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Re?i?a
City
Re?i?a downtown and distant view of Govândari neighborhood. Panoramic view with the newest part of the city or Govândari.
Re?i?a downtown and distant view of Govândari neighborhood.
Panoramic view with the newest part of the city or Govândari.
Re?i?a is located in Romania
Re?i?a
Re?i?a
Location of Re?i?a in Romania
Coordinates: 45°18?0?N 21°53?25?E / 45.30000°N 21.89028°E / 45.30000; 21.89028Coordinates: 45°18?0?N 21°53?25?E / 45.30000°N 21.89028°E / 45.30000; 21.89028
Country Romania
CountyCara?-Severin County
StatusCounty capital
Government
 o MayorIoan Popa (PNL)
Area
 o Total197.65 km2 (76.31 sq mi)
Population
(2011)
 o Total73,282
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 o Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
ClimateCfb
Websiteprimaria-resita.ro

Re?i?a (Romanian pronunciation: ['re?it?sa]; German: Reschitz; Hungarian: Resicabánya; Croatian: Ri?ica; Czech: Re?ice; Serbian: /Re?ica; Turkish: Re?çe) is a city in western Romania and the capital of Cara?-Severin County, in the Banat region. Its 2011 population was 73,282.

Etymology

The name of Re?i?a might come from the Latin recitia, meaning "cold spring", as the historian Nicolae Iorga once suggested, presuming that the Romans gave this name to Resita, from a water spring on the Doman valley. A much more plausibile version, according to Iorgu Iordan, would be that the name is actually coming from a Slavic word: people living in the neighbouring village of Cara?ova 15 km away, referring to this place, that in those days was a similar village to theirs, as being ,,u re?ice" (at the creek). It can also be noted that almost all Slavic countries have places with the name of Re?ice (pronounced Reci?e in Romanian).[1]

History

Historically, the town has its origins in the 15th century under the name of Rechyoka and Rechycha. Archaeological research found traces of habitation going back to the Neolithic, Dacian and Roman eras. It was mentioned in 1673 under the name of Reszinitza, whose citizens paid taxes to Timi?oara, and by the years 1690-1700, it was mentioned as being part of the District of Boc?a together with other towns in the Bârzava Valley. The town was referenced to in the conscription acts of 1717 under the name of Retziza. On 3 July 1771, it became an important metal-manufacturing center in the region. The foundation of the industrial Re?i?a were laid with the establishment of factories near the villages of Re?i?a Român? (Reschiza Kameral? or Oláh Resitza) and Re?i?a Montan? (Eisenwerk Reschitza, Német(h) Reschitza or Resiczbánya). Re?i?a Montan? was at first inhabited by Romanians[dubious ][need quotation to verify], and later, in 1776, 70 German families settled there. Between 1880 and 1941, Germans were the dominant population in the city, with as many of them as 12,096 residing here in 1941, as opposed to 9,453 Romanians, and 1861 Hungarians living here in the same year. Between the years 1910-1925, Re?i?a had the status of a rural area, and in 1925, it was declared a town thanks to its development to a powerful industrial location in modern Romania. In 1968, it became a municipality.

After 1989 Re?i?a lost most of its importance and its economy faced a drawback, along with the Romanian economy. The population also suffered a decrease, dropping from 110,000 in 1989 to 86,000 in 2006. After the fall of communism, the Re?i?a Steelworks (Combinatul Siderurgic Re?i?a, CSR) were bought by an American investor who brought the factory just one step away from bankruptcy. Today the steelworks are run by TMK Europe GmbH, a German subsidiary of the OAO TMK, Moscow, who has projects of modernization for the CSR.

The city

The city is situated along the Bârzava river, which meets the Doman river in the centre of town. Most of the urban area is concentrated along the Bârzava, with some development--mostly residential--in the surrounding hills.

It is made of three main areas, two former villages that were very close: Romanian Re?i?a (Romanian: Re?i?a Român? or Olah Resitza) and Highland Re?i?a (Romanian: Re?i?a Montan?, Eisenwerk Reschitza or Nemet Reschitza); a new area, recently built, made of tower blocks on a wide opened meadow, called Bârzava's Meadow.[2]

