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King Robert I was consecrated and crowned 'Rex Francorum' at Saint-Remi in Reims on 29 June 922 by Archbishop Hervée.
Hugh Capet was crowned at Reims on Christmas Day 988, by Archbishop Adalberon. In 990 the city was attacked by Charles of Lorraine, the rival of Hugues Capet, who seized the city and devastated the area.
Councils of Reims
The First Council of Reims took place in 625, under the presidency of Archbishop Sonnatius. It produced at least twenty-five canons.
In 1049, from 3 to 5 October, a Council of the Church took place at Reims under the presidency of Pope Leo IX, with twenty bishops and some fifty abbots in attendance. The Pope was in Reims for the dedication of the church of the monastery of Saint-Rémi, in fulfilment of a promise made to Abbot Herimar.
In 1657, the Chapter of the Cathedral of Reims contained nine dignities and sixty-four Canons. The dignities included: the Major Archdeacon (Archdeacon of Reims), the Minor Archdeacon (Archdeacon of Champagne), the Provost, the Dean, the Cantor, the Treasurer, the Vicedominus, the Scholasticus, and the Poenitentiarius. There were also a number of Collegiate Churches in the diocese, whose clergy were led by Canons: Saint-Symphorien in Reims (a Dean and 20 prebends); Saint-Timothée in Reims (12 prebends); Saint-Côme in Reims (4 prebends); Sainte-Nourrice in Reims (11 prebends); Saint-Pierre aux Dames in Reims (4 prebends); Mézières (a Dean, a Treasurer and 12 prebends); Braux (12 prebends); Montfaucon (a Provost and Canons); and Avenay (6 prebends).
The two archdeacons were already in existence in 877, when they are mentioned at the head of the Capitulations issued by Archbishop Hincmar. They were both appointees of the Archbishop.
In addition to the right to nominate the Archbishop of Reims (since the Concordat of Bologna in 1516), the King enjoyed the right to name the Abbot of Haut-Villiers (O.S.B.), Sainte-Baste (O.S.B.), Mouson (O.S.B.), Saint-Nicaise de Reims (O.S.B.), Saint-Pierre-de-Reims (O.S.B.), Saint-Remi de Reims (O.S.B.), Saint-Thierry lez Reims (O.S.B.), Chery (O.Cist.), Elem (O.Cist.), Igny (O.Cist.), Signy (O.Cist.), Vau-le-Roy (O.Cist.), Saint-Denis-de-Reims (O.S.A.), Esparnay-sur-Marne (O.S.A.), Belle-Val (Praemonst.), Chaumont en Porcien (Praemonst.), Sept Fontaines (Praemonst.), and Vau-Dieu (Praemonst.).
^The Annals of Flodoard of Reims, 916-966, eds & trans. Steven Fanning: Bernard S. Bachrach (New York; Ontario, Can: University of Toronto Press, 2011), pp. 6-7. Regnault, Histoire des sacres et couronnemens de nos rois..., pp. 50-52.
^Gallia christiana IX, pp. 165-172. The Provost was appointed by the Archbishop.
^Gallia christiana IX, pp. 171-176. The Dean was elected by the Chapter.
^The "Pouille of 1362" names the dignities, and also states that there were sixty-four prebends: Longdon, p. 55. The Canons were appointed by the Archbishop. Pouille general, pp. 1-2. Gallia christiana IX, pp. 163-164.
^Sixtus: Flodoard Canon of Reims (894-966) states that Sixtus was consecrated Archbishop by Saint Peter the Apostle and head of the Church, and sent along with his friends Sinicius and Memmius. Flodoard, "Historia ecclesiae Remensis", Book I, chapter 3, in: J. P. Migne (ed.), Patrologiae Latinae Tomus CXXXV (Paris 1853), p. 32. Fisquet, p. 5-6. Duchesne, p. 80, no. 1.
^Imbertus: Fisquet, p. 7. C. Munier, Concilia Galliae, A. 314 - A. 506 (Turnholt: Brepols 1963), p. 14 line 37: Inbetausius episcopus, Primigenius diaconus, de civitate Remorum. Duchesne, p. 81, no. 4.
^Flavius was present in 535 at the Council of Auvergne (Clermont). C. De Clercq, Concilia Galliae, A. 511 - A. 695 (Turnholt: Brepols 1963), p. 111: Flavus in Christi nomine episcopus ecclesiae Reminse. Duchesne, p. 82, no. 17.
