Republics of Russia
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Republics of Russia
Republics of Russia1.png
CategoryFederated state
LocationRussian Federation
Populations206,195 (Altai) - 4,072,102 (Bashkortostan)
Areas3,628 km2 (1,401 sq mi) (Ingushetia) - 3,083,523 km2 (1,190,555 sq mi) (Yakutia)
GovernmentRepublic Government
Subdivisionsadministrative: districts, cities and towns of republic significance, towns of district significance, urban-type settlements of district significance, selsoviets; municipal: urban okrugs, municipal districts, urban settlements, rural settlements

According to the Constitution, the Russian Federation is divided into 85 federal subjects (constituent units), 22 of which are "republics". Most of the republics represent areas of non-Russian ethnicity, although there are several republics with Russian majority. The indigenous ethnic group of a republic that gives it its name is referred to as the "titular nationality". Due to decades (in some cases centuries) of internal migration inside Russia, each nationality is not necessarily a majority of a republic's population.


The republics were established in early Soviet Russia. On 15 November 1917, Vladimir Lenin issued the Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia, giving Russia's minorities the right to self-determination.[1] However, most of these new states would be re-conquered by the Soviets during the Russian Civil War. When the Soviet Union was formally created on 30 December 1922, the minorities of the country were relegated to Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics (ASSR), which had less power than the Republics of the Soviet Union. The early Soviet authorities nevertheless encouraged minorities to join the governments of their republics to represent themselves and de-Russify the country in a period known as korenizatsiya.[2] This policy also affected ethnic Russians and was particularly enforced in ASSRs where indigenous people were already a minority in their own homeland, like the Buryat ASSR.[3]

Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on the incorporation of Tuva into the Soviet Union as an autonomous oblast, 11 October 1944. Tuva would not become an ASSR until 1961.

By the 1930s, however, the mood shifted as the Soviet Union, now under Joseph Stalin, stopped enforcing korenizatsiya and began purging non-Russians from government and intelligentsia. Thus, a period of Russification set in.[2]Russian became mandatory in all areas of non-Russian ethnicity and the Cyrillic script became compulsory for all languages of the Soviet Union.[4] In theory, the ASSRs had power to enforce their own policies on language and culture, but by the time of the Great Purge, the ASSRs and their titular nationalities were some of the most effected by the purge and were in practice, strictly monitored by Moscow.[5] From 1937, the "bourgeois nationalists" became the "enemy of the Russian people" and korenizatsiya was abolished.[4] The autonomies of the ASSRs varied greatly throughout the history of the Soviet Union but Russification would nevertheless continue unabated and internal Russian migration to the ASSRs would result in various indigenous people becoming minorities in their own republics. At the same time, the number of ASSRs grew; the Karelian ASSR was formed on 6 July 1956 after briefly being a union republic from 1940[6] while the partially recognized state of Tannu Tuva was annexed by the Soviets on 11 October 1944 and became the Tuvan ASSR on 10 October 1961.[7] By the 1980s General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev's introduction of glasnost began a period of revitalization of minority culture in the ASSRs.[8]

The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 and the position of the ASSRs became uncertain. By law, the ASSRs did not have the right to secede from the Soviet Union like the union republics did[9][10] but the question of national sovereignty became a topic of discussion in some of the ASSRs. Prior to the Union's collapse, future Russian President Boris Yeltsin was an avid supporter of national sovereignty and granted the union republics independence in what was called a "parade of sovereignties".[9] In regards to the ASSRs, however, Yeltsin did not support secession and tried to prevent them from declaring independence. The Checheno-Ingush ASSR, led by Dzhokhar Dudayev, unilaterally declared independence on 1 November 1991[11] and Yeltsin would attempt to retake it on 11 December 1994, beginning the First Chechen War.[12] When the Tatar ASSR held a referendum on whether to declare independence on 21 March 1992, he had the ballot declared illegal by the Constitutional Court.[13] Yeltsin nevertheless supported giving the republics autonomy, appealing for them to "take as much sovereignty as you can swallow".[14]

Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Tatarstan President Mintimer Shaimiev shaking hands after signing an agreement to grant Tatarstan devolved powers, 15 February 1994.

