A general view of Rodez
|Canton||Rodez-1, Rodez-2 and Rodez-Onet|
|o Mayor (2008-2014)||Christian Teyssèdre (PS)|
|11.18 km2 (4.32 sq mi)|
|o Density||2,300/km2 (6,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|o Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Elevation||501-643 m (1,644-2,110 ft) |
(avg. 627 m or 2,057 ft)
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
Rodez (French: [?o.d?s]; Occitan: Rodés [ru'ðes]) is a small city and commune in the South of France, about 150 km northeast of Toulouse. It is the prefecture of the department of Aveyron in the region of Occitanie. Rodez is the seat of the Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Rodez, of the First Constituency of Aveyron as well as of the general Council of Aveyron.
Former capital of the Rouergue, the city is seat of the Diocese of Rodez and Vabres. Its inhabitants are called Ruthénois, from the name of the Ruteni, a Gallic tribe which once occupied the territory, the former demonym of "Rodanois" (from Occitan rodanés) having given way to this scholarly form.
Located in the south of France, in the heart of the triangle formed by Toulouse, Clermont-Ferrand and Montpellier, in the western foothills of the Massif Central, the Rodez landscape is organised between the valleys and high plateaus of Grands Causses and the moist hills of Ségala. It extends into Grand Rodez, with the communes of Onet-le-Château, Sainte-Radegonde, Le Monastère, Olemps and Luc-la-Primaube, which forms an agglomeration of 83,000 habitants adjoining the city of Rodez.
The territory of Rodez is packed with geological diversity. It straddles on the ancient base of Ségala composed of acidic siliceous earths of Les Rougiers to soil consisting of red argillite, and causses composed of limestones and marls. The city was built on a conical isolated terrain, locally called Le Piton, and gradually spread to the surrounding slopes. It is located in a level 2 zone of seismicity, in other words at a low level.
The climate of Rodez is part of the supra-Mediterranean level. Rodez has a Mediterranean climate (Csb), and is cold city compared to other cities in the south of France. Winters are sharp and the summers often very hot and sunny. During winter, Rodez has fairly occasional snowfall due to its low altitude of 550 metres (1,800 ft) in contrast to other towns in the north of the department, which are closer of the Aubrac plateau and therefore higher.
In 2011, with nearly 2,400 hours per year of sun and 304 days of sunshine per year, Rodez was ranked 2,407th of cities in terms of sunshine in France. This is significantly above the national average.
|City||Sunshine (hrs/yr)||Rain (mm/yr)||Snow (days/yr)||Storm (days/yr)||Fog (days/yr)|
|Climate data for Rodez|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.0
|Source: Météo France|
|Lowest temperature||-17.5 °C (0.5 °F)|
|Coldest day||16 January 1985|
|Highest temperature||37.5 °C (99.5 °F)|
|Hottest day||30 July 1983 and 16 August 1987|
|Maximum rainfall in 24 hours||115 millimetres (4.5 in)|
|Maximum snowfall in 24 hours||1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in)|
|Rainiest day||26 September 1992|
On 28 January 2006, Rodez experienced an important snow episode. A metre of powdery snow, which was very adherent, fell on the agglomeration, crippling the economy for several days and the life of Le Piton.
Rodez is growing day by day and has affirmed its leading place in the Midi-Pyrénées since the early 2000s. The city and the metropolitan area is located at the foot of the RN 88, the Toulouse-Lyon axis, an essential route for its economic and tourist development and which plays a complementary role to the main cities of the region, Toulouse, Albi and Castres, with which it is developing collaborations.
As of 2005, the Aveyron department continued its opening up in terms of communication tools. The ring road of Rodez, surrounding the agglomeration of Grand Rodez and gradually converted into a dual carriageway urban boulevard, to serve the strategic locations of the Rodez settlement. Continuity of a dual carriageway on the entire ring road should emerge on the horizon in 2018 as part of the 2014-2018 plan. Indeed, three grade separated roundabouts are planned as part of this dual carriageway urban boulevard project: Moutiers, La Gineste and Saint-Marc. Finally, the principle of a large bypass has not been excluded (without a deadline, to date).
In 2009, the Rodez-Aveyron Airport experienced changes with the expansion of its terminal and the opening of new international scheduled destinations.
Once in town, options for getting around include car rental, the local bus system (Agglobus), or on foot. The pedestrian city centre (centre ville) is paved in cobblestone streets, which are lined with buildings that are hundreds of years old.
Rodez is at the centre of a railway formed by lines going to Capdenac (to Paris), Albi along the Castelnaudary to Rodez line (destined for Toulouse) and Sévérac-le-Château (destined for Millau). The rail network has undergone numerous restructurings, including through its plan rail Midi-Pyrénées. Between 2009 and 2013, the complete change of the rails, the rehabilitation of the structures, replacing the systems of information and operation of traffic on the lines in Rodez-Toulouse and Rodez-Paris have resulted in an improvement of the network. In addition, the region was equipped in 2013 with new TER trains, faster and comfortable.
Rodez is situated to the foot of the RN88 (route linking Toulouse to Lyon), transformed in the Rodez area into an urban boulevard [dual carriageways, many on and off sliproads, speed limited to between 70-110 km/h (43-68 mph)] to allow the flow of traffic totalling 35,000 vehicles per day.Counting loops are buried to assess traffic for transcription by real-time traffic maps. The portion of this highway, declared a national priority in 1993 between Rodez and Albi, is currently in the process of restructuring with the doubling of the carriageways, after decades of studies and that since 18 October 2010, date of the official launch of this vast site.