^In legend, Tilpinus became the Turpin of the Chanson de Roland. Before his elevation, Tulpin had been a monk and Treasurer of Saint-Denis. Duchesne, pp. 86-87, no. 29.
^Hincmar of Reims says that Charlemagne left the See of Reims vacant for nine years. Duchesne, p. 87.
^Archbishop Ebo was deposed at the Council of Thionville on 4 March 835 because of his participation in the revolt of the sons of the Emperor Louis the Pious. He was rehabilitated by Lothair at the Council of Engelheim in August 840. J.D. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XIV (Venice 1769), pp. 773-780. Duchesne, p. 87.
^Hervée was the son of Ursus, Count of Champagne. He was consecrated on 6 July 900 by Riculfus, Bishop of Soissons. He consecrated King Robert I of France at Saint-Remi in Reims on 29 June 922. Fisquet, pp. 49-52.
^M. Bur, "Adalbéron, archévêque de Reims reconsidéré," in: M. Parisse and X. Barral i Altet (edd.), Le roi de France et son royaume autour de l' an mil: Actes du colloque, Hugues Capet 987-1987 (Paris 1992), 55-63.
^Manasses de Gournay, not the son of Manasses le Chauve, Vidame de Reims. He purchased the Archbishopric. In 1077, after many complaints, Gregory VII ordered his Apostolic Legate Hugues de Die to conduct an inquiry. Manasses was summoned to the Council of Autun, but he did not appear, and was suspended from his functions. He appealed to Pope Gregory, who ordered Hugues de Die and Abbot Hugues of Cluny to investigate further. Manasses was summoned to the Council of Lyon in 1078 to demonstrate his innocence, but instead he attempted to bribe Bishop Hugues to make a favorable report to the Pope. He was deposed in 1080, and Pope Gregory approved the sentence. Manasses died in Rome in 1092. Fisquet, pp. 74-76.
^Renaud was the son of Bellay III, Seigneur de Montreuil. His widowed mother married Geoffrey Martel, Comte d'Anjou. Renaud had been Treasurer of Saint-Martin-de-Tours and Archdeacon of Reims. Shortly after his election at Terracina on 12 March 1088, Pope Urban II, who had been a Canon of Reims, invited Archbishop Renaud to Italy to discuss the problems of the French church; he returned in 1090. In 1092 he presided at the Council of Soissons. On 20 March 1093, he held another Council at Reims, which received complaints against the Count of Flanders, who was seizing the property of deceased clerics. Another Council was held at Reims between 17 and 20 September 1094, attended by twenty-three bishops. He also subscribed the acts of the Council of Soissons (Mont-Saint-Marie) in 1095, and he was present at the celebrated Council of Clermont in November 1095. He died on 21 January 1096. Fisquet, pp. 76-78.
^Gervais, a younger brother of Baldwin du Bourg, who became King of Jerusalem. He was nominated by Philip I of France over the Provost of Reims, Raoul le Vert, but condemned by the Council of Troyes in 1107. William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea Book XII, chapter 1, states that Gervais inherited the County of Rethel after Baldwin had given it to his brother Manasses and Manasses had died. Gervais resigned the Archbishopric of Reims and married, which was contrary to Canon Law. Sainte-Marthe and the Benedictines of Saint-Maur do not admit Gervais into the list of the Archbishops of Reims in Gallia christiana Tome IX, pp. 80-81.
^Raoul le Vert was finally permitted to take his oath to the King on Christmas Day, 1108, thanks to the intervention of Ivo of Chartres and Lambert of Arras, thereby ending the conflict over the See of Reims. Gallia christiana Tome IX, pp. 80-82. Cusimano, p. 184, n. 5.
^Guy Paré (or Paray) was born at Paray-le-Monial (diocese of Autun). He was abbot of Notre-Dame du Val (Paris). He was elected Abbot of Citeaux in April 1193. In 1199 he was named a cardinal by Pope Innocent III. He was Suburbicarian Bishop of Palestrina (1200-1204), and was sent as Apostolic Legate to Emperor Otto IV. He took possession of the diocese of Reims in 1205. Sent on a mission to Flanders, he died at Gand on 30 July 1206 of the pestilence. Fisquet, pp. 97-98. Eubel, I, pp. 3 no. 3; 419.
^Alberic, Archdeacon of Paris, was preferred by Pope Innocent III after a contested election, at the plea of Eudes de Sully, Archbishop of Paris. He took possession of the diocese on 1 July 1207, and was consecrated on 8 July. Fisquet, pp. 99-101. Eubel, I, p. 419.
