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In Woolwich in 1716, the Board formed the Royal Regiment of Artillery and established a Corps of Engineers, consisting entirely of commissioned officers. The manual work was done by the Artificer Companies, made up of contracted civilian artisans and labourers. In 1772, a Soldier Artificer Company was established for service in Gibraltar, the first instance of non-commissioned military engineers. In 1787, the Corps of Engineers was granted the Royal prefix, and adopted its current name; in the same year, a Corps of Royal Military Artificers was formed, consisting of non-commissioned officers and privates, to be led by the Royal Engineers. Ten years later, the Gibraltar company (which had remained separate) was absorbed, and in 1812 the unit's name was changed to the Corps of Royal Sappers and Miners.
The Corps has no battle honours. In 1832, the regimental motto, Ubique & Quo Fas Et Gloria Ducunt ("Everywhere" & "Where Right And Glory Lead"; in Latin fas implies "sacred duty") was granted. The motto signified that the Corps had seen action in all the major conflicts of the British Army and almost all of the minor ones as well.
In 1855, the Board of Ordnance was abolished, and authority over the Royal Engineers, Royal Sappers and Miners and Royal Artillery was transferred to the Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, thus uniting them with the rest of the Army. The following year, the Royal Engineers and Royal Sappers and Miners became a unified corps as the Corps of Royal Engineers, and their headquarters were moved from the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, to Chatham, Kent.
The re-organisation of the British military that began in the mid-Nineteenth Century and stretched over several decades included the reconstitution of the Militia, the raising of the Volunteer Force, and the ever-closer organisation of the part-time forces with the regular army. The old Militia had been an infantry force, other than the occasional employment of Militiamen to man artillery defences and other roles on an emergency basis. This changed in 1861, with the conversion of some units to artillery roles. Militia and Volunteer Engineering companies were also created, beginning with the conversion of the militia of Anglesey and Monmouthshire to engineers in 1877. The Militia and Volunteer Force engineers supported the regular Royal Engineers in a variety of roles, including operating the boats required to tend the submarine mine defences that protected harbours in Britain and its empire. These included a submarine mining militia company that was authorised for Bermuda in 1892, but never raised, and the Bermuda Volunteer Engineers that wore Royal Engineers uniforms and replaced the regular Royal Engineers companies withdrawn from the Bermuda Garrison in 1928. The various part-time reserve forces were amalgamated into the Territorial Force in 1908, which was retitled the Territorial Army after the First World War, and the Army Reserve in 2014.
The First World War saw a rapid transformation of the Royal Engineers as new technologies became ever more important in the conduct of warfare and engineers undertook an increasing range of roles. In the front line they designed and built fortifications, operated poison gas equipment, repaired guns and heavy equipment, and conducted underground warfare beneath enemy trenches. Support roles included the construction, maintenance and operation railways, bridges, water supply and inland waterways, as well as telephone, wireless and other communications. As demands on the Corps increased, its manpower was expanded from a total (including reserves) of about 25,000 in August 1914, to 315,000 in 1918.
In 1915, in response to Germanmining of British trenches under the then static siege conditions of the First World War, the corps formed its own tunnelling companies. Manned by experienced coal miners from across the country, they operated with great success until 1917, when after the fixed positions broke, they built deep dugouts such as the Vampire dugout to protect troops from heavy shelling.
Before the Second World War, Royal Engineers recruits were required to be at least 5 feet 4 inches tall (5 feet 2 inches for the Mounted Branch). They initially enlisted for six years with the colours and a further six years with the reserve or four years and eight years. Unlike most corps and regiments, in which the upper age limit was 25, men could enlist in the Royal Engineers up to 35 years of age. They trained at the Royal Engineers Depot in Chatham or the Royal Engineer Mounted Depot at Aldershot.
Britain having acquired an Empire, it fell to the Royal Engineers to conduct some of the most significant "civil" engineering schemes around the world. Some examples of great works of the era of empire can be found in A. J. Smithers's book Honourable Conquests.
Much of the British colonial era infrastructure of India, of which elements survive today, was created by engineers of the three presidencies' armies and the Royal Engineers. Lieutenant (later General Sir) Arthur Thomas Cotton (1803-99), Madras Engineers, was responsible for the design and construction of the great irrigation works on the river Cauvery, which watered the rice crops of Tanjore and Trichinopoly districts in the late 1820s. In 1838 he designed and built sea defences for Vizagapatam. He masterminded the Godavery Delta project where 720,000 acres (2,900 km2) of land were irrigated and 500 miles (800 km) of land to the port of Cocanada was made navigable in the 1840s. Such regard for his lasting legacy was shown when in 1983, the Indian Government erected a statue in his memory at Dowleswaram.