A portion of the RN88 road between Rodez and Carmaux should be completely converted into a dual carriageway expressway and put into service in 2018, thus allowing a virtually seamless dual carriageway journey between Rodez and Toulouse (with the exception of the portion between Albi and Carmaux the route upgrading to motorway is envisaged but not programmed to date). Indeed, the A68 has been in service between Albi and Toulouse for several years. As of 2018, the RN88 which is an extension of the A68 will then almost all be dual carriageway, thus reducing the time between Rodez and Toulouse. Note that this axis is one of the largest in the Midi-Pyrénées in terms of traffic. As for the portion of the RN88 between Rodez and Sévérac-le-Château, this last link is missing dual carriageway, studies are underway but work will not begin before 2020 due to lack of credits granted. At the end of this work, the entire journey will be converted into dual carriageway between Rodez and the principal cities around the Mediterranean.
Furthermore, the segment of the city between Espalion and Rodez underwent a restructuring with the diversion of Curlande commissioned in 2011. A bypass project of the town of Espalion is ongoing since the beginning of this year towards the west of the Lot Valley and Aurillac. With the RN88 which is the most important artery of the agglomeration, Rodez is the focal point of several routes from its own department or bordering departments:
|Place||Distance||Average travelling time[note 1]|
|Toulouse||150 kilometres (93 mi)||1 hrs 50 mins (as of 2013)
(1 hrs 15 mins in January 2016, by dual carriageway)
|Montpellier||173 kilometres (107 mi)||2 hrs 00 mins|
|Perpignan||273 kilometres (170 mi)||2 hrs 50 mins|
|Clermont-Ferrand||244 kilometres (152 mi)||2 hrs 40 mins|
|Bordeaux||345 kilometres (214 mi)||3 hrs 45 mins|
|Marseille||342 kilometres (213 mi)||4 hrs 00 mins|
|Lyon||330 kilometres (210 mi)||4 hrs 15 mins|
|Nice||497 kilometres (309 mi)||5 hrs 00 mins|
|Paris||661 kilometres (411 mi)||6 hrs 00 mins|
The railway station of Rodez, located on Avenue du Maréchal Joffre, is the main station of Aveyron. There are daily trains to Paris and Toulouse, as well as other trains and buses connecting Rodez to smaller towns. It serves Paris-Austerlitz (Intercités), Toulouse-Matabiau (TER), Brive-la-Gaillarde (TER), Millau (TER and regional bus), Montpellier (bus with mandatory charging at Millau station) and other stations of the department and bordering departments. In addition, it is noted that many other large French cities can be reached by the connections in Toulouse and Brive. The lines and railway infrastructure have undergone important renovations with the complete change of the rails, the modernisation of technical systems and structures as well as the implementation of new systems of traffic management. In the next few years, the aim is for a time of 1 hour 45 minutes from Rodez to Toulouse and 4 hours 50 minutes from Rodez to Paris through the LGV Poitiers-Limoges.
In the past, the Rodez and Aveyron rail network was part of the company of the Chemins de fer du Midi. Formerly, there was a second station, that of "Paraire" below the current Lycée Foch, close to the city centre but closed in the 1970s. Today, there is no service there.
Rodez is the central point of numerous bus routes coming from the department or bordering departments. Indeed, there are currently nearly 60 routes.
Rodez is served by the nearby Rodez Marcillac Airport, located within the commune of Salles-la-Source. The international airport of Rodez-Aveyron is the third airport of the Occitanie region after Toulouse and Tarbes, and the main platform of the south of the Massif Central, with direct scheduled flights to:
The city has had a longstanding public transport system, the tramway of Rodez having circulated from 1902 to 1920. Nowadays, these journeys are made by buses. Agglobus is the transit network serving the communes of the Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Rodez, nearly 60,000 people, where a multiple purchase ticket shall not exceed EUR0.20. It allows service to the centre of Rodez from outside communes (and vice versa) before 8am with a time range for operation of the service between 7am (5am for some lines) and 8pm. These lines have scheduled timing. This network is complemented by an evening service that operates Monday to Saturday, from 8pm to 11:30pm, by a transport service scheduled running Monday to Saturday with two round trips per day, and for persons with reduced mobility which works at the same times as the bus network. The Rodez topography makes it difficult to create special lanes for buses. As such, the Agglobus network is equipped with a system of prioritisation at traffic lights and also a geolocation for buses.
Rodez has had an operational sorting centre since July 2009. It receives about 400,000 letters every day and processes 14 per second. All of the letters posted from Rodez to a destination within the agglomeration and its own region are delivered the next morning. Courier services, international and domestic carriers are also present in Rodez. The city has three post offices with its central office located in the city centre, at Place Foch, near the cathedral. Other branches are located in the suburbs as well as in the Bourran Quarter. In addition, other communes forming the urban agglomeration of the Grand Rodez also have their post offices, including the Aveyron sorting centre located in the commune of Onet-le-Château.
Rodez is an ancient city, the road becomes gradually narrower as it approaches Vieux-Rodez [Old Rodez] and the remains of the ancient city fortress are still strongly present in the form of ramparts. Its hyper-centre is extended over many streets and pedestrian alleys between the squares of Place du Bourg, Place de l'Olmet, Place de la Cité and the Place de la Madeleine, one discovers typical houses in a mostly preserved historical setting. In these squares markets or fairs are held while the Passage du Mazel hosts a daily trade of fresh and seasonal produce. Pedestrian streets, very concentrated in the old centre, today are a place of life with many commercial signs. Beyond, Avenue Victor-Hugo is a long straight avenue lined with trees, leading to a central hub, the Place d'Armes, to access the boulevards on the periphery of the city centre. Road traffic is carried around the walls located on the boulevards of Estourmel, Belle Isle, Denys Puech and Flaugergues encircling the centre and served by streets parallel to this historic heart.
Beyond Vieux-Rodez, the city expanded during the 20th century. To meet the demands of the era, new neighbourhoods and economic zones were developed. Rodez was, during the post-war period, an average city that had the most buildings beyond its circular boulevards. Finally, the creation of the Bourran Viaduct allowed the extension of the city beyond the Auterne Valley.[note 2]
The town of Rodez is part of the Grands Sites de Midi-Pyrénées. It continues to work to obtain the label Ville d'Art et d'Histoire and wishes to file its candidacy for UNESCO world heritage. Thus, the historic centre, and joined developments, are designed to meet the criteria of these institutions.