^Guillaume was the son of Geoffrey IV, and nephew of Guy de Joinville, Bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne. He had been Bishop of Langres and Peer of France. He took possession of the diocese of Reims on 10 June 1219. Fisquet, pp. 101-103. Eubel, I, pp. 307, 419.
^The Crusade of Theobald of Champagne and Richard of Cornwall: 1239-1241, Sidney Painter, A History of the Crusades, Vol. 2, ed. Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff and Harry W. Hazard, (University of Wisconsin Press, 1969), p. 466. Eubel, I, p. 419.
^Juhel de Mathefelon (not Yves de St._Martin) had been Archbishop of Tours. Fisquet, pp. 106-110. Eubel, I, pp. 419, 503.
^Thomas de Beaumes (Beaumetz) was a cousin of his predecessor Henri de Dreux. He was consecrated in May 1249 by Itier de Mauni, Bishop of Laon. Eubel, I, p. 419.
^Jean de Courtenay: Fisquet, pp. 111-113. Eubel, I, p. 419.
^Pierre Barbet (or Barbette) had been Archdeacon of Dunois in the Church of Chartres, and Canon of Noyon. He attended the Second Council of Lyons in 1274. On 24 July 1275 he crowned Queen Marie de Brabant in the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris. On 7 April 1278 he held a provincial council against the pretensions of Canons to issue interdicts. Fisquet, pp. 113-116. Eubel, I, p. 419.
^Robert de Courtenay was nephew of Jean de Courtenai, Archbishop of Reims, and of Robert de Courtenai, Bishop of Orléans. Robert had been Canon and Archdeacon of Reims before being named Archbishop. He took possession of the See on 8 September 1299. He held a council in Reims on 30 September 1302 to address a letter of Boniface VIII against Canons of cathedrals who abused their authority. On 3 January 1304 he held a Council at Compiegne for the reform of the clergy. Fisquet, pp. 116-120. Eubel, I, p. 419.
^Guillaume de Trie was the son of Thibaud de Trie, Seigneur de Vaumain; his brother Matthieu became a Marshal of France. Guillaume had been Preceptor of King Philip IV of France. Fisquet, pp. 118-120.
^Humbert, Dauphin de Viennois, sold his inheritance to Philip VI, King of France, and entered the Dominican Order. On December 25, 1350 he was ordained a priest at Avignon by Pope Clement VI. On 1 January 1351 he was consecrated a bishop, and given the title of Patriarch of Alexandria. In March 1352 he was named Administrator of the diocese of Reims; he was never the Archbishop. He resigned his functions on 22 February 1355. He died in the Dominican convent at Clermont on 25 May 1355. His memorial inscription names him Patriarch of Alexandria, not Archbishop of Reims. Gallia christiana IX, pp. 127-129. Fisquet, pp. 124-126.
^Guy de Roye: Gallia christiana IX, pp. 132-133. Fisquet, pp. 132-135. Eubel, I, p. 419.
^Simon Cramaud had been Patriarch of Alexandria, and Administrator of the diocese of Carcassone. He was appointed Archbishop of Reims by the Pisan pope Alexander V. He was created a cardinal priest by John XXIII 14 April 1413. Fisquet, pp. 136-139. Eubel, I, p. 419.
^Pierre had been Canon of Bourges. He became Archdeacon of Paris and Master of Requests of Charles VI. He was appointed Bishop of Poitiers on 25 July 1409, and granted his bulls on September 11 by Pope Alexander V. He was granted his bulls for Reims on 2 May 1413, following the promotion of Simon Cramaud to the cardinalate. He died on 16 December 1413. Fisquet, p. 139. Eubel, I, pp. 399, 419.
^Renaud had been Dean of the Cathedral Chapter of Beauvais. From 28 March to 6 August 1424 he served as Chancellor of France by Charles VII. Charles sent him as ambassador to Pope Martin V in 1425. On 8 November 1428 he was again named Chancellor of France. On 17 July 1429 he consecrated Charles VII as King of France. On the king's request Pope Eugene created Archbishop Renaud of Chartres a cardinal on 18 December 1439. He died on 4 April 1444. Auguste Vallet de Viriville (1863). Histoire de Charles VII: roi de France et de son époque 1403-1461 (in French). Vve J. Renouard. pp. 95-100. Fisquet, pp. 139-143. Eubel, I, p. 419; II, pp. 7 no. 4; 222 note 1.