On 31 March 1992, every subject of Russia except the Tatar ASSR and the de facto state of Chechnya signed the Treaty of Federation with the government of Russia, solidifying its federal structure and Boris Yeltsin became the country's first president.[15] The ASSRs were dissolved and became the modern day republics. The number of republics increased dramatically as former autonomous oblasts were elevated to full republics, including Altai and Karachay-Cherkessia,[16] while the Ingush portion of the Checheno-Ingush ASSR refused to be part of the breakaway state and rejoined Russia as the Republic of Ingushetia on 4 June 1992.[17] The Republic of Tatarstan demanded its own agreement to preserve its autonomy within the Russian Federation and on 15 February 1994, Moscow and Kazan signed a power-sharing agreement, in which the latter was granted a high degree of autonomy.[18] 45 other regions, including the other republics, would go on to sign autonomy agreements with the federal center.[19] Toward the end of the 1990s, the overly complex structure of the various bilateral agreements between regional governments and Moscow sparked a call for reform.[20] The constitution of Russia was the supreme law of the country, but in practice, the power-sharing agreements superseded it while the poor oversight of regional affairs left the republics to be governed by authoritarian leaders who ruled for personal benefit.[21] Yeltsin lost the First Chechen War and he resigned on 31 December 1999.[22]

Vladimir Putin was declared interim president. Prior to his resignation, an invasion by jihadists into the Republic of Dagestan resulted in Yeltsin sending troops into Chechnya again on 1 October 1999.[23] Putin inherited the war and forced the separatists to surrender, reintegrating the territory in to the Russian Federation as the Chechen Republic after federal troops captured Grozny on 6 February 2000.[24] He would participate in the 26 March 2000 election on the promise of completely restructuring the federal system and restoring the authority of the central government.[25] The power-sharing agreements began to gradually expire or be voluntarily abolished and after 2003, only Tatarstan and Bashkortostan continued to negotiate on their treaties' extensions.[26] Bashkortostan's power-sharing treaty expired on 7 July 2005,[27] leaving Tatarstan as the sole republic to maintain its autonomy, which was renewed on 11 July 2007.[28] After an attack by Chechen separatists at a school in Beslan, North Ossetia - Alania, Putin abolished direct elections for governors and assumed the power to personally appoint and dismiss them.[14] Throughout the decade, influential regional leaders like Mintimer Shaimiev of Tatarstan[29] and Murtaza Rakhimov of Bashkortostan,[30] who were adamant on extending their bilateral agreements with Moscow, were dismissed, removing the last vestiges of regional autonomy from the 1990s. On 24 July 2017, Tatarstan's power-sharing agreement with Moscow expired, making it the last republic to lose its special status. After the agreement's termination, some commentators expressed the view that Russia ceased to be a federation.[31][32][18]

Constitutional status

Rustam Minnikhanov, the President of Tatarstan. Until 2010, the leaders of the republics were allowed to have the title of President. Tatarstan is the only republic to maintain that title.[33]

Republics differ from other federal subjects in that they have the right to establish their own official language,[34] have their own constitution, and have a national anthem. Other federal subjects, such as krais and oblasts, are not explicitly given this right. During Boris Yeltsin's presidency, the republics were the first subjects to be granted extensive power from the federal government, and were often given preferential treatment over other subjects, which has led to Russia being characterized as an "asymmetrical federation ".[35][36] The Treat of Federation signed on 31 March 1992 stipulated that the republics were "sovereign states" that had expanded rights over natural resources, external trade, and internal budgets.[37] The signing of bilateral treaties with the republics would grant them additional powers, however, the amount of autonomy given differed by republic and was mainly based on their economic wealth rather than ethnic composition.[38]Yakutia, for example, was granted more control over its resources, being able to keep most of its revenue and sell and receive its profits for up to 20% independently due to its vast diamond deposits.[39] Tatarstan and Bashkortostan had the authority to establish their own foreign relations and conduct agreements with foreign governments.[40] This has led to criticism from oblasts and krais. After the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis, the current constitution was adopted but the republics were no longer classified as "sovereign states" and declared all subjects of the federation as equal, though maintaining the validity of the bilateral agreements.[41]