The municipality is divided into five major quarters:
|West Quarter||North Quarter||Central Quarter||South Quarter||East Quarter|
|La Fontanile||Les Moutiers||La Mouline||Layoule|
|La Gineste||L'Oustal Nau||Pont Viel||Fayet|
|Camonil||Paul Ramadier, etc.||La Gascarie, etc.||Le Cimetière, etc.|
|Pré Lamarque, etc.|
Rodez has many rental housing units. In addition, the average of new housing has four rooms. Its housing stock remains fairly young, 59% of dwellings are from subsequent to World War II. Despite this, planning is progressing day by day and the homes and other premises have increased by 23% each year. As regards social housing, and particularly the SRU Act which introduced a minimum quota of 20% social housing for cities, Rodez had 10% in 2007 and stagnated at around 12% in 2011.
The now demolished old Combarel hospital will be replaced by housing and green spaces. Since the 19th century, the Combarel hospital enjoyed a privileged location in the heart of the city and at the centre of the agglomeration. The purchase of the former hospital by the agglomeration of Grand Rodez aims to impose the site as a centre of activity of the city, as it once was. A conversion will redraw all of the area and allow it to become a real neighbourhood to live, in order to revitalise the heart of the metropolitan area of Grand Rodez. The district wants a place with trees and green space, in which can be found housing as well tertiary activities, shops. The whole of the 30,000 square metres (320,000 sq ft) area will be mid-residential and mid-institutional, probably with the construction of a new hotel. This area will be part of a construction complying with environmental standards. The project is based on maintaining, on the upper plateau, the entire quadrilatère and chapel, as well as the development of the former Capuchin convent.
The Foirail public garden, and the Esplanade du Foirail, is located in the heart of the city. Consisting of a large courtyard with various mood lighting, it can accommodate some entertainments and events (concerts, outdoor performances etc.). This place has coherence with the various cultural and economic facilities which are adjacent (Musée Soulages, festival hall, cinema multiplex and the centre of L'Amphitheatre). Finally, the public garden located nearby, having gained 20% more land after the redevelopment of the area, offers different walks around the different peripheral facilities.
The multiplex consists of 10 cinema rooms with between 68 and 404 seats, spread over two levels with a total of 1580 seats opened in November 2013. Double access (next to the Giratoire de l'Europe and Avenue Victor-Hugo). A fast food area as well as a night beerhouse are integrated within the confines of the cinema centre having also two other shops. This cinema complex with of entertainment and exhibition spaces has the distinction of offering, in all of its rooms, entirely to digital broadcasts and is equipped to watch movies in 3D. Cultural or sports broadcasts on the other side of the world are proposed. Finally, this complex has the distinction of being used for conferences or congresses through the audio-visual and videoconferencing facilities which it offers and the available gauge in terms of seating capacity. The creation of a new square in front of the multiplex highlighting the continuing interdependence of the festival hall, cinema complex and, in the wider spectrum, the amphitheatre will allow cultural or economic events.
With a cinema ticket, at certain times, it is possible to park in the underground parking free of charge, for less than 3 hours.
To allow the population to take advantage of the cultural and economic facilities and hold a means of parking for people working in the centre of Rodez, entirely underground parking totalling 400 spaces was built at a depth of 10 metres (33 ft), and on two levels, under the Esplanade des Ruthènes. It opened at the same time as the multiplex.
This project, scheduled for the commune of Olemps will open its doors in the second half of 2016, after work which will begin in 2015. This will be designed to host cultural performances, economic events or conferences, with a set of 3,000 seats.
In antiquity, during the Roman occupation, the city was named Segodunum. The roots being sego "strong"[note 3] and dunum "hill", where Segodunum "high hill, stronghold" is at the origin of the Gaulish name of Rodez.
Rodez is locally pronounced ""Rodess" [?od?s] in French. That is explained by the spelling of the city in Occitan: Rodés, pronounced "Rroodess" [rru'ðes]. Rodez was spelled with a final z, instead of s, to maintain the closed e of Occitan and to prevent it from becoming silent.
Existing from at least the 5th century BC, Rodez was founded by the Celts. After the Roman occupation, the oppidum (fortified place) was renamed Segodunum, while in late Imperial times it was known as Civitas Rutenorum, whence the modern name. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it was captured by the Visigoths and then by the Franks, being also ravaged by the Arabs in 725. Later it was occupied by the armies of the Dukes of Aquitaine and of the Counts of Toulouse. English troops occupied Rodez during the Hundred Years War.
However, in medieval times the city's history was marked by strong rivalry between the Counts and the Bishops of Rodez, who exerted their authorities in different sectors of the city, divided by a wall. The counts were able to defy the royal French authority until the submission of count John IV by the future King Louis XI in the 15th century. In the following century bishop François d'Estaing built the Rodez Cathedral.
The last count of Rodez, Henry VI of Rodez, who became Henry IV of France, sold his title to the Royal Crown in 1589. The city remained a flourishing merchant centre up to the 18th century, when the nearby town Villefranche-de-Rouergue was made the seat of the experimental Provincial Estates of the Haute-Guyenne. However, with the French Revolution Rodez became the chef-lieu of the newly created department of the Aveyron and has remained so since.
Rodez is a city of more than two millennia: its existence dates back to the 5th century BC, when a Celtic tribe of Central Europe, the Ruteni, stopped in the south of Auvergne to found one of these characteristic oppida of the Gallic civilization, that of Segodunum. Many elements of heritage bear witness to the Romanisation of Segodunum.
