King of Lanka
Statue of Ravana from 18th century CE
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Dashagriva or Ruwin or Dashakantha (Ten-headed)
Ravana is described as having been as a follower of Shiva, a great scholar, a capable ruler and a maestro of the Veena, but someone who wished to overpower the Devas. His ten heads represent his knowledge of the six shastras and the four Vedas. In the Ramayana, Ravana kidnaps Rama's wife Sita to exact vengeance on Rama and his brother Lakshmana for having cut off the nose of his sister Shurpanakha.
Ravana is worshiped by Hindus of Bisrakh, who claim their town to be his birthplace. He is considered to be the most revered devotee of Shiva. Images of Ravana are seen associated with Shiva at some places. He also appears in Buddhist Mahayana text La?k?vat?ra S?tra, and Buddhist Ramayanas and Jatakas, as well as in Jain Ramayanas.
The word R?va?a ( Sinhalese /Tamil:?/Sanskrit ) means roaring opposite of Vai?rava?a meaning "hear distinctly" (passive). Both Ravana and Vai?rava?a, who is popularly known as Kubera, are considered to be patronymics derived as sons of Vishrava.
"R?vana" was a title taken on later by Dashananda, and it means in Sanskrit, "screamer." (Ravana would sing hymns). Further, "roravana" is Sanskrit for "loud roaring." In Abhinava Gupta's Krama Shaiva scripture, "y?s?m r?vanam" is used as an expression to mean people who are truly aware in terms of the materialism of their environment.
Ravana is depicted and described as having ten heads, although sometimes he is shown with only nine heads because he has sacrificed a head to convince Shiva. He is described as a devout follower of Shiva, a great scholar, a capable ruler and a maestro of the Veena (pronounced veh-nah). Ravana is also depicted as the author of the Ravana Samhita, a book on Hindu astrology and book Arka Prakasham; book on Siddha medicine and treatment . Ravana possessed a thorough knowledge of Siddha and political science. He is said to have possessed the nectar of immortality, which was stored inside his belly, thanks to a celestial boon by Brahma.[page needed]
Ravana was born to a great sage Vishrava (or Vesamuni), and his wife, the daitya princess Kaikeshi. People of Bisrakh village in Uttar Pradesh claim that Bisrakh was named after Vishrava, and Ravana was born there. But according to Hela historical sources and folklore, Rawana was born in Lanka, who later becomes its king.
Ravana's grandfather on his father's side, the sage Pulastya, was one of the ten Prajapatis or mind-born sons of Brahma and one of the Saptarishi (Seven Great Sages Rishi) in the first Manvantara. His grandfather on his mother's side, Sumali (or Sumalaya), king of the Raksasas, was the son of Sukesha. Sukesa's parents were King Vidyutkesa, who had married Salakantankata (daughter of Sandhya), who had abandoned Sukesha, but by the grace of Shiva he survived. Sumali had wished her to marry the most powerful being in the mortal world, so as to produce an exceptional heir. He rejected the kings of the world, as they were less powerful than him. Kaikesi searched among the sages and finally chose Vishrava, the father of Kubera. Ravana and his siblings were born to the couple. They completed their education from their father, with Ravana being a great scholar of the Vedas. The brothers performed penances on Mt Gokarna for 11,000 years and won boons from Brahma. Ravana was blessed with a boon that would make him invincible to the creation of Brahma, except for humans. He also received weapons, chariot as well as the ability to shapeshift from Brahma. Ravana later usurped Lanka from his half-brother Kubera and became the King of Lanka. He appointed Shukracharya as his priest and learnt Arthashastra from him. Rama once addressed Ravana as a "Maha Brahman" ("Great Brahman" in the context of his education).
After worshiping Shiva on the banks of the Narmada, in the more central Yadu region, Ravana was captured and held under the control of king Kartavirya Arjuna, one of the greatest Yadu kings. It is clear from the references in the Ramayana that Ravana was no commoner among the Humans or Asuras, a great chanter of the Sama Veda.
Ravana's family are hardly mentioned outside the Ramayana, which is viewed by some as being only the point of view of Rama devotees. According to that:
One of the most original, which is not found in earlier manuscripts, tells how Ravana orders his court priest Brhaspati (all the gods are his slaves) to read the Chandi stava (mantras of Chandi), that is, the Devi Mahatmya, in order to stave off defeat; if he can recite it. According to the Krttivasa text, Ravana arranged for a peaceful yajna (sacrifice) and to start the recitation of Chandi, Brhaspati was invited. Accordingly, Brhaspati recited the same correctly.
In the Bhagavata Purana, Ravana and his brother, Kumbhakarna, were said to be reincarnations of Jaya and Vijaya, gatekeepers at Vaikuntha, the abode of Vishnu and were cursed to be born in Earth for their insolence.
These gatekeepers refused entry to the Sanatha Kumara monks, who, because of their powers and austerity appeared as young children. For their insolence, the monks cursed them to be expelled from Vaikuntha and to be born on Earth.
Vishnu agreed that they should be punished. They were given two choices, that they could be born seven times as normal mortals and devotees of Vishnu, or three times as powerful and strong people, but as enemies of Vishnu. Eager to be back with the Lord, they choose the latter one. Ravana and his brother Kumbhakarna were born to fulfill the curse on the second birth as enemies of Vishnu in the Treta Yuga. The curse of first birth was fulfilled by Hiranyakashipu and his brother Hiranyaksha in Satya Yuga when they were both vanquished by earlier avatars of Vishnu (Hiranyaksha by Varaha and Hiranyakashipu by Narasimha) and the curse of third birth was fulfilled by Dantavakra and Shishupala in the Dwapar Yuga when they both were slain by Krishna, the eighth avatar.
