Qi (state)
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Qi State
Qi

?
*Dz?j
1046 BC-221 BC
Qi in 260 BC
Qi in 260 BC
StatusDuchy (1046-323 BC)
Kingdom (323-221 BC)
CapitalYingqiu (Zibo)
Bogu (Binzhou)
Religion
Chinese folk religion
ancestor worship
GovernmentMonarchy
King of Qi 
Chancellor 
o 685-645 BC
Guan Zhong
History 
o Enfeoffment of Duke Tai
1046 BC
o Conquered by Qin
221 BC
CurrencyKnife money
Preceded by
Succeeded by
The Great Wall of Qi on Dafeng Mountain

Qi was a state of the Zhou dynasty-era in ancient China, variously reckoned as a march, duchy, and independent kingdom. Its capital was Yingqiu, located within present-day Linzi in Shandong.

Qi was founded shortly after the Zhou overthrow of Shang in the 11th centuryBC. Its first marquis was Jiang Ziya, minister of King Wen and a legendary figure in Chinese culture. His family ruled Qi for several centuries before it was replaced by the Tian family in 386BC.[1] In 221BC, Qi was the final major state annexed by Qin during its unification of China.

History

Bronze knife-shaped coins of State of Qi, collected in Shandong Museum

Foundation

During the Zhou conquest of Shang, Jiang Ziya served as the chief minister to King Wu. After Wu's death, Jiang remained loyal to the Duke of Zhou during the Three Guards' failed rebellion against his regency. The Shang prince Wu Geng had joined the revolt along with the Dongyi states of Yan, Xu, and Pugu. These were suppressed by 1039 BC and Jiang was given the Pugu lands in what is now western Shandong as the march of Qi. Little information survives from this period, but the Bamboo Annals suggest that the native people of Pugu continued to revolt for about another decade before being destroyed a second time c. 1026.

In the mid-9th century BC, King Yi (r. 865-58BC) attacked Qi and boiled Duke Ai to death. Under the reign of King Xuan (r.827-782), there was a local succession struggle. During this time, many of the native Dongyi peoples were absorbed into the Qi state.

Spring and Autumn period

Sacrificial horses discovered in the tomb of Duke Jing of Qi

In 706BC, Qi was attacked by the Shan Rong. Qi rose to prominence under Duke Huan of Qi (685-643BC). He and his minister Guan Zhong strengthened the state by centralizing it. He annexed 35 neighboring states including Tan and brought others into submission. In 667BC, Duke Huan met with the rulers of Lu, Song, Chen and Zheng and was elected leader. Subsequently, King Hui of Zhou made him the first Hegemon. He attacked Wei for supporting a rival of the Zhou king and intervened in the affairs of Lu. In 664BC, he protected Yan from the Rong. In 659BC, he protected Xing and in 660, Wei, from the Red Di. In 656 he blocked the northward expansion of Chu. After his death, a war of succession broke out among his sons, greatly weakening Qi. The hegemony consequently passed to Jin.

In 632BC, Qi helped Jin defeat Chu at the Battle of Chengpu. In 589BC, Qi was defeated by Jin. In 579BC, the four great powers of Qin (west), Jin (center), Chu (south) and Qi (east) met to declare a truce and limit their military strength. In 546BC, a similar four-power conference recognized several smaller states as satellites of Qi, Jin and Qin.

Warring States period

Early in the period, Qi annexed a number of smaller states. Qi was one of the first states to patronize scholars. In 532BC, the Tian clan destroyed several rival families and came to dominate the state. In 485BC, the Tian killed the ducal heir and fought several rival clans. In 481BC, the Tian chief killed a puppet duke, most of the ruler's family, and a number of rival chiefs. He took control of most of the state and left the Duke with only the capital of Linzi and the area around Mount Tai. In 386BC, the House of Tian fully replaced the House of Jiang as rulers of Qi. In 221BC, Qi was the last of the warring states to be conquered by Qin, thereby putting an end to the wars and uniting China under the Qin Dynasty.

Culture of Qi

Before Qin unified China, each state had its own customs and culture. According to the Yu Gong or Tribute of Yu, composed in the 4th or 5th century BC and included in the Book of Documents, there were nine distinct cultural regions of China, which are described in detail in this book. The work focuses on the travels of the titular sage, Yu the Great, throughout each of the regions. Other texts, predominantly military, also discussed these cultural variations.