Rodez was successively occupied by the Visigoths, the Franks, the armies of the Dukes of Aquitaine and the Counts of Toulouse, as well as by the Moors, who seized Rodez in 725, and damaged the ancient church. Years later, it was the English who captured Rodez, during the Hundred Years' War.
The history of the city remained marked for a long time by an intense rivalry between the Counts of Rodez, who dominated the town extra-muros, and the Bishops of Rodez, who dominated intra-muros. A wall separated the two sectors. Each community had a town hall, its consuls, and its own administration; each competing for power. To the town, the famous dynasty of the Counts of Armagnac and Rodez, eventually acquired sovereign privileges: Coining money at the Martelenque Tower, wearing the crown and persisting to recognise the antipope Benedict XIII and his heirs Bernard Garnier and Jean Carrier, for a time. This led inevitably to confrontation with the King of France in 1443. The dauphin, the future Louis XI, came to occupy Rodez and submit Count Jean IV. Later his son would have a seditious idea, trying to betray Louis XI. This caused him to be killed in Lectoure, with his family, during his escape.
At the beginning of the 16th century, Rodez was marked by Bishop François d'Estaing (from one of the most famous families of Rouergue). He finished the work of construction of the Cathedral of Our Lady of Rodez. He added the architectural masterpiece that is the bell tower, at 87 metres (285 ft), topped by a Virgin, yet today the highest bell tower, without a spire, in France. The works were completed in the fifteen years between 1510 and 1526 and this despite the plague ravaging the city.
The rivalry between the two powers somewhat served the development of Rodez. Despite the testimonies that are its many made Gothic masterpieces from the 13th to the 16th century, the city has not really experienced long periods of prosperity. In 1589, Henri IV, Count of Rodez, attached the destiny of the County of Rodez to the Crown. The story of Rodez then copied that of France. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, Rodez became a thriving market city.
Rodez was divided into 6 parishes:
The old rival of Rodez was Villefranche-de-Rouergue. The French Revolution took away Villefranche's role of administrative capital, for the benefit of Rodez, which became prefecture and chef-lieu district of the new department of Aveyron due to its central position. The religious heritage of the city was only partially degraded.
In June 1792, the scientists of the time cared about to know the exact measurement of the metre. Rodez would be a "central" element to accomplish this measure. Indeed, Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre was responsible for measuring the distance from Dunkirk to Rodez, while Pierre Méchain was the one measuring between Barcelona and Rodez. They were to meet in Rodez to combine their results and determine the value of the metre. In 1793, at Montjouy in Barcelona, Méchain detected an inconsistency between the recorded lengths and an astronomical survey of the position of the stars. The Franco-Spanish war prevented him from repeating measurements. This difference (which was in fact not due to a handling error but the uncertainty of the instruments used) plunged him into deep trouble and he made every effort to avoid having to report on his work in Paris. In 1799, he resigned himself to attend an international conference which welcomed his scientific work. In 1798, the Société centrale d'agriculture de l'Aveyron was created.
Under the Bourbon Restoration, the Affaire Fualdès hit a judicial review, giving rise to a highly controversial trial and executions. Rodez received many journalists, on this occasion, who described the behaviour of Rodez people from a very subjective standpoint.
The 19th century also experienced a cultural revival. In 1836, the Society of Letters, Sciences and Arts of Aveyron was founded on the initiative of Hippolyte de Barrau. The main leaders of the department were involved in the cultural life of the province. Modernisation of Rodez occurred very slowly during the 19th century. Little by little, Rodez evolved by affirming and developing its role as capital of the department of Aveyron from the 21st century, creating its own economy and independence, whilst remaining linked to Toulouse. Thus, from this period, many facilities have appeared such as the Jacques Puel Hospital, the development of the Rodez-Marcillac Airport platform, high-speed connections to Rodez, the Esplanade du Foirail with its multiplex cinemas, the Pierre Soulages Museum and its festival hall.
|1983||2008||Marc Censi||UDF then UMP||Mayor|
|2008||In progress||Christian Teyssèdre||PS||Mayor|
Rodez is the seat of the Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Rodez, whose headquarters is at 1 Place Adrien Rozier. Established in 1964 and incorporated in the district, it then became an agglomeration community on 20 December 1999. Today, it has eight communes.
The commune, an important part of the southern Massif Central, is also close to other cities located in the southwest such as Toulouse and Albi, as well as in the centre and north of the Massif Central such as Aurillac and Mende with which it forms the Estelle city network. Finally, one can note the existence of the Espace urbain Rodez-Decazeville.
The town of Rodez is the seat of the General Council of Aveyron and the Council of the community of the Grand Rodez. The conurbation has a fire service barracks, a municipal police force, an SAMU and an SMUR (both medical emergency services), a poison control centre and a remand prison while the State administers the prefecture of the department, and a gendarmerie brigade. A new remand prison will be located in the commune of Druelle in July 2013 with a capacity of about 100 male inmates, including a capacity of ten for people eligible for day parole. Finally, the administrations of the State are present in Rodez (tax office, Bank of France, social security, family allowance, etc.).