^Jacques Juvenal was transferred to the titular See of Antioch on 3 March 1449: Eubel, II, pp. 89, 222.
^Charles de Guise was a son of Claude, Duke of Guise), and nephew of his predecessor, Jean de Lorraine. He was named a cardinal by Pope Paul III on 27 July 1547. Eubel, III, p. 30, no. 65; p. 284.
^Louis de Guise was a son of Francis, Duke of Guise, and a nephew of his predecessor, Charles of Guise. He was named a cardinal by Pope Julius III on 22 December 1553. Eubel, III, p. 33, no 18; p. 284.
^Pellevé was named a cardinal by Pope Pius V on 17 May 1570. Eubel, III, p. 44, no 17; p. 284.
^Louis de Guise was a son of Henry I, Duke of Guise, and nephew of Louis I, Archbishop of Reims. He was created a cardinal by Pope Paul V on 2 December 1615. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 12 no. 32; p. 295.
^Gifford was already an auxiliary bishop of Reims and titular Bishop of Arcadiopolis (Thrace); he had been consecrated in September 1618 at Saint-Germain-des-Prés in Paris by Bishop Charles de Balzac of Noyon. It is said that his promotion was in part due to the influence of Abbess Marie de Lorraine and Archbishop Louis de Guise: S. Ropartz, "Un livre de controverse contre les Calvinistes," Revue de Bretagne. (serie 5, Vol. 11) (in French). Tome 42. 1877. pp. 194-203, at 202. On 17 June 1619 he resigned his position of Prebend and Theologian of the Church of St. Malo. E. Hautcoeur (1899). Histoire de l'Église collegiale et du Chapitre de Saint-Pierre de Lille. Mémoires Société d'études de la province de Cambrai, Tome VI (in French). Tome troisieme. Paris: A. Picard. pp. 25-36. L. Hicks, "The Exile of Dr William Gifford from Lille in 1606," Recusant History 1 (1964), 214-238. Joseph Bergin (1996). The Making of the French Episcopate, 1589-1661. Yale University Press. pp. 21, 441-442, 630-631. ISBN978-0-300-06751-4. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, pp. 91 and 295.
^Henri de Guise-Lorraine was a nephew of Louis II, son of Charles, Duke of Guise. He was 14 years old when appointed, and was neither ordained nor consecrated. He resigned the diocese in order to inherit the dukedom.
^Cardinal Barberini was a nephew of Pope Urban VIII, and had spent years in exile in France during the reign of Pope Innocent X (Pamphili). He had been named Bishop of Poitiers on 16 August 1652 by King Louis XIV, but he never was granted his bulls by the Pope. He returned to Rome for the Conclave of 18 January-7 April 1655, where he played his part as Cardinal Camerlengo and French agent. The new Pope, Alexander VII (Chigi) named Barberini Bishop of Frascati (1655-1661). On 24 June 1657 Louis XIV named him Archbishop of Reims, but Barberini did not obtain his bulls during Alexander VII's lifetime because he was unwilling to resign the office of Camerlengo in favor of the Pope's nephew. He finally received his bulls from Pope Clement IX on 18 July 1667. Barberini took possession of the diocese of Reims on 4 October by proxy, took his oath to the King on 2 November, and made his solemn entry into his diocese on 22 December. He died on 3/4 August 1671. Fisquet, pp. 188-190. Gauchat, IV, p. 295, with note 8. Ritzler, V, p. 332 with note 3.
^De Mailly had previously been Archbishop of Arles. He was created a cardinal by Pope Clement XI on 29 November 1719. Jean, p. 306. Ritzler, V, p. 333 with note 5.
^Rohan had two suffragan bishops (Auxiliary bishops): François-Joseph Robuste (1728-1729), and Henri Hachette des Portes (1753-1771). Jean, p. 306. Ritzler, V, p. 333 with note 6.
^La Roche-Aymon was born in the diocese of Limoges in 1696, and had a doctorate in theology (Paris 1724). He was a Canon of Mâcon, and served as Vicar-General of Limoges. He had been titular Bishop of Sarepta and Auxiliary Bishop of Limoges (1725-1730), Bishop of Tarbes (1730-1740), Archbishop of Toulouse (1740-1752), and Archbishop of Narbonne (1752-1763). He was nominated Archbishop of Reims by King Louis XV on 5 December 1762, and was approved (preconized) on 24 January 1763 by Pope Clement XIII. He was created a cardinal on 16 December 1771 by Pope Clement XIV. He died on 27 October 1777. Jean, p. 307. Ritzler, V, p. 345 with note 3; VI, pp. 27 no. 6; 301 with note 3; 356, with note 2; 392 with note 2.