In theory, the constitution of Russia was the ultimate authority over the republics, but the power-sharing treaties held greater weight in practice. Republics often created their own laws which contradicted the constitution.[40] Yeltsin, however, made little effort to rein in renegade laws, preferring to turn a blind eye to violations in exchange for political loyalty.[42] Vladimir Putin's election on 26 March 2000 began a period of extensive reforms to centralize authority with the federal government and bring all laws in line with the constitution.[43] His first act as president was the creation of federal districts on 18 May 2000, which were tasked with exerting federal control over the country's subjects.[44] Putin later established the so-called "Kozak Commission" in June 2001 to examine the division of powers between the government and regions.[45] The Commission's recommendations focus mainly on minimizing the bases of regional autonomy and transferring lucrative powers meant for the republics to the federal government.[46] Centralization of power would continue as the republics gradually lost more and more autonomy to the federal government, leading the European Parliament to conclude that despite calling itself a federation, Russia functions as a unitary state.[47] On 21 December 2010, the State Duma voted to overturn previous laws allowing the leaders of the republics to hold the title of President[48] while a bill was passed on 19 June 2018 that elevated the status of the Russian language at the expense of other official languages in the republics.[49] The bill authorized for the abolishment of mandatory minority language classes in schools and for voluntary teaching to be reduced to two hours a week.[50]

There are secessionist movements in most republics, but these are generally not very strong. The constitution makes no mention on whether a republic can legally secede from the Russian Federation. However, the Constitutional Court of Russia ruled after the unilateral secession of Chechnya in 1991 that the republics do not have the right to secede and are inalienable parts of the country.[51] Despite this, some republican constitutions in the 1990s had articles giving them the right to become independent. This included Tuva, whose constitution had an article explicitly giving it the right to secede.[40] However, following Putin's centralization reforms in the early 2000s, these articles were subsequently dropped. The Kabardino-Balkar Republic, for example, adopted a new constitution in 2001 which prevents the republic from existing independently of the Russian Federation.[52] After Russia's annexation of Crimea, the State Duma adopted a law to penalize people calling for the separation of any part of the country on 5 July 2014.[53]

Status of Crimea

On 18 March 2014, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea of Ukraine was annexed by Russia after a disputed referendum.[54] The peninsula subsequently became the Republic of Crimea, the 22nd republic of Russia. However, Ukraine and most of the international community do not recognize Crimea's annexation[55] and the United Nations General Assembly declared the vote to be illegitimate.[56]


Flag Map Name
Domestic common and formal names
Titular Nationality
Population (2010)[57]
Flag of Adygea
Map showing Adygea in Russia

Republic of Adygea
Russian: -- ? (Adygeya -- Respublika Adygeya)

Adyghe: -- (Adygæ -- Adygæ Respublik)

Russian: (Maykop)

Adyghe: (Myjæqwapæ)
Adyghe 439,996 7,792 km2 (3,009 sq mi) 1991-07-03[58]
Flag of the Altai Republic
Map showing Altai in Russia

Altai Republic
Russian: -- ? (Altay -- Respublika Altay)

Altay: -- ? (Altay -- Altay Respublika)

Russian: -? (Gorno-Altaysk)

Altay: (Tuulu Altay)
Altai 206,168 92,903 km2 (35,870 sq mi) 1991-07-03[58]
Flag of Bashkortostan
Map showing Bashkortostan in Russia

Republic of Bashkortostan
Russian: -- ? (Bashkortostan -- Respublika Bashkortostan)

Bashkir: -- (Baortostan -- Baortostan Respublika?y)

Russian: (Ufa)

Bashkir: (Öfö)
Bashkirs 4,072,292 142,947 km2 (55,192 sq mi) 1919-03-23[59]
Flag of Buryatia
Map showing Buryatia in Russia

Republic of Buryatia
Russian: ? -- ? ? (Buryatiya -- Respublika Buryatiya)

Buryat: -- ? (Buryaadiya -- Buryaad Ulas)

Russian: ?- (Ulan-Ude)

Buryat: (Ulaan Üde)
Buryats 972,021 351,334 km2 (135,651 sq mi) 1923-05-30[60]
Flag of Chechnya
Map showing Chechnya in Russia