For the courts, it has an instance tribunal and a high court with an assizes court, a tribunal of commerce, an industrial tribunal and a juvenile court. The court of appeal is located in Montpellier.
|Canton||Cantonal code||Population (2014)|
The city council has 35 seats, arranged in a semicircle, of which 26 are occupied by the Socialist majority and nine seats by the opposition. The leader is Christian Teyssèdre.
|Main candidate||List||First round||Second round||Seats|
|Blank and spoiled||399||4.21||412||4.31|
|Candidate||Political party||1st round
|Candidate||Party||First round||Second round|
|Guilhem Serieys||FG (PG)||2,708||5.54|
|Blank and spoiled||873||1.75||1,645||3.32|
|* Outgoing député|
|Candidate||Political movement||Score in Rodez||National score||Notes|
|François Hollande||Socialist Party||32.32 %||28.63 %||Qualified for the second round|
|Nicolas Sarkozy||Union for a Popular Movement||26.71 %||27.18 %||Qualified for the second round|
|François Bayrou||Democratic Movement||12.50 %||9.13 %|
|Jean-Luc Mélenchon||Left Front||11.55 %||11.10 %|
|Marine Le Pen||National Front||10.86 %||17.90 %|
|Eva Joly||Europe Ecology - The Greens||2.93 %||2.31 %|
|Nicolas Dupont-Aignan||France Arise||1.59 %||1.79 %|
|Philippe Poutou||New Anticapitalist Party||0.95 %||1.15 %|
|Nathalie Arthaud||Lutte Ouvrière||0.39 %||0.56 %|
|Jacques Cheminade||Solidarité et progrès||0.20 %||0.25 %|
|Candidate||Political movement||Score in Rodez||National Score||Notes|
|François Hollande||Socialist Party||56.03 %||51.63 %||Elected President of France|
|Nicolas Sarkozy||Union for a Popular Movement||43.97 %||48.37 %||Beaten|
In 2012, the commune had 23,744 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses carried out in the town since 1793. From the 21st century, the communes with more than 10 000 inhabitants have a census each year as a result of a survey poll, unlike the other commues which have a real census every five years.[note 4][note 5]
With 23,744 inhabitants in 2012, Rodez remained the most populous commune of the Aveyron department. The Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Rodez consists of 55,922 people. The urban area of Rodez concentrates more than 83,000 inhabitants and its urban unit is the fifth of the Midi-Pyrénées. The population of Rodez has increased gradually, over the years until 2009 without yet recovering the maximum levels reached in 1975.
The population of the commune is relatively old. The rate of persons of an age over 60 years (23.2%) is higher than the national rate (21.6%) while being less than the departmental rate (29.8%). Like national and departmental allocations, the female population of the municipality is greater than the male population. The rate (53.5%) is higher than the national rate (51.6%).
In 2007, the distribution of the population of the commune by age group was as follows:
|École Fabié||École Foch||École Jeanne d'Arc|
|École Paul Girard||École Paraire||École Saint-Paul|
|École Calcomier||École Gourgan||École Sainte-Procule|
|École Cambon||École Ramadier||École Sainte-Geneviève|
|École Monteil||École Saint-Félix||École Saint-Joseph|
|École Cardaillac||École San-Pau||École Sainte-Thérèse|
|Collège Amans Joseph Fabre||Collège Saint-Joseph/Sainte-Geneviève|
|Collège Départemental Jean Moulin||Collège du Sacré Coeur I et II (Rodez)|
|Collège des Glycines||Collège du Sacré Coeur (Onet-le-Château)|
|Lycée Ferdinand Foch
General education and vocational
|Lycée François d'Estaing|
General and technical education
Two sites, Boulevard D.Puech and Boulevard d'Estournel
General education, vocational, technical and higher
General education, technical and vocational
|Lycée La Roque (Onet-le-Château)
Agricultural education, general, technical, vocational and higher
|Lycée Louis Querbes|
General technical and vocational education
Two sites, Rue Béteille and Site du Cedec
Rodez has to date more than 2,500 students on its agglomeration. By 2016, a campus on 6 acres (2.4 ha) with University Library, presence of the Crous, housing will be depending on the site of Saint-Eloi. After the restructuring and extension of the IUT between 2009 and 2012, this campus is implemented throughout the domain of EDF-GDF. Ultimately this site should concentrate more than 10,000 students of science subjects, hydroelectricitys, mechanical or food production.
The Communal Office of Employment Training (MCEF), located at 41-43 Rue Béteille opened its doors in March 2013 after two years of work. This area of 2,500 square metres (27,000 sq ft) includes the employment centre and its service platform, the local mission for employment of youth, the inter-institutional centre of personal and professional skills assessment (CIBC), the Information Centre and Orientation (academic inspection), the territorial office Aveyron,[note 6] Cap Employment,[note 7] the AFIJ (graduates) and the Aveyron branch of ADEFPAT[note 8] which is a regional structure whose mission is to reinforce the strategies of territorial development. 55 employees work on all the services present in this institution which covers a pool of 142,000 inhabitants.
This medical, surgical, gynaecology and obstetrics (MCO) hospital with emergency adult and paediatric facilities, is the second regional technical platform after the CHU de Purpan in Toulouse. It is the headquarters of the SAMU and SMUR of Aveyron, and has nearly 60 medical and surgical services. Specialised and ultra-specialised in the disciplines of medicine, paediatrics, neonatology, oncology and surgery, it holds medical equipment of the latest generation.
After a restructuring between 2007 and 2010, the Saint-Louis Clinic is a large installation between the Boulevard d'Estournel, Rue Cabriere and 22 Rue Béteille. Two buildings of three floors joined by an underground level and raised tunnels are built on a total area of 6,000 square metres (65,000 sq ft). This clinic is equipped with a laboratory for medical analyses and a radiological platform equipped with an MRI scanner. Each floor extends over 900 square metres (9,700 sq ft) and the last floor, with 24 beds, is dedicated to post-operative care specialised in cardio-pneumology. 100 beds, all disciplines, are operational in this surgical facility. Surgical specialties in this clinic are: The clinic was closed in January 2014.
|Medico-surgical specialties - Saint-Louis Clinic|
In the commune of Olemps, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from Rodez, are also the Les Peyrieres Hospital and Sainte-Marie Hospital.
Rodez is home to Rodez AF (called le Raf by its fans) of the Championnat National (Third Division). The women's team is in the First Division and are known as les Rafettes. Rodez also has rugby, basketball, handball and fencing teams.