Neighbourhoods of Re?i?a
Neighbourhood
name
Official name Former name Occasional name Additional name
New City Bârzava's Meadow New Re?i?a North Re?i?a Govândari
entirely built after 1965, under the Socialist Romania, it contains 4 zone areas around a main boulevard, called microraions, a legacy term of the former Soviet Union:
  • Micro I
  • Micro II
  • Micro III
  • Micro IV
Downtown City Centre Romanian Re?i?a South Re?i?a N/A
rebuilt after the installment of the Socialist Romania in 1947,[2] it contains the following zone areas:
  • Centre - Civic center, rarely City centre
  • Doman - The Doman's Valley
    (Romanian: Valea Domanului)
  • Lunc? - The Pomost's Meadow
    (Romanian: Lunca Pomostului)
  • Moroasa made of Moroasa I and II
  • Romanian Re?i?a (Romanian: Re?i?a Român?)
  • The Clear Glade Hill or The Clear Glade Colony
    (Romanian: Colonia Poiana Golului)
Old City Commuter belt
(Romanian: Muncitoresc)
Highland Re?i?a Old Re?i?a N/A
it has the oldest buildings of the city, mostly houses, and it contains the following zone areas:
  • New Driglov
    (Romanian: Driglovul Nou)
  • Old Driglov
    (Romanian: Driglovul Vechi)
  • Weir (Romanian: St?vila)
  • Minda
  • Ba?ov
  • Lend, Marginea Lend or just Marginea

The Civic centre of the city has been partially renovated in 2006. An important point of attraction located in the City Centre is the impressive kinetic fountain designed by Constantin Lucaci, built in the communist era.

There are also important cultural points in Re?i?a that have been renewed in 2006, including the Concrete School ?coala de Beton), Downtown and the Polyvalent hall (Sala Polivalent?).

The Re?i?a Steam Locomotive Museum features Romania's first locomotive built in Romania at Re?i?a in 1872, and is located in the open-air museum in the (Romanian: Triaj) neighborhood.

An important iron and steel center, Re?i?a is the site of blast furnaces, iron foundries, and plants producing electrical appliances, chemicals and machinery (see Re?i?a works).

View of the Re?i?a's local factory in the early 20th century
Local factory in the early 20th century
Present time view of a small part of the Re?i?a Steelworks
Small part of the Re?i?a Steelworks
City Hall in the City Centre
City Hall in the City Centre
Museum of Highland Banat
Museum of Highland Banat
Community Centre
Community Centre

The city administers six villages: Câlnic (Kölnök), Cuptoare (Kuptore), Doman (Domány), Moniom (Monyó), Secu (Székul; Sekul) and ?erova (Krassócser).

Also, the city is a hub for leisure locations all around. Locations near Re?i?a include the ski resort at Semenic, Lake Gozna, Lake Secu, the Trei Ape Lake (Three Rivers Lake), G?râna, Brebu, and V?liug.

Demographics

Census evolution:

At the last census, from 2011, there were 65,509 people living within the city of Re?i?a,[3] making it the 29th largest city in Romania. The ethnic makeup is as follows:

Religion

Catholic Church in Re?i?a dedicated to Our Lady of the Snows.
Synagogue in Re?i?a.

According to the 1880 Austro-Hungarian census the residents were:

Today there are many of the old churches in service and new ones:

  • Roman Catholic churches
    • Saint Mary of the Snows Church (Old City) (Romanian: Biserica Maria Z?pezii)
    • Trinity Sunday Church (Govândari) (Romanian: Biserica Duminica Preasfintei Treimi)
  • Orthodox churches
    • New Joseph from Parto? Church (City Center) (Romanian: Sfântul Ierarh Iosif cel Nou de la Parto?)
    • Pentecost Church (Govândari) (Romanian: Pogorârea Sfântului Duh)
    • Saints Peter and Paul Church (Govândari) (Romanian: Sfin?ii Apostoli Petru ?i Pavel)
    • Saints Peter and Paul Church (Lend) (Romanian: Sfin?ii Apostoli Petru ?i Pavel)
    • Saint Basil the Great Church (Moroasa) (Romanian: Sfântul Vasile cel Mare)
    • Church of the Holy Archangels Michael and Gabriel (Moroasa) (Romanian: Sfin?ii Arhangheli Mihail ?i Gavriil)
  • Orthodox cathedral
    • Adormirea Maicii D-lui (Old City)
    • Schimbarea la Fa (Govândari)
  • Lutheran church (Old City) - build in the 19th century
  • Reformed church (Old City)
  • Eastern Catholic church (Govândari)
  • Synagogue (Old City)

Economy

The Banca Comercial? Român?'s building in Re?i?a

Re?i?a has long been considered as the second-largest industrial center of Romania. It is an important center in manufacturing steel and vehicle manufacturing. C.S.R. (Combinatul Siderurgic Re?i?a) and U.C.M.R., the first Romanian factory (Uzina Constructoare de Ma?ini Re?i?a). The two are called as Re?i?a works and are the factories which sustained the city's life for more than 300 years. The first factories were built in 1771, during the reign of Maria Theresa. During the 19th century, the steel works were known as StEG. After the end of World War I, when Banat became part of Romania, they changed their name again, this time to Uzinele ?i Domeniile Re?i?a or UDR (Re?i?a Works and Domains). Only later, under the Communist regime, did the UDR split to CSR and UCMR.

