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Republic of New Granada
República de la Nueva Granada (Spanish)
Motto: Libertad y Orden
(English: Liberty and Order)
Republic of the New Granada
|Capital||Santa Fé de Bogotá|
|20 October 1831|
o Constitutional Change
|11 April 1858|
The Republic of New Granada was a centralist unitary republic consisting primarily of present-day Colombia and Panama with smaller portions of today's Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, and Brazil. It was created after the dissolution of Gran Colombia in 1830, with the secession of Ecuador (Quito, Guayaquil and Azuay) and Venezuela (with Orinoco, Apure and Zulia). In November 1831, with the adoption a new constitution, the country was officially renamed New Grenada, but had no official currency, iconography, coat of arms or flag upon establishment. Older flags of Gran Colombia were confirmed as provisional by the National Convention of 17 December 1831. It is not clear which flag was chosen: Restrepo believes that it was the flag with the two cornucopias of Gran Colombia. While new flags were being discussed, some proposals were issued. On 9 May 1834, the national flag was adopted and was used until 26 November 1861, with the Gran Colombian colors in Veles' arrangement. The merchant ensign had the eight-pointed star in white.
In 1851, a civil war broke out when conservative and pro-slavery groups from Cauca and Antioquia departments, led by Manuel Ibánez, Julio Arboleda, and Eusebio Borrero, revolted against liberal president José Hilario López, in an attempt to prevent emancipation of disenfranchised groups and abolishment of slavery, in addition to a number of religious issues.
One of the prime features of the political climate of the republic was the position of the Roman Catholic Church and the level of autonomy for the federal states. In 1839, a dispute arose over the shutting down of monasteries by the Congress of New Granada. This soon escalated into the War of the Supremes, which raged for the next two years and transformed into a conflict about regional autonomy.
New Granada was transformed in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation as an answer to demands for a decentralized country.
The territory of the republic was divided into provinces. Each province was composed of one or more cantons, each canton was divided into several districts.
The republic also included some territories in the peripheries of the country.