One of these texts was The Book of Master Wu, written in response to a query by Marquis Wu of Wei on how to cope with the other states. Wu Qi, the author of the work, declared that the government and nature of the people were reflective of the terrain of the environment in which they inhabited. Of Qi, he said:

Although Qi's troops are numerous, their organization is unstable... The people of Qi are by nature unyielding and their country prosperous, but the ruler and officials are arrogant and care nothing for the people. The state's policies are not uniform and not strictly enforced. Salaries and wages are unfair and unevenly distributed, causing disharmony and disunity. Qi's army is arrayed with their heaviest hitters at the front while the rest follow behind, so that even when their forces appear mighty, they are in reality fragile. To defeat them, we should divide our army into three columns and have two attack the left and right flanks of Qi's army. Once their battle formations are thrown into disarray, the central column should be in position to attack and victory will follow.

-- Wuzi, Master Wu

While visiting Qi, Confucius was deeply impressed with perfection of performance of Shao music ? therein.[2]

During the Warring States period, Qi was famous for its capital's academy Jixia, renowned scholars of the era from all over China visited the academy.

Qi architecture

Remains of Ancient Linzi city sewer passing underneath the former city wall of the Qi kingdom.

The state of Qi was known for having well organized cities that were nearly rectangular in shape, with roads that were neatly knit into a grid-like pattern. The palace was strategically positioned facing the south. To the left (eastwardly direction) of the palace resided the ancestral temple, to its right (westward) the temple of the gods, both one hundred paces away. This ensured that balance was achieved. In front of the palace was the court also one hundred paces away and to the back of the palace was the city. This type of layout influenced greatly the way cities were designed in subsequent generations.

Smaller cities known as chengyi () were abundant throughout Qi. They typically stretched 450 meters from south to north and 395 meters from east to west. The perimeter was usually surrounded by a wall with the living headquarters situated within and a nearly perfect square-shaped courtyard occupying the center.[3]

Qi in astronomy

Qi is represented by the star Chi Capricorni in the "Twelve States" asterism in the "Girl" lunar mansion in the "Black Turtle" symbol. Qi is also represented by the star 112 Herculis in the "Left Wall" asterism in the "Heavenly Market" enclosure.[]

Rulers

House of Jiang

Title Name Reign (BC) Relationship Notes
Duke Tai
Lü Shang
11th century Enfeoffed by King Wu of Zhou, with capital at Yingqiu
Duke Ding
Lü Ji
10th century 5th-generation descendant of Duke Tai Traditionally believed to be son of Duke Tai
Duke Y?
De
?
10th century Son of Duke Ding
Duke Gui
Cimu
c. 10th century Son of Duke Y?
Duke Ai
Buchen
9th century Son of Duke Gui Boiled to death by King Yi of Zhou
Duke Hu
Jing
?
9th century Son of Duke Gui Moved capital to Bogu, killed by Duke Xian
Duke Xian
Shan
?
859?-851 Son of Duke Gui Moved capital back to Linzi
Duke Wu
Shou
?
850-825 Son of Duke Xian
Duke Li
Wuji
824-816 Son of Duke Wu Killed by supporters of Duke Hu's son.
Duke Wen
Chi
?
815-804 Son of Duke Li
Duke Cheng
Yue
?
803-795 Son of Duke Wen
Duke Zhuang I
?
Gou
?
794-731 Son of Duke Cheng Reigned for 64 years
Duke Xi
Lufu
730-698 Son of Duke Zhuang I
Duke Xiang
Zhu'er
697-686 Son of Duke Xi Committed incest with sister Wen Jiang, murdered her husband Duke Huan of Lu, conquered the state of Ji, murdered by cousin Wuzhi
none Wuzhi
686 Cousin of Duke Xiang, grandson of Duke Zhuang I Killed by Yong Lin.
Duke Huan
Xiaobai
685-643 Younger brother of Duke Xiang First of the Five Hegemons, when Qi reached zenith of its power. Starved to death by ministers
none Wukui or Wugui
or
643 Son of Duke Huan Killed by supporters of Duke Xiao
Duke Xiao
Zhao
?
642-633 Son of Duke Huan Crown prince of Qi
Duke Zhao
Pan
?
632-613 Son of Duke Huan His supporters murdered the son of Duke Xiao
none She
?
613 Son of Duke Zhao Murdered by uncle Shangren
Duke Yì
Shangren
612-609 Uncle of She, son of Duke Huan Killed by two ministers
Duke Hui
Yuan
?
608-599 Son of Duke Huan Defeated Long Di invaders
Duke Qing
Wuye
598-582 Son of Duke Hui Defeated by Jin at the Battle of An
Duke Ling
Huan
?
581-554 Son of Duke Qing Annexed the State of Lai; defeated by Jin at the Battle of Pingyin, capital Linzi burned
Duke Zhuang II
?
Guang
?
553-548 Son of Duke Ling Ascended throne by killing Prince Ya with the help of Cui Zhu; committed adultery with Cui's wife, killed by Cui
Duke Jing
Chujiu
547-490 Half brother of Duke Zhuang II Killed Cui Zhu. Had famous statesman Yan Ying as prime minister
An Ruzi
Tu
?
489 Youngest son of Duke Jing Deposed by Tian Qi and killed by Duke Dao. Also called Yan Ruzi
Duke Dao
Yangsheng
488-485 Son of Duke Jing Killed by a minister, possibly Tian Heng
Duke Jian
Ren
?
484-481 Son of Duke Dao Killed by Tian Heng
Duke Ping
Ao
?
480-456 Brother of Duke Jian
Duke Xuan
Ji
?
455-405 Son of Duke Ping
Duke Kang
Dai
?
404-386 Son of Duke Xuan Deposed by Duke Tai of Tian Qi, died in 379

