A quotative (abbreviated QUOT) is a grammatical device to mark quoted speech in some languages, and as such it preserves the grammatical person and tense of the original utterance rather than adjusting it as would be the case with reported speech. It can be equated with "spoken quotation marks".
Quotative van can be used in combination with a verb of speech, as in the above example, a noun designating something with message-carrying content, or a light verb, e.g. a copula (like for English quotative like).
In speech, the word like in this use is typically followed by a brief pause, indicated here with a comma. This quotative construction is particularly common for introducing direct speech indicating someone's attitude.
The following sentences show the use of the first person and non-first person quotative particles respectively. Note the preservation of both the person and tense of the original utterances:
|He-ERG||cry-AOR||when||I told-AOR him||that||your||son-NOM||in the army||must||he goes-OPT||1st person quot.|
|"The old man cried when I told him that his son had to enter the army" lit. "that 'your son has to enter the army.'"|
|To Kakheti||but||Intourist-GEN||excursion-DAT||must||you accompany-OPT it||3rd person quot.|
|"But (they said) that I had to accompany an Intourist excursion to Kakheti" lit. "that 'you must accompany'"|
Note that this second sentence omits an overt verbum dicendi since the original speaker is already known, and context makes it clear that the speaker was the original addressee.
|"They said that they were ready" lit. "that 'we are ready "|
In Japanese, the quotative ? [to] is used to indicate direct speech in this sentence:
|Ishida-san||wa||"tomato ga suki janai"||to||iimashita.|
|Mr. Ishida||top.||"tomato-nom. like-neg."||quot.||say-past-polite|
|"Mr. Ishida said that he didn't like tomatoes" lit. "that 'I don't like tomatoes'"|
The following example shows the preservation of both grammatical person and the tense in a quoted utterance using the quotative particle:
|Kanojo||wa||boku||ni||"anata ga suki da"||to||itta.|
|She||top.||I||dat.||"you-nom. like cop."||quot.||say-past|
|"She told me that she liked me" lit. "that 'I like you'"|
See Japanese grammar for more examples of when ? (to) is used.
In Korean, the marker rago follows the quoted sentence clause, marking direct quotation as follows:
|Joohyun sshi||neun||jeo||ege||"niga joha"||rago||malhaesseoyo.|
|Ms. Joohyun||top.||I||dat.||"you-nom. like"||quot.||say-past-polite|
|"Joohyun told me that she liked me." lit. "that 'I like you.'"|
The verb malhada, "to say", is often shortened to hada, meaning "to do". This is because the quotative marker alone makes it obvious the quote was said by someone, so saying the whole verb is redundant.
Indirect quotation works similarly, albeit using different markers. When quoting a plain sentence, the marker ?/ n/neundago ( ndago after vowels, neundago after consonants) is attached to the quoted verb. When quoting adjectives, dago is used:
|Joohyun sshi||neun||jeo||ege||jega johtago||haesseoyo.|
|Ms. Joohyun||top.||I||dat.||I-nom. like-quot.||say-past-polite|
|"Joohyun told me that she liked me."|
When quoting the copula ida, the marker rago is used instead:
|"Kyungsoo told me that he's still a student."|
Question sentences are marked with the quotative marker nyago, which changes to neunyago after verbs ending in a consonant and to eunyago after adjectives ending in a consonant.
|"I asked Yoona if she has tried mango." lit. "has the experience of eating mango"|
|Jeo||neun||Jongdae sshi||ege||gong-won||euro||gago shipeunyago||mureobwasseoyo.|
|I||top.||Mr. Jongdae||dat.||park||towards||go-to want-question-quot.||ask-past-polite|
|"I asked Jongdae whether he would like to go to the park."|
In contrast, indirect speech uses the opposite order. The reported utterance is preceded by the verb of utterance and introduced by the conjunctive particle ki, comparable to English "that":
In Sanskrit, the quotative marker iti is used to convey the meaning of someone (or something) having said something.
|He says that they come to his house (He says, "They come to my house.")|
In the following English sentence, no word indicates the quoted speech.
John said, "Wow,"
John Wow kiyalaa kivvaa
It has an overt indication of quoted speech after the quoted string Wow, the quotative kiyalaa.
In Telugu, traditionally the words andi (for female and neuter singular), meaning she said that or it said, annu (for male singular), meaning he said that and ann?ru (for plural), meaning They said are used as quotative markers. However, in recent times, many Telugu speakers are resorting to use the Latin quotation marks ("...") to convey speech.
? ? (tanu iiki ve?ad?mu annu)
means, He said that we will go to home, literally, He Said, "We'll go home".