Other irrigation and canal projects included the Ganges Canal, where Colonel Sir Colin Scott-Moncrieff (1836-1916) acted as the Chief Engineer and made modifications to the original work. Among other engineers trained in India, Scott-Moncrieff went on to become Under Secretary of State Public Works, Egypt where he restored the Nile barrage and irrigation works of Lower Egypt.
The construction of the Rideau Canal was proposed shortly after the War of 1812, when there remained a persistent threat of attack by the United States on the British colony of Upper Canada. The initial purpose of the Rideau Canal was military, as it was intended to provide a secure supply and communications route between Montreal and the British naval base in Kingston, Ontario. Westward from Montreal, travel would proceed along the Ottawa River to Bytown (now Ottawa), then southwest via the canal to Kingston and out into Lake Ontario. The objective was to bypass the stretch of the St. Lawrence River bordering New York State, a route which would have left British supply ships vulnerable to attack or a blockade of the St. Lawrence. The construction of the canal was supervised by Lieutenant-Colonel John By of the Royal Engineers. In 2007 it was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site recognizing it as a work of human creative genius. The Rideau Canal was recognized as the best preserved example of a slack water canal in North America demonstrating the use of European slackwater technology in North America on a large scale. Lt. Denison was one of the junior Royal Engineers who worked under Lt. Colonel John By, RE on the Rideau Canal in Upper Canada (1826-1832). Of note, Denison carried out experiments under the direction of Lt. Col. By to determine the strength, for construction purposes of the old growth timber in the vicinity of Bytown. His findings were published by the Institution of Civil Engineers in England who bestowed upon him the prestigious Telford Medal.
Dover's Western Heights
The Western Heights of Dover are one of the most impressive fortifications in Britain. They comprise a series of forts, strong points and ditches, designed to protect the United Kingdom from invasion. They were created to augment the existing defences and protect the key port of Dover from both seaward and landward attack. First given earthworks in 1779 against the planned invasion that year, the high ground west of Dover, England, now called Dover Western Heights, was properly fortified in 1804 when Lieutenant-Colonel William Twiss was instructed to modernise the existing defences. This was part of a huge programme of fortification in response to Napoleon's planned invasion of the United Kingdom. To assist with the movement of troops between Dover Castle and the town defences Twiss made his case for building the Grand Shaft in the cliff:
"... the new barracks. ... are little more than 300 yards horizontally from the beach. ... and about 180 feet (55 m) above high-water mark, but in order to communicate with them from the centre of town, on horseback the distance is nearly a mile and a half and to walk it about three-quarters of a mile, and all the roads unavoidably pass over ground more than 100 feet (30 m) above the barracks, besides the footpaths are so steep and chalky that a number of accidents will unavoidably happen during the wet weather and more especially after floods. I am therefore induced to recommend the construction of a shaft, with a triple staircase ... the chief objective of which is the convenience and safety of troops ... and may eventually be useful in sending reinforcements to troops or in affording them a secure retreat."
Twiss's plan was approved and building went ahead. The shaft was to be 26 feet (7.9 m) in diameter, 140 feet (43 m) deep with a 180 feet (55 m) gallery connecting the bottom of the shaft to Snargate Street, and all for under an estimated £4000. The plan entailed building two brick-lined shafts, one inside the other. In the outer would be built a triple staircase, the inner acting as a light well with "windows" cut in its outer wall to illuminate the staircases. Apparently, by March 1805 only 40 feet (12 m) of the connecting gallery was left to dig and it is probable that the project was completed by 1807.
Two Acts of Parliament allowed for the building of Pentonville Prison for the detention of convicts sentenced to imprisonment or awaiting transportation. Construction started on 10 April 1840 and was completed in 1842. The cost was £84,186 12s 2d. Captain (later Major General Sir) Joshua Jebb designed Pentonville Prison, introducing new concepts such as single cells with good heating, ventilation and sanitation.
Although mapping by what became the Ordnance Survey was born out of military necessity it was soon realised that accurate maps could be also used for civil purposes. The lessons learnt from this first boundary commission were put to good use around the world where members of the Corps have determined boundaries on behalf of the British as well as foreign governments; some notable boundary commissions include:
1839 - Canada-United States
1858 - Canada-United States (Captain (later General Sir) John Hawkins RE)
1856 and 1857 - Russo-Turkish (Lieutenant Colonel (later Sir) Edward Stanton RE)
1894 - India-Afghanistan (Captain (later Colonel Sir) Thomas Holdich RE)
1902 - Chile-Argentine (Colonel Sir Delme Radcliffe RE)
1911 - Peru-Bolivia (Major A. J. Woodroffe RE)
Much of this work continues to this day. The reform of the voting franchise brought about by the Reform Act (1832), demanded that boundary commissions were set up. Lieutenants Dawson and Thomas Drummond (1797-1839), Royal Engineers, were employed to gather the statistical information upon which the Bill was founded, as well as determining the boundaries and districts of boroughs. It was said that the fate of numerous boroughs fell victim to the heliostat and the Drummond light, the instrument that Drummond invented whilst surveying in Ireland.
