Qaghans of the Turkic Khaganates
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Qaghans of the Turkic Khaganates

Kahagan (Qaghan) was a title used by the Turkic people of the Medieval Ages. The Turkic Khaganate (aka Göktürks) was a vast empire in Central Asia and Mongolia between 552 and 745. It was a confederation of Turkic tribes. Their history is turbulent. In the 6th century, they challenged the power of China. At the end of the century following a civil war, the khaganate was divided into eastern and western wings. In the second half of the 7th century, both wings were defeated by the Tang China. However, in 682 they regained their independence.

Qaghans of the Turkic Khaganate

Title Personal name and other title. Qatun Throne Note
Bumin Qaghan / Illig Qaghan (Yii)
?
"Tumen"
"" / ""
Princess Changle
? / ?
From Western Wei
552
Issik Qaghan
/
Keluo / K'o-lo
/
552-553 Son of Bumin Qaghan
Muqan Qaghan
? / ?
Yandou / Yen-to
, ""
553-572 Son of Bumin Qaghan
Taspar Qaghan (Tuobo)
? / ?
572-581 Son of Bumin Qaghan[1]
Unknown title Anluo / An-lo
/
581 Son of Tapir Qaghan
Ishbara Qaghan (Shabolue)
/
Shetu / She-t'u
/
Il Kul Shad Bagha Ishbara Qaghan
/
Princess Qianjin of Northern Zhou
?
After the fall of Northern Zhou, she was given surname Yang and became Princess Dayi of Sui
? / ?
581-587 Son of Issik Qaghan[2]
Bagha Qaghan / Yabgu Qaghan
Mohe Kehan ? / Yehe Kehan ?
Chuluohou / Ch'u-lo-hou
/
587-588 Son of Issik Qaghan
Tulan Qaghan
Dulan Kehan ?
Yongyulü / Yung-yü-lü
/
588-599 Son of Ishbara Qaghan

Qaghans of the western side of the Turkic Khaganate

Title Personal name and other title Qatun Throne Note
Yabghu Qaghan
? / ?
Istemi
Shidianmi / Shih-tien-mi
/
552-575 Younger brother of Bumin Qaghan
Tardu (Datou)
? / ?
Dianjue / Tien-chüeh
575-602 Son of Istemi

Qaghans of Apa line

Title Personal name and other title Qatun Throne Note
Apa Qaghan (Abo)
?
Daluobian / Ta-lo-pien
/
581-587 Son of Muqan Qaghan
Niri Qaghan (Nili)
?
587-601 Son of Yangsu Tigin
Grandson of Tardush Qaghan

Qaghans of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate

Title Personal name and other title Qatun Throne Note
Yami Qaghan (Qimin)
? / ?
Rangan / Jan-kan

Tölis Qaghan
? / ?
Princess Anyi
? / ? (597-599)
From Sui
Princess Yicheng
? / ? (599-)
From Sui
599-609 Son of Ishbara Qaghan
Shibi Qaghan
? / ?
Duojishi / To-chi-shih
Princess Yicheng
? / ?
609-619 Son of Yami Qaghan[3]
Chuluo Khan
? / ?
"Ilteber Shad"
"?" / "?"
Princess Yicheng
? / ?
619-620 Son of Yami Qaghan
Illig Qaghan (Xieli)
? / ?
Duobi / To-pi

"Baghatur Shad"
"?" / "?"
Princess Yicheng
? / ?
620-630 Son of Yami Qaghan

Qaghans under the Jimi system of Tang China

Title Personal name and other title Qatun Throne Note
Qilibi Khan
Simo / Ssu-mo
639-644 Son of Tughruq Shad
Chebi Khan
? / ?
Hubo / Hu-po
646-649
Nizük Beg
Nishoufu / Ni-shou-fu
679-680
Funian / Fu-nien
680-681 Relative of Illig Qaghan