^Alexandre de Talleyrand was a younger brother of Charles-Daniel, Comte de Perigord; and uncle of Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand, Bishop of Autun and sometime French Foreign Minister. Alexandre de Talleyrand refused the oath to the Constitution, and his See was determined to be vacant from 1790; he emigrated, and refused to resign in 1801. On the return of the Bourbons he was named Archbishop of Paris, from 1817-1821). Jean, p. 307-308. Ritzler, VI, p. 356, with note 3.
^Coucy: A. Frézet, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français... pp. 498-499.
^Latil was born in 1761 at îles Sainte-Marguerite en Provence. He studied at Saint-Sulpice in Paris. During the French Revolution the Comte de Latril fled, but was arrested at Montfort-l'Amaury in 1792 and imprisoned for some time; released, he sought refuge in Colmar. In 1798 he became Chaplain to the Comte d'Artois. After his return he was named titular Bishop of Amyclae, and Coadjutor Bishop of Chartres, and on 1 October 1817 Bishop of Chartres. Fisquet (1864), La France pontificale: Chartres, pp. 221-224. A. Frézet, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français... pp. 499-500.
^Landriot: A. Frézet, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., pp. 503-505.
^Langénieux was born at Villefranche (Rhône) in 1824. He studied in the Minor Seminary in Paris under Dupanloup, and at Saint-Sulpice. He served as curé in several Parisian parishes, until being named Vicar General and Archdeacon of Notre-Dame by Archbishop Guibert in 1871. He was appointed Bishop of Tarbes on 19 June 1873, and approved (preconized) on 25 July. He was nominated to be Archbishop of Reims by the French government on 11 November 1874, and approved (preconised) by Pope Pius IX on 21 December 1874. He was created a cardinal by Pope Leo XIII in the consistory of 7 June 1886. A. Frézet, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., pp. 503-505; 613-614.
^Louis Luçon was born in the village of Maulevrier, near Angers. In 1853, he entered the Collège de Cholet. He was named Chaplain of Saint-Louis-des-Français in Rome in 1873, where he obtained a doctorate in theology and in Canon Law. He returned to two successive curateships. He was appointed Bishop of Belley (Ain) by decree of 8 November 1887, which was approved (preconized) on 25 November. He was consecrated at Notre-Dame de Cholet (in French) on 8 February 1888 by Bishop Charles-Emile Freppel of Angers. He was enthroned on 24 February. His most notable achievement was the elevation of the Curé of Ars, Jean-Marie Vianney, to sainthood. He was named Archbishop of Reims on 1 January 1905, during the conflict between Church and State that led to the Law of Separation of 1905. He was expelled from his episcopal palace in December 1906. He was named a cardinal in 1907 by Pope Pius X, and participated in the Conclave of 1914 to elect his successor. He was absent from Reims when the Cathedral, struck by German bombs, was set afire and heavily damaged. He died on 28 May 1930. François Cochet (2001). Première Guerre mondiale: dates, thèmes, noms (in French). Levallois-Perret: Studyrama. pp. 133-134. ISBN978-2-84472-117-4. François Cochet (1993). Rémois en guerre: 1914-1918 (in French). Nancy: Presses Universitaires de Nancy. pp. 117-124. ISBN978-2-86480-660-8. Martin Bräuer (2014). Handbuch der Kardinäle: 1846-2012 (in German). Berlin: De Gruyter. p. 1906. ISBN978-3-11-026947-5.
^Maury was born in 1907 and ordained in 1932. He served as Apostolic Delegate in Africa (1959), Internuncio in Senegal from 1961 to 1965, and then Nuncio in the ex-Belgian Congo, Ruanda and Burundi from 1965 to 1968.
^Balland was born at Bué (Cher) near Sancerre in the diocese of Bourges in 1934. He studied at the French Seminary in Rome. He was named Vicar General of Bourges in 1980, and Bishop of Dijon in 1982. He was Archbishop of Reims from 1988 to 1995, when he was transferred to Lyon. He died of lung cancer on 1 March 1998, ten days after having been named a cardinal by Pope John Paul II, and a week after his reception of the gold ring and title of San Pietro in Vincoli. See: François Wenz-Dumas, in the journal Libération, 2 March 1998 mort-de-mgr-balland-cardinal, retrieved: 2017-01-31.