An Abney level is an instrument used in surveying which consists of a fixed sighting tube, a movable spirit level that is connected to a pointing arm, and a protractor scale. The Abney level is an easy to use, relatively inexpensive, and when used correctly an accurate surveying tool. The Abney level was invented by Sir William de Wiveleslie Abney (1843-1920) who was a Royal Engineer, an English astronomer and chemist best known for his pioneering of colour photography and colour vision. Abney invented this instrument under the employment of the Royal School of Military Engineering in Chatham, England, in the 1870s.
In 1873, Captain Henry Brandreth RE was appointed Director of the Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, later the Admiralty Works Department. Following this appointment many Royal Engineer officers superintended engineering works at Royal Navy Dockyards in various parts of the world, including the Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda.
1848 Woodcut of HMD Bermuda, Ireland Island, Bermuda.
Chatham, being the home of the Corps, meant that the Royal Engineers and the Dockyard had a close relationship since Captain Brandreth's appointment. At the Chatham Dockyard, Captain Thomas Mould RE designed the iron roof trusses for the covered slips, 4, 5 and 6. Slip 7 was designed by Colonel Godfrey Greene RE on his move to the Corps from the Bengal Sappers & Miners. In 1886 Major Henry Pilkington RE was appointed Superintendent of Engineering at the Dockyard, moving on to Director of Engineering at the Admiralty in 1890 and Engineer-in-Chief of Naval Loan Works, where he was responsible for the extension of all major Dockyards at home and abroad.
All members of the Royal Engineers are trained combat engineers and all sappers (privates) and non-commissioned officers also have another trade. These trades include: air conditioning fitter, electrician, general fitter, plant operator mechanic, plumber, bricklayer, plasterer / painter, carpenter & joiner, fabricator, building materials technician, design draughtsman, electrical & mechanical draughtsman, geographic support technician, survey engineer, armoured engineer, driver, engineer IT, engineer logistics specialist, amphibious engineer, bomb disposal specialist, diver or search specialist. They may also undertake the specialist selection and training to qualify as Commandos or Military Parachutists. Women are eligible for all Royal Engineer specialities.
Brigades & Groups
Combat Engineers prepare a bridge for demolition in Malaya.
Royal Engineers' Surveyors in Europe
Combat Engineers of 20 Field Squadron, 36 Engineer Regiment practice landmine clearance.
The Royal School of Military Engineering (RSME) is the British Army's Centre of Excellence for Military Engineering, Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD), and counter terrorist search training. Located on several sites in Chatham, Kent, Camberley in Surrey and Bicester in Oxfordshire the Royal School of Military Engineering offers training facilities for the full range of Royal Engineer skills. The RSME was founded by Major (later General Sir) Charles Pasley, as the Royal Engineer Establishment in 1812. It was renamed the School of Military Engineering in 1868 and granted the "Royal" prefix in 1962.
3 Royal School of Military Engineering Regiment, in Minley:
55 Training Squadron
57 Training Squadron
63 Headquarters and Training Support Squadron
Communication Information Systems Wing
Construction Engineer School
1 Royal School of Military Engineering Regiment, in Chatham:
24 Training Squadron
36 Training Squadron
Hackett Troop (Plant)
Civil Engineering Wing
Electrical and Mechanical Wing
Royal Engineers Warfare Wing (Founded in 2011 and split between Brompton Barracks, Chatham and Gibraltar Barracks at Minley in Hampshire, this is the product of the amalgamation between Command Wing, where Command and Tactics were taught and Battlefield Engineering Wing, where combat engineering training was facilitated.)
United Kingdom Mine Information and Training Centre
Defence Explosive Munitions and Search School (formally Defence EOD School and the National Search Centre)
Band of the Corps of Royal Engineers (The band are part of the Corps of Army Music, but wear the uniform of the Royal Engineers)
Camp Gate Flag of the Royal Engineers
Royal Engineers' Ensign
The Royal Engineers, Ports Section, operated harbours and ports for the army and used mainly specialised vessels such as tugs and dredgers. During the Second World War the Royal Engineers' Blue Ensign was flown from the Mulberry harbours.
Bishop Gundulf, Rochester and King's Engineers
Rochester Castle from across the Medway. Engraving from image by G.F. Sargent c1836.