The economy of Re?i?a has faced a drawback since 1989, but began recovering as investment is on the rise.[]

  • Industry: Automobile industry, Iron industry, texture industry, civilian constructions;
  • Agriculture: 1% of the labour force of the city works in agriculture;
  • Services: public alimentation, internal and international transport;
  • Tourism: 2 tourism societies (Tourist Semenic SA and BIRTA SA).

Shopping

Re?i?a currently has 6 supermarkets of which two Carrefour supermarkets, one Lidl supermarket, one Billa supermarket, one Lidl supermarket and one Kaufland near the road entrance from Boc?a. The Shopping Center of Re?i?a is called Nera Shopping Center located in the Civic Centre. There are a variety of companies operating in Re?i?a, offering almost everything a normal consumer would need. There are some other shopping centres currently under development such as Re?i?a Shopping City located on the site of the old thermal plant, or the mall of the Mociur area.

Transport

Public transport

The GT8 Tram used in Re?i?a
Boulevard crossing in downtown (2007).

Re?i?a's public transport relays on 6 bus lines, and was operated by the actually defunct Prescom company. It is now operated by TUR.

Buses

Re?i?a's bus fleet consists of about 25 buses running on 6 lines:

  • 1M/2:[6] Marginea - Minda - Mol/Mopar/Molizilor
  • 4: Moroasa II - Lend/Baraj (dam of Secu Lake) - CET - Molizilor - Moroasa II
  • 8: Intim - Moniom - Intim
  • 9: Intim - ?erova - Intim
  • 10: Nera - Doman - Nera
  • 11: Pia?a Republicii - Minda - Cuptoare - Pia?a Republicii

Re?i?a's bus fleet was to be upgraded sometime during 2009.

Trams

Trams have been decommissioned. As of 2008 the new mayor announced his intention to decommission all trams and replace them with modern buses complying with EU standards.

The 2 Tram Lines were Renk-Muncitoresc line (0), and Renk-Stavila line (DP) which was basically an expansion of the Renk-Muncitoresc line, but there were only 3 trams on this line. The full tram fleet was consisting of about 28 trams. The last trams were GT8 models imported from Germany, and fully replaced the former pre-89 trams in 2002.

In 2017 it was announced that a new company was created to deal with the public transportation problem, called Transport Urban Re?i?a (TUR), consisting of a bus and tram fleet of modern standards for its passengers, bringing a new and efficient transportation system back to Re?i?a.

Trains

Road transport

Re?i?a features a main 4 lane road that connects the neighbourhood Stavila to the neighbourhood of Calnic. This main road passes through almost all important neighbourhoods in Re?i?a. The rest of the neighbourhoods in Re?i?a are accessible via 2 lane secondary roads or single-lane roads. Roads of Re?i?a are usually well maintained, especially the main road, but there are occasional pot-holes on secondary roads. The road signs are usually well placed and well maintained, and traffic is usually friendly and traffic jams are a myth. Accidents are very rare and almost never lethal. Externally Re?i?a is connected by national roads to Caransebe? (Continued to Bucharest) and respectively Timi?oara. There are also 3 county roads connecting Re?i?a to Oravi?a, N?ida? and respectively Anina.

Notable people

Cristian Chivu during a match in 2011

Sport

Association football

Handball

Sister cities

References

  1. ^ "Începuturile Re?i?ei". istoriabanatului. 17 June 2009. Retrieved 2011.
  2. ^ a b "Historamic view over Re?i?a downtown". History Pin. 18 June 2010. Retrieved 2013.
  3. ^ "Ethno-demographic Structure of Romania". The Ethnocultural Diversity Resource Center. Retrieved 2011.
  4. ^ ?igl?, Erwin Joseph (2004) [2001]. "Resita Montana". In Konig, Waldermar (ed.). Biserici Romano-Catolice din Arhidiaconatul Montan (in Romanian) (a doua ed.). Re?ita: ColorPrint Re?ita. p. 110. ISBN 973-97258-5-6.
  5. ^ http://www.recensamantromania.ro/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/TS6.pdf
  6. ^ "Bus schedule" (PDF). istoriabanatului. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 2011.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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