The city has numerous sports facilities. Most of these facilities have been reunited in what is called the Vallon des Sports, at the level of Pré Lamarque in the Western Quarter. It is composed of the dojo gym, sports rooms of l'Amphithéâtre and the Aquavallon aquatic centre. The Paul Lignon Stadium is located nearby. Many other sports complexes are present in the metropolitan area. All these facilities are intended to improve the reception of sports clubs of the city, whether they are independent or federated in combination as the Rodez Omnisports Stadium.
The various sports institutions:[note 9]
The city of Rodez hosted the Jumping international de France in 2009, Top 12 of the SRA in 2009, international Championship of aerobic gymnastics in 2010, Championship of the world of women's basketball for under-17s in 2010 and the 2010 Tour de France. Rodez will welcome the return of the Tour de France in 2015, for the finish of Stage 13, on 17 July, and the departure of Stage 14, on 18 July.
The basketball club of Stade Rodez Aveyron plays in the Nationale masculine 3, football clubs including Rodez Aveyron Football in the CFA for the men's team and in Division 1 for the women's team, and in rugby Stade Rodez Aveyron plays in Federale 1. These are the principal sports clubs of the commune. In fencing, Rodez Aveyron currently plays in Division 1 for men's team and women's team. The men's team was champion of France's division 1 in 2012 and 2014, 3rd in the European Cup of Champion Clubs in 2013 and runner up of Europe 2015. The Rodez Badminton (CBR) Club organises a tournament every year of national scope at l'Amphithéâtre. The Aveyronnais, very fond of bowling games, participate each year for the Championship of France of quilles de huit, beginning in August. The Vélo-Club Ruthenois [Ruthenois Cycling Club], founded in 1891, is the oldest sports club in the city.
Headquarters of the Army of Aveyron, located in Rodez, near Bourran.
The regiments whose barracks were in Rodez:
Rodez is the seat of the Centre Presse newspaper. It is part of the Les Journaux du Midi Group. The group lies in vast premises, on Avenue Victor Hugo, at the foot of the Cathedral of Rodez. Indeed, there are three daily newspapers of local and regional news being edited every day, namely the Centre Presse, La Dépêche du Midi and Midi Libre.
In addition, a Rodez weekly based on the news of the agglomeration of the Grand Rodez is produced on Le Piton, namely Le Ruthenois. A monthly journal is published by the General Council of Aveyron which tells the news of the institution each month, and the same for the city of Rodez which has its own monthly called Rodez, notre ville [Rodez, our city]. Finally, a quarterly published by the Midi-Pyrénées region is delivered to the mailbox of each person in Rodez.
The city has the national and international press in its kiosks. To facilitate the work on press articles, the media library of Rodez contains many archives, such as the departmental archives and the house of the press.
Apart from all major national stations to which the city of Rodez can access, other local radio stations are also available such as Totem which has a registered office in Luc-la-Primaube, Radio cent pour cent [100% Radio], Radio Menergy and CFM (107.9FM), which has its studios in Rodez. Finally, Radio Temps [Time Radio] (107 FM) was created in the Lycée Louis Querbes.
The commune has had digital terrestrial television channels since 1 June 2008. In addition, a branch of France 3 Sud, for France 3 Quercy-Rouergue, is headquartered in Bourran and thus allows Rodez news to be brought to television. A television studio is installed here in order to present the newscasts for Quercy-Rouergue Aveyron-Lot. Finally, the idea of establishing a continuous channel dedicated to the town of Rodez was born. The city of Rodez has broadcast digital television channels to replace analogue broadcasts, since 8 November 2011.
Rodez has broadband internet cable technology and Wi-Fi as well as commissioning, in 2008, several kilometres of fibre optic coupled to WiMAX and UMTS base stations across Grand Rodez and particularly to trading areas such as the international airport, railway station, Bourran Quarter and the historic centre. The 3G, 3G+ and 4G networks allow the digital opening up of the city of Rodez. The various road works, in the city centre, and especially in the historic heart, allowed new internet loops of very high-speed to be built between 2011 and 2012.
The city of Rodez, seat of the bishopric, is part of the parish of Our Lady of the Assumption, which includes 6 branches: Cathedral Notre-Dame de Rodez, Saint Amans, Le Monastère, La Mouline, Gorgan and Sacré-Coeur. François Fonlupt is the Bishop of Rodez since 2011.
The Protestant temple of Rodez (Reformed Church of France) was erected in 1947, on Rue Louis Lacombe.
The Evangelical Reformed Church of Rodez is located on the Séverac road to Onet-le-Château.
The Rodez mosque built on the Avenue de Bamberg between 2000 and 2002, was inaugurated in May 2003. The religious building was expanded between 2010 and 2011.
Rodez has several Masonic Lodges:
In summer, the city offers many entertainments and festive events. Three museums and many art galleries (Gallery Sainte-Catherine among others) attract many tourists. Finally on the side of young people, Grand Rodez student associations are present and, in addition, throughout the year, many bar-restaurants and bar-discos of the city participate in entertainment on the Ruthenois Piton ("terrasses en fêtes" [terraces in festivals], for example).
There are several music venues and festivals in or near Rodez. Music venues La Guinguette and Le Studio often host concerts, as does the local amphitheatre, and the local Maisons des Jeunes et de la Culture of Rodez and Onet-Le-Château.
Skabazac is probably the best-known music festival, and it takes place in mid-June. Just on the outskirts of Rodez in a town called Sébazac, Skabazac attracted over 30,000 people in 2010, when Cypress Hill headlined. In 2011 the festival's 13th edition was cancelled due to a lack of government funding. In midsummer the Occitan festival, called Estivada, takes place over several days. The festival promotes Occitan culture with food, cultural displays, and live music.
In order to preserve the traditions of folklore and the Occitan language, the langue d'Oc, two folk groups are based in Rodez. La Pastourelle (the young Shepherdess in Occitan) founded in 1948 and the Escloupeto (the carrier of hooves in Occitan) in 1953. It is through music, dances, songs and costumes from southern folklore that the various volunteers, we are revisiting the era. Occitan theatre is also part of their repertoire. The popular folklore of the Aveyron was created in Pont-de-Salars, at the International Folklore Festival of Rouergue in 1955.
