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In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Rock Island have ranged from a low of 13 °F (-11 °C) in January to a high of 85 °F (29 °C) in July, although a record low of -22 °F (-30 °C) was recorded in February 1996 and a record high of 103 °F (39 °C) was recorded in July 2006. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.28 inches (33 mm) in January to 4.75 inches (121 mm) in June.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 147,546 people, 61,303 households, and 38,384 families residing in the county. The population density was 345.0 inhabitants per square mile (133.2/km2). There were 65,756 housing units at an average density of 153.8 per square mile (59.4/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 81.6% white, 9.0% black or African American, 1.6% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 4.4% from other races, and 3.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 11.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.9% were German, 14.2% were Irish, 8.7% were English, 6.8% were Swedish, and 5.2% were American.
Of the 61,303 households, 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.4% were non-families, and 31.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age was 40.0 years.
The median income for a household in the county was $46,226 and the median income for a family was $58,962. Males had a median income of $42,548 versus $31,917 for females. The per capita income for the county was $25,071. About 8.7% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.0% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over.