Chechen Republic
Russian: -- ? (Chechnya -- Chechenskaya Respublika)

Chechen: -- ? ? (Noxçiyçö -- Noxçiyn Respublika)

Russian: ? (Grozny)

Chechen: - (Söl?a-?ala)
Chechens 1,268,989 16,165 km2 (6,241 sq mi) 1993-01-10[a]
Flag of Chuvashia
Map showing Chuvashia in Russia

Chuvash Republic
Russian: ? -- ? (Chuvashiya -- Chuvashskaya Respublika)

Chuvash: -- ? (va? Jen -- va? Respubliki)

Russian: (Cheboksary)

Chuvash: (?upa?kar)
Chuvash 1,251,619 18,343 km2 (7,082 sq mi) 1925-04-21[61]
Flag of Crimea
Map showing Crimea in Russia

Republic of Crimea
Russian: ? -- ? ? (Krym -- Respublika Krym)

Ukrainian: ? -- ? ? (Krym -- Respublika Krym)

Crimean Tatar: -- (Q?r?m -- Q?r?m Cumhuriyeti)

Russian: (Simferopol)

Ukrainian: ?i (Simferopol)

Crimean Tatar: ? (Aqmescit)
--[c] 1,913,731 26,081 km2 (10,070 sq mi) 2014-03-18[54]
Flag of Dagestan
Map showing Dagestan in Russia

Republic of Dagestan
Russian: -- ? (Dagestan -- Respublika Dagestan) Makhachkala

Russian: (Makhachkala)
Nine indigenous nationalities[d] 2,910,249 50,270 km2 (19,409 sq mi) 1921-01-20[63]
Flag of Ingushetia
Map showing Ingushetia in Russia

Republic of Ingushetia
Russian: -- ? (Ingushetiya -- Respublika Ingushetiya)

Ingush: I? -- ?II ? (Ghalghajche -- Ghalghaj Moxk)

Russian: (Magas)

Ingush: (Magas)
Ingush 412,529 3,628 km2 (1,401 sq mi) 1992-06-04[17]
Flag of Kabardino-Balkaria
Map showing Kabardino-Balkaria in Russia

Kabardino-Balkar Republic
Russian: - -- -? ? (Kabardino-Balkariya -- Kabardino-Balkarskaya Respublika)

Kabardian: -? -- - ? (?êbêrdej-Baêriya -- ?êbêrdej-Baêr Respublikê)

Karachay-Balkar: - -- -? ? (Qabarti-Malqariya -- Qabart?-Malqar Respublika)

Russian: ? (Nalchik)

Kabardian: ? (Nalshchech)

Karachay-Balkar: ? (Nalchik)
Kabardians, Balkars 859,939 12,470 km2 (4,815 sq mi) 1936-12-05[64]
Flag of Kalmykia
Map showing Kalmykia in Russia

Republic of Kalmykia
Russian: -- ? (Kalmykiya -- Respublika Kalmykiya)

Kalmyk: -- (Ha?mg -- Ha?mg Tañ?ç)

Russian: (Elista)

Kalmyk: ? (Elst)
Kalmyks 289,481 74,731 km2 (28,854 sq mi) 1935-10-22[63]
Flag of Karachay-Cherkessia
Map showing Karachay-Cherkessia in Russia

Karachay-Cherkess Republic
Russian: - -- -? ? (Karachayevo-Cherkesiya -- Karachayevo-Cherkesskaya Respublika)

Karachay-Balkar: - -- - ? (Qaraçay-Çerkesiya -- Qaraçay-Çerkes Respublika)

Kabardian: - -- -? ? (?êrê?ei-?êrd?êsiya -- ?êrê?ei-?êrd?ês Respublikê)

Russian: (?erkessk)

Karachay-Balkar: (Çerkessk)

Kabardian: ? (rdj?s qal?)
Karachays, Kabardians 477,859 14,277 km2 (5,512 sq mi) 1991-07-03[58]
Flag of the Republic of Karelia
Map showing Karelia in Russia

Republic of Karelia
Russian: ? -- ? ? (Kareliya -- Respublika Kareliya)