Rodez asserts itself from an economic and tourist perspective at the centre of a triangle formed by Toulouse at the southwest, the regional prefecture located 130 kilometres (81 mi) from the Piton Ruthenois, at the southeast by Montpellier 180 kilometres (110 mi) and to the north by Clermont-Ferrand, the farthest, located 260 kilometres (160 mi) away.
Over the main city of the province, with 20,000 inhabitants, Rodez is, according to INSEE the 13th most prosperous urban unit of France just behind most of the cities in Île-de-France such as Saint-Cloud, Courbevoie, Paris and Suresnes. It is the 28th city where there are the most "jobs on the spot", Rodez is also the 91st commune of France in terms of viable start-ups by inhabitants (1 per 116 inhabitants) and the 157th in terms of share of taxed households representing 58 per cent (well above the national average). This result can be explained by two mechanisms. First, the diversity of the economic base is that companies of Rodez touch on numerous and varied areas. Moreover, Rodez was for many years separated from the major national economies without relevant communications. To do this, it endeavoured by its own skills to produce and build its own corporate panel in order to sustain its territory.
Today, Rodez is the main employment area of Aveyron. The population is organized around Grand Rodez, which concentrates the largest number of jobs with high-growth sectors as health, education, trade, food processing (dairy, cheese, meat processing), the wood furniture sector, mechanics, computer science, tertiary industries, aviation and research. The Aveyron inhabitants have three lives in the area of influence of Rodez. The geographical location of Rodez at the junction of the major Aveyron communication routes has long channelled a rural exodus to the prefecture: The presence of an airport and the improvement of the road network to Toulouse today contributes to the dynamism of the Rodez area with the emergence of many jobs.
According to the results of the 2009 census, the active population (15-64 years) of the municipality had 11,851 people, or 72.3%, this rate is 73.0% at the departmental level. In 2009, the unemployment rate among those aged 15-64 was 6.5% of the workforce.
|Distribution over 15 years by sector of activity in France|
|Comparison with the department||11.1%||15.4%||8.2%||34.9%||30.4%|
Rodez and its agglomeration focus a wide range of businesses and economic sectors, by automotive equipment with the Bosch Group, by research on GMOs and the distribution of seeds for agriculture with the national headquarters of the RAGT group within the grouping Biogemma, aeronautics with the Sofop working for Airbus Industries or its international airport platform, health with its hospital, computing with the Sopra Group, and the food industry. This set of dynamics places the agglomeration of Rodez in second place in economic growth in the Midi-Pyrénées after its regional capital, Toulouse. These companies are one of the keys to the "engineering valley".
Rodez is the seat of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Aveyron located in the city centre and in the district of Bourran. The Grand Rodez is the second largest economy of southwestern France where there are 2,700 companies in Grand Rodez and 1,500 in the centre of Rodez. Finally, there was an increase of 14.5% for the creation of companies on Rodez and its region between 2000 and 2006. The rate of survival of businesses was 71.5%, three years after opening. Major centres include:
On 1 January 2010, 490 companies were created in the territory.
|Total||Industry||Construction||Various businesses and services||Public sector|
|Number of establishments||3,026||171||207||2,143||505|
|Total||Industry||Construction||Various businesses and services||Public sector|
|Number of establishments||490||25||61||355||49|
Rodez is traditionally an agricultural trade centre. The city is the headquarters of Aveyron agriculture through its departmental chamber of agriculture. However, within the city walls, Rodez has little to no farming (0.8% of the distribution of jobs). Instead, it focuses in this field of research, including for example the RAGT or Lycée La Roque. Beyond the city and agglomeration, agricultural activity is present. During the 2011 session of the Congress of Young Farmers held in Rodez,Bruno Le Maire, Minister of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, as well as Rurality and Development, came to close this congress.
Rodez and its suburbs have developed local trade and large national brands, during the 21st century, to avoid a brain drain to the major centres like Toulouse and Montpellier. The city developed businesses in the city centre and its surroundings (commercial hub of Le Comtal located at Sébazac-Concourès).
The city market is held three times per week (Wednesday morning, Friday afternoon and Saturday morning). A large fair happens each quarter on Le Piton in Rodez.
Due to the geographical location of Rodez, between the Millau Viaduct and Conques, but also close to cities of the Midi such as Toulouse and Montpellier, its 2,000 years old historical past offers culture with museums, including the Musée Soulages. The development of road, rail and air transport, and also its UNESCO World Heritage candidacy contributes to a positive and dynamic tourist area (300,000 tourists each year to the Rodez Cathedral). Finally, the office of tourism of Rodez conducts guided tours of the monuments and landmarks of the city. However, beyond the city, tourists have also turned to the major centres of the department such as the lakes of Lévézou, Conques, Laguiole to the north of the department. The Millau Viaduct to the south provides the junction of the A75 to the Mediterranean Sea and also the most beautiful villages of France which place the department of Aveyron at the forefront of the French departments hosting the prettiest villages. Finally, Rodez has two promotional clips of the city issued by Grand-Rodez and the "Great Sites of Midi-Pyrénées" group. The Grand Rodez tourist office is located on the Place de la Cité (opened in July 2013).
There are three weekly farmers' markets. On Wednesday mornings the market is located in Place du Bourg. On Saturday mornings, the market expands into Place de la Cité and Place Emma Calvé (behind the Cathedral). On Friday evenings there is a small farmers' market on the Parking du Sacré Coeur.
Several restaurants serve local specialities, notably aligot, farçous, tripoux, and Roquefort, Laguiole, and Cantal cheeses, as well as red wine from the nearby village of Marcillac. Fouace is a breakfast item, a sweet bread that can be found in many local bakeries.