House of Tian

Subject to the House of Jiang
Posthumous name Personal name Leadership (BC) Relationship Notes
Tian Jingzhong
Chen Wan
Son of Duke Li of Chen Exiled to Qi from the State of Chen
Tian Mengyi
Tian Zhi
Son of Chen Wan
Tian Mengzhuang
Tian Min
Son of Mengyi
Tian Wenzi
Tian Xuwu
Son of Mengzhuang
Tian Huanzi
Tian Wuyu
Son of Wenzi
Tian Wuzi
Tian Kai
?-516 Son of Huanzi
Tian Xizi
Tian Qi
Brother of Wuzi Deposed An Ruzi
Tian Chengzi
Tian Heng
Son of Xizi Killed Duke Jian, became de facto ruler of Qi
Tian Xiangzi
Tian Pan
Son of Chengzi
Tian Zhuangzi
Tian Bai
?-411 Son of Xiangzi
Tian Daozi
unknown 410-405 Son of Zhuangzi
As rulers of Qi
Title Name Reign (BC) Relationship Notes
Duke Tai
Tian He
404-384 Son of Tian Bai Officially recognized as Qi ruler in 386BC
none Tian Yan
383-375 Son of Duke Tai Killed by Duke Huan.
Duke Huan
Tian Wu
374-357 Brother of Tian Yan
King Wei
Tian Yinqi
356-320 Son of Duke Huan Most powerful Qi ruler of the Warring States.
King Xuan
Tian Bijiang
319-300 Son of King Wei
King Min
Tian Di
300-283 Son of King Xuan Temporarily declared himself "Emperor of the East".
King Xiang
Tian Fazhang
283-265 Son of King Min
none Tian Jian
264-221 Son of King Xiang Qi conquered by Qin

Famous people

References

  1. ^ Burton Watson 2003 p.1. Xunzi: Basic Writings. https://books.google.com/books?id=0SE2AAAAQBAJ&pg=PA1
  2. ^ Analects, 17 ("Shu er"):14.
  3. ^ http://baike.baidu.com/view/2101263.htm, retrieved on July 5, 2016.

Further reading

  • Michael Loewe, ed. (2006). The Cambridge history of ancient China: from the origins of civilization to 221 BC. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-521-47030-8.
  • Glessner Creel, Herrlee (1979). The birth of China: a study of the formative period of Chinese civilization. New York: Ungar Publ. ISBN 0-8044-6093-0.

Coordinates: 36°49?00?N 118°18?00?E / 36.8167°N 118.3000°E / 36.8167; 118.3000


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Qi_(state)
 



 



 
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