Qaghans of the Western Turkic Khaganate

Title Personal name and other title Qatun Throne Note
Heshana Khagan
,

Daman /
Nijue Chuluo Kehan
Princess Xinyi
? / ?
From Sui
604-611 Son of Niri Qaghan
Sheguy (Shegui)
? / ?
610-617 Son of Tughluq Yabghu
Grandson of Tardush Qaghan
Tong Yabghu Qaghan (Tongyehu)
/
617-630 Son of Tughluq Yabghu
Grandson of Tardush Qaghan
Baghatur Qaghan
/
630 Son of Tughluq Yabghu
Grandson of Tardush Qaghan
Si Yabghu Qaghan
/
Turuk Tigin
?
630-632 Son of Tuluq Yabghu Qaghan
Tughluq Qaghan
? / ?
Nizük


? / ?
632-634 Son of Baghatur Qaghan
Ishbara Tolis
/
Tonga / Tongra
634-639 Son of Baghatur Qaghan
Illig Beg Tughluq Qaghan
/
Yukuk Shad
/
638-642 Grandson of Tughluq Yabghu
Illig Qutlugh Illig Beg Qaghan
rival?[]
/
639-640 Son of Ishbara Tolis Qaghan
Illig Beg Ishbara Yabghu Qaghan
(rival)
/
Tigin
?
639-641 Son of Genna Shad
Illig Beg Shekuei Qaghan
/
642-653 Son of Illig Kul Bilge Qaghan
Grandson of Apa Qaghan
Ishbara Qaghan
/
Helu
/
650-658 Son of Böri Shad
Grandson of Tughluq Yabghu

Xingxiwang Qaghans

Title Personal name and other title. Qatun Throne Note
Ashina Mishe



?
657-662
Ashina Duzh?
Onoq Qaghan

?
671-679
Ashina Yuanqing 685-692 Son of Ashina Mishe
Ashina Tuizi 693-694 Son of Ashina Yuanqing
Anshina Xian ? 708-717 Son of Ashina Yuanqing
Ashia Zhèn ? 735-736 Son of Ashina Xian

Jiwangjue Qaghans

Title Personal name and other title. Qatun Throne Note
Ashina Buzhen 657-667
Ashina Huseluo
Jiezhong Shizhu Qaghan

685-703 Son of Ashina Buzhen
Ashina Huaidao 704-708 Son of Ashina Huseluo
Ashina Xin ? 740-742 Son of Ashina Huaidao

Qaghans of the Second Eastern Turkic Khaganate

Title Personal name and other title Qatun Throne Note
Ilterish Qaghan
/
Qutlugh
? /
682-694 Relative of Illig Qaghan
Qapaghan Qaghan
? / ?

694-716 Younger brother of Ilterish Qaghan
Inel Qaghan
?

716 Son of Qapaghan Qaghan
Bilge Qaghan
?
Bögü
/
Po Beg 716-734 Son of Ilterish Qaghan
Yiran Qaghan
?
- 734 Son of Bilge Khagan
Tengri Qaghan
?
- 734-741 Son of Bilge Khagan
Kutluk Yabgu Qhagan
741-742 Son of Ilterish Qaghan
Ilterish Qaghan
/
742-744 The chief of the Basmyl tribe
Ozmysh Qaghan
/
742-744 Son of Pan Kul Tigin

?

/
744-745 Son of Pan Kul Tigin
  • Ashina Gulongfu 744-745
  • Eletmish Kagan 747-759[4]
  • Bügü Kagan 759-779[4]

Sources

  1. ^ Jean Deny; Louis Bazin; Hans Robert Roemer; György Hazai; Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp (2000). History of the Turkic Peoples in the Pre-Islamic Period. Schwarz. p. 108.
  2. ^ Lovell, Julia (2007). The great wall: China Against the World, 1000 BC - AD 2000. Grove Press. p. 354. ISBN 0-8021-4297-4.
  3. ^ Xiong, Victor Cunrui (2006). Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty: His Life, Times, and Legacy. State University of New York Press. p. 213. ISBN 0-7914-6587-X.
  4. ^ a b Yu. Zuev (I?U?. A. Zuev) (2002) (in Russian), Early Türks: Essays on history and ideology (Rannie ti?u?rki: ocherki istorii i ideologii), Almaty, Daik-Press, p. 233, ISBN 9985-4-4152-9.

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