The town centre is almost exclusively pedestrian and is filled with history, as well as shops and local artisans. The agglomeration of Grand Rodez comprises the towns of Rodez, Onet-le-Château, Druelle, Luc-la-Primaube, Le Monastère, Olemps, Sainte-Radegonde and Sébazac-Concourès.
Since 3 February 2012, the Ruthenois Piton is classified among the "big sites" of Midi-Pyrénées and a steering committee is preparing the candidature of Rodez to the label of Towns and Lands of Art and History as well as the UNESCO World Heritage.
The Cathedral of Notre-Dame of Rodez is the main religious building of the department. Burned, damaged over the centuries, the Cathedral of Rodez is a remarkable compendium of architectural styles from the 13th century to the 17th century: Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque interior decoration elements. It has imposing dimensions; the central nave, quite narrow, is 102 metres (335 ft) long and has a particularly graceful elevation 30 metres (98 ft). The building is equipped with a beautiful bell tower, genuine laced pink sandstone, visible from afar, dominating the top of the city of its 87 metres (285 ft). Four hundred steps climb to reach the statue of the Virgin (located at the top of the bell tower) and the magnificent panorama of the city. At night, it is illuminated from inside.
The old episcopal palace of the 15th century, lay between the transept of the present cathedral and the rampart of the city. Paul-Louis-Philippe de Lezay de Lusignan was appointed Bishop of Rodez in 1684. He began the construction of the current palace upon his arrival, which ended in 1694. The palace was built in the style of Louis XIII with a staircase reminiscent of the Château de Fontainebleau.
Made an Historic Monument in 1950.
The Church of Saint Amans was made an Historic Monument in 1943. It was built in the 12th century and then completely rebuilt from 1758 to 1761 with materials salvaged from the original building. The exterior is Baroque but the interior has maintained its Romanesque style. The dome was decorated in the 18th century by Salinier. Tapestries of the 6th century decorate the choir and represent the miracles of Saint Amans. It retains a 15th-century Pietà and a statue of the Trinity (16th century), as well as a Limoges enamel reliquary casket.
Made an Historic Monument in 1927.
The former Jesuit college is a group of historic buildings constituting the Lycée Foch. This college remains a chapel, a building and a fountain, the fountain of Vors of Denys Puech, placed against the exterior wall of the chapel, in Place Foch.
Made an Historic Monument in 1942.
The national stud is now installed in this former religious building.
Made an Historic Monument in 1947. The hotel was built in the first half of the 18th century by François Le Normant d'Ayssènes, counsellor to the king, and his receiver in the election of Rodez. It is now home to the prefecture of the Aveyron.
Made an Historic Monument in 1947.
Made an Historic Monument in 1944.
Made an Historic Monument in 1862.
Made an Historic Monument in 1947.
Made an Historic Monument in 1984.
Railway bridges of the 19th century, including the Gascarie Viaduct.
Rodez was awarded with three flowers of the competition of flowery cities and villages, was awarded 1st place in 1996, and 3rd in 2007. Rodez also has the label "Child-friendly city", given by UNICEF.
Combelles recreation park, located in the commune of La Monastère, a few kilometres from the city centre is at the heart of a park of 120 hectares (300 acres). It is a place which is dedicated to the activities of its equestrian centre and its holiday-village accommodation. Vabre Park offers children's activities with outdoor games. Rodez has an 18-hole golf course located more precisely in the commune of Onet-le-Château. Layoule, located on the edge of the Aveyron river, offers a route laid out for pedestrians or cyclists. Finally, there is also a guide Les Belles Balades de l'Aveyron [The beautiful walks of the Aveyron]. The Foirail, where the cultural buildings are integrated, offers a natural setting in the heart of the city.
The city of Rodez (Rodés, in Rouergat) was one of the last centres of Occitania, with many troubadours who found refuge there and attempted to perpetuate the Occitan culture. Today, Occitania and the Langue d'Oc are in revival thanks to the Estivada of Rodez and the presence of numerous festive and cultural events. This language has become, over the years, a real cultural crossroads of the Pays d'Oc in the service of the revival of Occitan culture.
On 3 December 1836, at the invitation of Hippolyte de Barrau, the Society of Letters, Sciences and Arts of Aveyron was created in Rodez. Its purpose is the study of the history and the heritage inventory, both natural and cultural, of the Aveyron department, formerly Rouergue. This cultural institution was recognised as being of public utility on 29 October 1857. It is open to researchers, teachers, students, and to all those who are interested in the culture of Aveyron and the Rouergue. The Society of Letters, Sciences and Arts of Aveyron has a library of more than 50,000 books and several archival fonds.
Rodez has three museums:
This section needs expansion with: a transfer of the logo from the French version of the article. You can help by adding to it. (April 2015)
|Malte-Brun, in France illustrated (1882), reported two different blazons:
"Civitas Ruthena deo fidelis et regi semper." (The Ruthenoise community of eternal fidelity to God and the King.) The wheels (rodas) canting arms of Rodez, resemble bezants, hence the confusion of the blazon. The head of "France" ("of azure charged with three fleurs-de-lis of or") corresponds to an increase granted by King Henry IV in 1596, and therefore is not in contradiction with the first blazon, oldest (should say "stitched"). The accuracy of two in chief and one in base for the position of the wheels is useless (it's the default position) and therefore brings no difference between the two blazons.
A more correct Blazon would be: "of gules, three wheels of or; in chief stitched of modern France."
The Rodez logo consists of a small yellow drawing representing the branch from the bottom of the Occitan cross - this cross on the flag of Midi-Pyrénées - and the Rodez name in red capitals. The upper part of the logo, meanwhile, represents the Cathedral of Rodez perched on its "piton". The slogan: "Rodez, un art de ville" [Rodez, a city of art] is sometimes added to the logo.