia in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s, including: The Ruts, Siouxsie and the Banshees, UK Subs, Angelic Upstarts, The Exploited, Charged GBH, The Anti-Nowhere League, Discharge, Youth Brigade and Amebix. In 1983 The Anti-Nowhere League released their album Live in Yugoslavia, while Angelic Upstarts released a live album with the same title in 1985.
Regarding the punk ideology, as the other punk rock artists around the world, the Yugoslav ones also included social commentary in their songs. Anarcho-punk and Straight Edge scenes also existed, while some bands were purely nihilistic. The Yugoslav punk rock and hardcore punk lyrics often featured social and political criticism, anti-war, anti-chauvinist, anti-fascist, anti-authoritarian and anarchist messages, which can be also seen by the bands' names, such as: Vrisak Hiro?ime (Cry of Hiroshima), Apatridi (Stateless persons), The Dissidents (Dissidents), Patareni (Patarenes), Marselyeza (La Marseillaise), Stres Dr?avnega Aparata (Stress Of The State Apparatus), Sistem Organizirane Represije (System Of Organized Repression), etc. There were also some apolitical bands whose songs dealt with personal subjects, humour, sex, or just innocent youth rebellion.
A significant scandal emerged in SFR Yugoslavia when the authorities arrested a Nazi punk and Nazi skinhead-oriented group called The Fourth Reich in Ljubljana, Socialist Republic of Slovenia, in 1981. Though largely obscure, the band was put on trial and its members were imprisoned before having a chance to release any recordings or play live, hence leaving no legacy. They were also once turned down by the notable promoter and Pankrti's manager Igor Vidmar, who refused to sign them as he disapproved of their racist lyrics.
Although the existence of the punk subculture was generally tolerated in Yugoslavia, with occasional mild cases of censorship, the one-party system still viewed it with certain degree of suspicion because of its in-your-face attitude, clothing, music, and way of life, which differed from the established image of model citizens. Thus, the authorities used this incident as an opportunity to label the punk movement as subversive and as a pretext to impose indiscriminate oppression on all punks and skinheads who began to be perceived as potential enemies of the state, although the overwhelming majority of them was actually anti-fascist, for example, both Pankrti and KUD Idijoti have their respective cover versions of the Italian antifascist and communist song, Bandiera Rossa.
This led to moral panic. The authorities' reaction to punks, labeling them as "fascists", reached its crescendo during the prosecution of the aforementioned Igor Vidmar, who was arrested for wearing the Dead Kennedys' Nazi Punks Fuck Off! badge with a swastika crossed out. That anti-fascist badge was wrongly interpreted as a Nazi provocation and Vidmar was detained.
Despite the affair, which faded after a certain period anyway, the Yugoslav punk scene continued to exist successfully (although with less mainstream media coverage). While the first generation of groups such as Pankrti, Paraf, Prljavo kazali?te and Pekin?ka Patka were quite well exposed in the media, having appearances and music videos on the public TV stations and record contracts for major labels such as Jugoton, Suzy Records and ZKP RTL, the artists that came after the affair emerged, faced various problems, and some succeeded to gain prominence only in the underground music circles. Apart from the affair, some mainstream media began to consider punk as fad, as the initial punk euphoria of The Sex Pistols and The Clash was already gone, so they turned their interest to other styles, such as new wave, post-punk, new romantic, synthpop, darkwave, and gothic rock, leaving much of the new generation of streetpunk and hardcore punk acts underestimated or unnoticed.
The late 1980s and early 1990s saw transition to parliamentary democracy, which brought further liberalisation to the country, but also a rise in extreme nationalism, previously kept under control by the communist regime. These processes led to the disintegration of SFR Yugoslavia.
In an interview published in the post-communist and post-Yugoslav period, despite the troubles he once had with the previous system, Vidmar was quoted saying: "It is an irony that it is harder to work now in this liberal democracy, than in the last 10 years of SFRY's communism".
The punk scene of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ceased to exist with the country's violent breakup in the early 1990s, with the Greater Serbian military campaign on Croatia. In Croatia, punk adherents joined the Croatian forces to defend the country. Ivica ?uljak, alias Satan Panonski, was killed in action on January 27, 1992, defending Croatia on a Slavonian battlefield. Artists also played live on the frontlines for defenders of Croatia. Many recorded the songs (Psihomodo Pop, "Hrvatska mora pobijediti", Croatia Must Win), which boosted the morale of poorly-armed Croatian forces. In Serbia, many of punk's former adherents participated in anti-war, anti-nationalist, and anti-fascist activities and were often attacked by the nationalists.