Ravana had gotten into a conflict with some other major Asuras.
According to the Uttra Kanda section of Ramayana, the Rakshasa were the demons or evil people in Sri Lanka. They were led by Malyavantha, Sumali and Sukesha of the Rakshasa, who were ousted by the Deva with the help of Vishnu, and then subsequently ruled by King Ravana.
The Kanyakubja Brahmins of Vidisha district worship Ravana as he is personified as a symbol of prosperity and regarded as a saviour by them, and they claim that Ravana was also a Kanyakubja Brahmin. Thousands of Kanyakubja Brahmins of the village Ravangram of Netaran, in the Vidisha District of Madhya Pradesh, perform daily puja (worship) in the Ravan temple and offer naivedyam / bhog (a ritual of sacrifice to the Gods). Centuries ago King Shiv Shankar built a Ravana temple at Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh. The Ravana temple is opened once in a year, on Dashehra Day, to perform puja for the welfare of Ravana.
The Sachora Brahmins of Gujarat also claim to descend from Ravana, and have "Ravan" as their surnames sometimes.
There is also reference to "Ravani", lineage of Upadhyaya Yasastrata II, who was of the Gautama gotra and was a son of Acharya Vasudatta, and described as "born of Ravani" 
The Gondi people of central India claim to be descendants of Ravana, and they also have temples set up for him, his wife Mandodari, and their son Meghnad. They also state that Ravana was ancient Gond king, and the tenth dharmaguru of their tribe. Every year on Dussehra, the Gondis of the village of Paraswadi carry an image of Ravana riding on an elephant in a procession.
Baijnath Temple was a Shaiva temple in Himachal Pradesh state, also known as Ravankhola (Place of Ravana).
Kakinada is a Shaiva temple in Andhra Pradesh containing a huge Shivalinga, supposedly installed by Ravana himself, with a statue of Ravana near by. Both Shivalinga and Ravana are worshiped by the fishermen community there.
Effigies of Ra are burned on Vijayadashami, in India at many places. It is said that it is symbolisation of triumph over evil (i.e. Ravana) by Rama.
The ancient instrument known as a Ravanahatha is said to have belonged to a sovereign in present-day India around 5000 BC. It replicates the ancient instrument called Ravan Hatta which is found even today in Rajasthan. Mythology credits this creation to Ravana.
A Ramleela actor wears the traditional attire of Ravana. One of the most important literary works of ancient India, the Ramayana has had a profound impact on art and culture in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
There is also texts attributed to Ravana. The Ravan Samhita is an astrological text or scripture narrated by Shiva and written by Ravana.
The Ravanakumara Tantra is a part of the tantric rituals of the Kriyakalagunottara Tantra, and it is an 11th-century Sanskrit work for the treatment of children's diseases. It is also known as the Ravanaproktabalacikitsasutra ("Sutra Spoken by Ravana on the Curing of Children's Diseases.")
Ravana appears as the composer of the 16th century C.E. text, Arka Prakasa, which is a dialogue between the king of Lanka and his wife Mandodhari about which herbs and chemicals can be used in a mixture to cure illnesses, such as syphilis
Ravana is also the composer of the 16th century C.E. scriptures Nadi Pariksa and Nadi Vijnana on knowledge about the veins.
Ravana is the composer of the Ravanabhet, a Vedic text on phonetics of the Sanskrit language.
Ravana is also the composer of the Ravaniya, also known as Ravanabaith, text on phonetics of the Telugu language.
"Ravana Lankesvara" is to whom the Prakrta-Kamadhenu grammatical text on the Prakrit language is attributed.
There is also the Samkhya scripture known as the Ravana-bhasya, which is also known as Ravanabhasya, is believed to be written by Ravana.
The writer of the Vaisesika scripture Katandi (commentary on the Vaisesika Sutra) is attributed to have been written by Ravana.
Ravana is also the name used by a commentator of the Shaiva Rudrapurascharana.
"Ravanacharya" is the scholar who wrote the Padaratna, a commentary on the Rig Veda.
Ravana is the composer of the Shavite scripture, Shiva Tandava Stotram.
Rama is always the protagonist. In Rin-spuns-pa Tibetan Ramayana, it is prophesied that "Ramana" will return as the Buddha incarnation of Vishnu in the Kali Yuga.
The Khamti Ramayana as well describes Rama as a Bodhisattva incarnated to punish demon Ravana.
In the Laotian Buddhist text, Phra Lak Phra Lam, Rama is a Bodhisattva and the embodiment of virtues, while Ravana is a Brahmin ("mahabrahma") son of Virulaha but is highly materialistic.
In the Cambodian Buddhist text, Preah Ream, Buddha is an incarnation of Rama and Ravana is a rakshasa.
In the Lankavatara Sutra, Gautama Buddha pays a visit to Ravana in the demon's layer in Lanka, and in the scripture he is addressed as a "Rakshasas." He is normally identified as a demon.
In the Karandavyuha Sutra, god Yama asks if the visitor in hell (Avalokitesvara) that he hasn't seen yet is a god or a demon, and asks whether he is Vishnu, Mahesvara, or the "rakshasa" ("demon") Ravana.
Jain accounts vary from the traditional Hindu accounts of Ramayana. The incidents are placed at the time of the 20th Tirthankara, Munisuvrata. According to Jain version, both Rama as well as Ravana were devout Jains. Ravana was a Vidyadhara King having magical powers. Also, as per the Jain accounts, Ravana was killed by Lakshmana and not Rama in the end.