Karelian: Karjala -- Karjalan tazavaldu

Russian: (Petrozavodsk)

Karelian: Petroskoi
Karelians 643,548 180,520 km2 (69,699 sq mi) 1923-06-27
Flag of Khakassia
Map showing Khakassia in Russia

Republic of Khakassia
Russian: ? -- ? ? (Khakasiya -- Respublika Khakasiya)

Khakas -- (Khakasiya -- Khakas Respublikazy)

Russian: (Abakan)

Khakas: (Abakhan)
Khakas 532,403 61,569 km2 (23,772 sq mi) 1991-07-03[58]
Flag of the Komi Republic
Map showing Komi in Russia

Komi Republic
Russian: ? -- ? ? (Komi -- Respublika Komi)

Komi: ? -- ? ? (Komi -- Komi Respublika)

Russian: (Syktyvkar)

Komi: (Syktyvkar)
Komi 901,189 416,774 km2 (160,917 sq mi) 1936-12-05[63]
Flag of Mari El
Map showing Mari El in Russia
Mari El

Mari El Republic
Russian: -- ? (Mariy El -- Respublika Mariy El)

Hill Mari: ? -- ? (Mary El -- Mary El Republik)

Meadow Mari: -- (Mariy El -- Mariy El Republik)

Russian: - (Yoshkar-Ola)

Hill Mari: - (Yoshkar-Ola)

Meadow Mari: - (Yoshkar-Ola)
Mari 696,459 23,375 km2 (9,025 sq mi) 1936-12-05[63]
Flag of Mordovia
Map showing Mordovia in Russia

Republic of Mordovia
Russian: -- ? (Mordoviya -- Respublika Mordoviya)

Moksha: -- P? (Mordovija -- Mordovija Respublikas)

Erzya: -- (Mordovija -- Mordovija Respublikas)

Russian: ? (Saransk)

Moksha: ? (Saranosh)

Erzya: (Saran osh)
Mordvins 834,755 26,128 km2 (10,088 sq mi) 1934-12-20[65]
Flag of North Ossetia-Alania
Map showing North Ossetia-Alania in Russia
North Ossetia-Alania

Republic of North Ossetia-Alania
Russian: - -- ? - (Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya -- Respublika Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya)

Ossetian: ?- -- ? ?- (Cægat Iryston-Alani -- Respublikæ Cægat Iryston-Alani)

Russian: (Vladikavkaz)

Ossetian: ææ? (Dzæud?yqæu)
Ossetians 712,980 7,987 km2 (3,084 sq mi) 1936-12-05[64]
Flag of the Sakha Republic
Map showing the Sakha Republic in Russia

Sakha Republic
Russian: -- ? ? (Yakutiya -- Respublika Sakha)

Yakut: Caxa ? -- ? (Sakha Sire -- Sakha Öröspüübülükete)

Russian: (Yakutsk)

Yakut: ? (Dokuuskay)
Yakuts 958,528 3,083,523 km2 (1,190,555 sq mi) 1922-04-27
Flag of Tatarstan
Map showing Tatarstan in Russia

Republic of Tatarstan
Russian: -- ? (Tatarstan -- Respublika Tatarstan)

Tatar: -- (Tatarstan -- Tatarstan Respublikas?)

Russian: (Kazan)

Tatar: (Kazan)
Tatars 3,786,488 67,847 km2 (26,196 sq mi) 1920-06-25[59]
Flag of Tuva
Map showing Tuva in Russia

Tuva Republic
Russian: ? -- ? ?y (Tuva -- Respublika Tuva)

Tuvan: ? -- ? ? (Tyva -- Tyva Respublika)

Russian: (Kyzyl)

Tuvan: (K?z?l)
Tuvans 307,930 168,604 km2 (65,098 sq mi) 1961-10-10[7]
Flag of Udmurtia
Map showing Udmurtia in Russia

Udmurt Republic
Russian: -- ? (Udmurtiya -- Respublika Udmurt)

Udmurt: -- (Udmurtiya -- Udmurt Elkun)

Russian: (Izhevsk)

Udmurt: (I?kar)
Udmurts 1,521,420 42,061 km2 (16,240 sq mi) 1934-12-28
  1. ^ De facto independent state from 1991 to 2000 but was still recognized as a Russian republic.
  2. ^ Annexed by Russia in 2014; recognized as a part of Ukraine by most of the international community.
  3. ^ The republic was not formed with a titular nationality in mind.[62]
  4. ^ Aghuls, Avars, Dargins, Kumyks, Laks, Lezgins, Rutuls, Tabasarans, Tsakhurs.

Demographics trend

Ethnic group Titular (%) Russians (%) other (%)
Republic 1979 1989 2002 2010[57] 1979 1989 2002 2010 1979 1989 2002 2010
Adygea 21,3 Increase 22,1 Increase 24,1 Increase 25,2 70,8 Decrease 68,0 Decrease 64,4 Decrease 63,6
Altai Increase29,1 Increase 31,0 Increase 33,4 Increase 33,9 Increase63,3 Decrease 60,4 Decrease 57,4 Decrease 56,6 5,6 Increase 5,9 (Kazakhs) Increase 6,2
Bashkortostan 24,3 Decrease 21,9 Increase 29,7 Decrease 29,5 40,3 Decrease 39,2 Decrease 36,3 Decrease 36,1 24,5 Increase 28,4 Decrease 24,1 (Tatars) Increase 25,4
Buryatia Increase23,0 Increase 24,0 Increase 27,8 Increase 30 Decrease72,1 Decrease 69,9 Decrease 67,8 Decrease 66,1
Chechnya 52,9 Increase 57,8 Increase 93,4 Increase 95,3 31,7 Decrease 23,1 Decrease 3,6 Decrease 1,9
Chuvashia Decrease68,4 Decrease 67,7 Decrease 67,6 Increase 67,7 Increase26,0 Decrease 26,6 Decrease 26,5 Increase 26,9
Dagestan 86,0 11,0 Decrease 9,2 Decrease 4,6 Decrease 3,6
Ingushetia Decrease11,7 Increase 12,9 Increase 77,2 Increase 94,1 Decrease31,7 Decrease 23,1 Decrease 1,1 Decrease 0,8
Kabardino-Balkaria 45,6 Increase 52,2 Increase 55,3 Increase 57,2 35,1 Decrease 31,9 Decrease 25,1 Decrease 22,5 9,0 Increase 9,4 Increase 11,6 Increase 12,7
Kalmykia Increase41,4 Increase 45,3 Increase 53,3 Increase 57,4 Decrease42,7 Decrease 37,6 Decrease 33,5 Decrease 30,2
Karachay-Cherkessia 29,7 Increase 31,2 Increase 38,5 Increase 41 45,0 Decrease 42,4 Decrease 33,6 Decrease 31,6 9,3 Increase 9,7 Increase 11,2 Increase 11,9
Karelia Decrease11,1 Decrease 10,0 Decrease 9,2 Decrease 7,4 Increase71,3 Increase 73,6 Increase 76,6 Increase 82,2
Komi Decrease25,3 Decrease 23,3 Increase 25,1 Decrease 23,7 Increase56,7 Increase 57,7 Increase 59,5 Increase 65,1
Khakassia Decrease11,4 Decrease 11,1 Increase 11,9 Increase 12,1 Increase79,5 Decrease 79,4 Increase 80,2 Increase 81,7
Mari El Decrease43,6 Decrease 43,3 Decrease 42,8 Increase 43,9 Decrease47,6 Decrease 47,4 Steady47,4 Steady47,4
Mordovia Decrease34,2 Decrease 32,5 Decrease 31,9 Increase 40 Increase59,7 Increase 60,8 Steady60,8 Decrease 53,4
North Ossetia-Alania Increase50,5 Increase 52,9 Increase 62,7 Increase 65,1 Decrease34,0 Decrease 29,9 Decrease 23,1 Decrease 20,8
Yakutia Increase36,9 Decrease 33,4 Increase 45,5 Increase 49,9 Increase50,5 Decrease 50,3 Decrease 41,1 Decrease 37,8
Tatarstan Decrease47,7 Increase 48,4 Increase 52,9 Increase 53,2 Increase44,0 Decrease 43,2 Decrease 39,4 Increase 39,7
Tuva Increase60,4 Increase 64,3 Increase 77,0 Increase 82 Decrease36,2 Decrease 32,0 Decrease 20,1 Decrease 16,3
Udmurtia Decrease32,2 Decrease 30,9 Decrease 29,3 Decrease 28 Increase58,3 Increase 58,9 Increase 60,1 Increase 62,2

Attempted republics

In response to the apparent federal inequality, in which the republics were given special privileges during the early years of Yeltsin's tenure at the expense of other subjects, Eduard Rossel, then governor of Sverdlovsk Oblast and advocate of equal rights for all subjects, attempted to transform his oblast into the Ural Republic on 1 July 1993 in order to receive the same benefits.[66] Initially supportive, Yeltsin later dissolved the republic and fired Rossel on 9 November 1993.[67] The only other attempt to formally create a republic occurred in Vologda Oblast when authorities declared their wish to create a "Vologda Republic" on 14 May 1993. This declaration, however, was ignored by Moscow and eventually faded from public consciousness.[68] Other attempts to unilaterally create a republic never materialized. These included a "Pomor Republic" in Arkhangelsk Oblast,[68] a "Southern Urals Republic" in Chelyabinsk Oblast,[69] a "Chukotka Republic" in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug,[70] a "Yenisei Republic" in Irkutsk Oblast,[69] a "Leningrad Republic" in Leningrad Oblast,[68] a "Nenets Republic" in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug,[71] a "Siberian Republic" in Novosibirsk Oblast,[68] a "Primorsky Republic" in Primorsky Krai,[69] a "Neva Republic" in the city of Saint Petersburg,[69] and a republic consisting of eleven regions in western Russia centered around Oryol Oblast.[68]

Other attempts to create republics came in the form of splitting up already existing territories. After the Soviet Union's collapse, a proposal was put forth to split the Karachay-Cherkess Republic in to multiple smaller republics. The idea was rejected by referendum on 28 March 1992.[72] A similar proposal occurred in the Republic of Mordovia to divide it in to separate Erzyan and Mokshan homelands. The proposal was rejected in 1995.[73]

Entities outside Russia

See also


  1. ^ Bashqawi, Adel (2017). Circassia: Born to Be Free. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 978-1-5434-4765-1. It also issued the Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia on 15 November 1917, in which the equality of all peoples was proclaimed, and in which the 'right of self-determination, even unto separation' was formally recognized.
  2. ^ a b Greenacre, Liam (August 23, 2016). "Korenizatsiya: The Soviet Nationalities Policy for Recognised Minorities". Liam's Look at History. Retrieved 2019.
  3. ^ Bazarova V. V. On the problems of indigenization in the national autonomies of Eastern Siberia in the 1920s - 1930s. // Power. - 2013. - No 12. - p. 176.
  4. ^ a b Timo Vihavainen: Nationalism and Internationalism. How did the Bolsheviks Cope with National Sentiments? in Chulos & Piirainen 2000, p. 85.
  5. ^ "Ethnic and Religious Minorities in Stalin's Soviet Union" (PDF). Ethnic and Religious Minorities: 16. 2017. The cultural and linguistic factors and the isolation of minority communities from the rest of the population thus required additional surveillance of ethnic as well as religious groups by the secret service.
  6. ^ Gladman, Imogen (2004). The Territories of the Russian Federation 2004. London, United Kingdom: Europa Publications. p. 102. ISBN 1-85743-248-7.
  7. ^ a b Toomas, Alatalu (1992). "Tuva: A State Reawakens". Soviet Studies. Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 44: 881-895. ISSN 0038-5859. JSTOR 152275.
  8. ^ Simons, Greg; Westerlund, David (2015). Religion, Politics and Nation-Building in Post-Communist Countries. Farnham, United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing. p. 81. ISBN 9781472449696.
  9. ^ a b Yakovlev, Alexander; Berman, Margo (1996). Striving for Law in a Lawless Land: Memoirs of a Russian Reformer. Armonk, United States: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 104-105. ISBN 1-56324-639-2.
  10. ^ Saunders, Robert; Strukov, Vlad (2010). Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. Lanham, United States: Scarecrow Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-8108-7460-2.
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