In 1992, the supergroup Rimtutituki featuring members of Partibrejkers, Elektri?ni orgazam and Ekatarina Velika released a pacifist single, but since the authorities didn't allow them to promote it with a gig, they performed on a truck trailer driven through the streets of Belgrade, as their stage. The Serbian musician Branislav Babi? Kebra of Urbana Gerila and Obojeni program was conscripted into the army and sent to the war in Croatia, but he deserted with the help of his Croatian friend, Goran Bare of Majke. A 1993 compilation of anti-war punk songs, Preko zidova nacionalizma i rata (Over the walls of nationalism and war), featured bands from the ex-Yugoslav countries. After the Ten Day War and the widthdrawal of the Yugoslav Army from Slovenia, its former barracks were squatted and the Metelkova City Autonomous Cultural Center was established. Metelkova was attacked by nazi-skinheads because it hosted punk rockers, anarchists, anti-racist, ecological and lesbian and gay rights activists.
However, many Serbian and Bosnian youths (including some former punks, and especially skinheads and football hooligans) have been manipulated by the mainstream nationalist media and embraced nationalistic chauvinism, while some punks' inner chauvinism has been released with the first opportunity.[tone] Some Croatian individuals previously involved in the punk scene saw active combat in the defense of Croatia from Serbian aggression. One example is Satan Panonski, a charismatic and controversial punk singer, punk poet, and body artist from Vinkovci, Croatia. A former convict charged with murder who spent several years in mental institutions, he was an outspoken opponent of nationalism and was openly homosexual. However, after the war began, he joined the Croatian forces and was killed under unknown circumstances. Before his death, he was a close friend of Ivan Gli?i?, a notable punk writer from Serbia.
The local punk scenes in the independent countries that emerged after the breakup of Yugoslavia continued to exist, some of them having suffered heavily during the war. The underground music scene continued, even in the shelters during the Sarajevo siege, and a compilation album, Rock under siege (Radio Zid Sarajevo, Stichting Popmuziek Nederland), including the punk band Protest, was released in 1995.
After Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina proclaimed independence, and SFR Yugoslavia was dissolved, a new federal state comprising only Serbia and Montenegro, named "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia", was established; however it was not internationally recognized as a legal successor to SFR Yugoslavia. It existed from 1992 until 2003. Notable punk bands in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia included: Atheist rap, Ritam Nereda and Zbogom Brus Li from Novi Sad; Direktori and ?aht from Belgrade; and Goblini from ?abac. Some of them were formed during the previous Yugoslav federation, and some still exist. Many bands in this period openly opposed the regime of Slobodan Milo?evi? and criticized chauvinism and militarism, but there were some who espoused radical Serbian nationalism, especially skinhead groups.
After the end of the conflicts and especially later, after the departure of the nationalist leaders such as Slobodan Milo?evi? and Franjo Tu?man, the former Yugoslav nations started to normalise their relations. Thus, their music scenes (this time both mainstream and underground) could freely restore their former cooperation. Anti-Nowhere League came once again to former Yugoslav soil (in Croatia) and released their live album, Return to Yugoslavia. In 2003 Igor Mirkovi? from Croatia made the rockumentary Sretno dijete (Happy Child), named after a song by Prljavo Kazali?te. The movie covers the early Yugoslav Punk and new wave scene featuring eminent artists from Zagreb, Ljubljana, and Belgrade. Inspired by "Sretno dijete", the rockumentary "Bilo jednom..." was made in 2006, featuring punk-rockers from Novi Sad who were active during the first half of the 1990s.
Current notable acts in the former Yugoslav countries include: Niet, Scuffy Dogs, Aktivna Propaganda, GUB, Pero Lov?in (formerly of Pankrti), Golliwog, In-Sane, Kreshesh Nepitash, No Limits, all from Slovenia; Hladno pivo, Pasi, KUD Idijoti, Let 3 (featuring the former Termiti member Damir Martinovi? Mrle), Kawasaki 3P, Fat Prezident, Deafness By Noise, Overflow, FOB, No More Idols, Hren, Lobotomija, Brkovi, Grupa tvog ?ivota, FNC Diverzant, Tito's Bojs and Gu?va u 16ercu from Croatia; Superhiks, Two Sides, Noviot Pochetok, and Denny Te Chuva from the Republic of Macedonia; Red Union, Zbogom Brus Li, Atheist Rap, Six Pack, Vox Populi, SMF, BOL, Ritam Nereda, ?aht, Miki Pirs, Birtija, Prili?no Prazni, KBO!, Potres, Gavrilo Princip, Zvoncekova Bilje?nica, Mitesers, Pogon BGD, Hitman, Nor, Concrete Worms, Ringi?pil, The Bayonets, The Bomber from Serbia, and others.
Pankrti played a reunion concert in Tivoli Hall in Ljubljana, Slovenia, on December 1, 2007, as a celebration of their 30th anniversary. They also toured across parts of former Yugoslavia with a new guitarist, Ivan Kral, who previously played with Patti Smith, Blondie, and Iggy Pop. Meanwhile, in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia, the group Badmingtons reformed, and their music was included in the soundtrack for the feature film Prevrteno (Upside Down), directed by Igor Ivanov Izy. At the Exit festival in Novi Sad on July 13, 2008, Pekin?ka Patka played a reunion concert, sharing the stage with the Sex Pistols, who played afterwards that evening.
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (January 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)