Rochester Cathedral from the West
Bishop Gundulf, a monk from the Abbey of Bec in Normandy came to England in 1070 as Archbishop Lafranc's assistant at Canterbury. His talent for architecture had been spotted by King William I and was put to good use in Rochester, where he was sent as bishop in 1077. Almost immediately the King appointed him to supervise the construction of the White Tower, now part of the Tower of London in 1078. Under William Rufus he also undertook building work on Rochester Castle. Having served three kings of England and earning "the favour of them all", Gundulf is accepted as the first "King's Engineer".
Musicians from the Band of the Corps of Royal Engineers during a Medals Parade for 32 Engineer Regiment.
The Royal Engineers' Yacht Club, which dates back to 1812, promotes the skill of watermanship in the Royal Engineers.
Royal Engineers Amateur Football Club
The club was founded in 1863, under the leadership of Major Francis Marindin. Sir Frederick Wall, who was the secretary of The Football Association 1895-1934, stated in his memoirs that the "combination game" was first used by the Royal Engineers A.F.C. in the early 1870s. Wall states that the "Sappers moved in unison" and showed the "advantages of combination over the old style of individualism".
On 7 November 2012, the Royal Engineers played against the Wanderers in a remake of the 1872 FA Cup Final at The Oval. Unlike the actual final, the Engineers won, and by a large margin, 7-1 being the final score.
The Telegraph Troop, founded in 1870,:121 became the Telegraph Battalion Royal Engineers who then became the Royal Engineers Signals Service, which in turn became the independent Royal Corps of Signals in 1920.
In 1913, the Army Post Office Corps (formed in 1882) and the Royal Engineers Telegraph Reserve (formed in 1884) amalgamated to form the Royal Engineers (Postal Section) Special Reserve. This later became the Defence Postal and Courier Service and remained part of the RE until the formation of the Royal Logistic Corps in 1993 - see (British Forces Post Office).
The following Royal Engineers have been awarded the Victoria Cross (VC), the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
In 1998, HMSO published an account of the 55 British and Commonwealth 'Sappers' who have been awarded the Victoria Cross. The book was written by Colonel GWA Napier, former Royal Engineers officer and a former Director of the Royal Engineers Museum. The book defines a 'Sapper' as any "member of a British or Empire military engineer corps, whatever their rank, speciality or national allegiance", and is thus not confined to Royal Engineers.
Rochester Cathedral, Kent has major historical links with the Corps and contains many memorials including stained glass, mosaics and plaques. The cathedral hosts services on the annual Corps Memorial Weekend and is supported by the Corps on Remembrance Sunday.
Follow the Sapper: An Illustrated History of the Corps of Royal Engineers, by Colonel Gerald Napier RE. Published by The Institution of Royal Engineers, 2005. ISBN0-903530-26-0.
The History of the Corps of Royal Sappers and Miners: From the Formation of the Corps in March 1772, to the Date when Its Designation was Changed to that of Royal Engineers, in October 1856, by Thomas William John Connolly. Published by Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1857.
History of the Corps of Royal Engineers, by Whitworth Porter, Charles Moore Watson. Published by Longmans, Green, 1889.
Papers on Subjects Connected with the Duties of the Corps of Royal Engineers, by Great Britain Army. Royal Engineers. Published by The Corps, 1874.
Professional Papers of the Corps of Royal Engineers, by Great Britain Army. Royal Engineers, Royal Engineers' Institute (Great Britain). Published by Royal Engineer Institute, 1892.
The Royal Engineers in Egypt and the Sudan, by Edward Warren Caulfeild Sandes. Published by Institution of Royal Engineers, 1937.
Citizen Soldiers of the Royal Engineers Transportation and Movements and the Royal Army Service Corps, 1859 to 1965, by Gerard Williams, Michael Williams. Published by Institution of the Royal Corps of Transport, 1969.
The Royal Engineers, by Terry Gander. Published by I. Allan, 1985. ISBN0-7110-1517-1.
Versatile Genius: The Royal Engineers and Their Maps: Manuscript Maps and Plans of the Eastern Frontier, 1822-1870, by University of the Witwatersrand Library, Yvonne Garson. Published by University of the Witwatersrand Library, 1992. ISBN1-86838-023-8.
The History of the Royal Engineer Yacht Club, by Sir Gerald Duke. Published by Pitman Press, 1982. ISBN0-946403-00-7.
From Ballon to Boxkite. The Royal Engineers and Early British Aeronautics, by Malcolm Hall. Published by Amberley, 2010. ISBN978-1-84868-992-3.
A Harbour Goes to War. The story of the Mulberry and the men who made it happen, by Evans, J. Palmer, E & Walter, R. Published by Brook House, 2000. ISBN1-873547-30-7.
Danger UXB. The Heroic Story of the WWII Bomb Disposal Teams, by James Owen. