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Schoch has taught at Boston University since 1984. He is an associate professor of Natural Sciences at the College of General Studies, a two-year core curriculum for bachelor's degree candidates. He teaches undergraduate science courses, including biology, geology, environmental science, geography, and science and public policy.
He has received his college's Peyton Richter Award for interdisciplinary teaching. He is a co-author of the college textbook Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions, now in its fifth edition.
Schoch is best known for his fringe argument that the Great Sphinx of Giza is much older than conventionally thought and that some kind of catastrophe was responsible for wiping out evidence of a significantly older civilization. In 1991, Schoch redated the monument to 10,000–5,000 BC, based on his argument that its erosion was due mainly to the effects of water, rather than wind and sand, and also based on findings from seismic studies around the base of the Sphinx and elsewhere on the plateau. These conclusions do not have consensus in the scientific community.
Schoch also claims that possibly all pyramids -- in Egypt, Mesoamerica and elsewhere -- represent, with other cultural commonalities, a much older global culture, either through common inheritance or ancient cultural contact around the world. In 2006, at the invitation of locals, he investigated the so-called Bosnian pyramid excavations north of Sarajevo, but he concluded that the site held "absolutely no evidence of pyramids per se or of a great ancient civilization in the Visoko region".
He is also known for his writing on the Yonaguni underwater monuments, where he has dived on several occasions, beginning in 1997. His conclusion from analyzing the formations is that this is a natural site modified by humans to suit their needs: "We should also consider the possibility that the Yonaguni Monument is fundamentally a natural structure that was utilized, enhanced, and modified by humans in ancient times."
Mark Lehner, an American archaeologist and egyptologist, has disputed Schoch's analysis, stating, "You don't overthrow Egyptian history based on one phenomenon like a weathering profile... that is how pseudoscience is done, not real science."
Historian Ronald H. Fritze has described Schoch as a "pseudohistorical and pseudoscientific writer".
Schoch has been criticized for his unorthodox idea that Göbekli Tepe, an ancient civilization revealed in an archeological site in present-day Turkey, was influenced by a solar event that may have been witnessed at Easter Island in the Pacific west of South America. Author Jason Colavito suggested he "abandons all reality in favor of a bizarre fantasy".
^Coombs, Margery C. (1988). "Review: Systematics, Functional Morphology and Macroevolution of the Extinct Mammalian Order Taeniodonta". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 8 (2): 236-237. doi:10.1080/02724634.1988.10011705.
^Schoch, Robert M.; West, John Anthony (2000). Further Evidence Supporting a Pre-2500 B.C. Date for the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt. Annual Meeting, Geological Society of America. Reno, Nevada: Geological Society of America. p. A276.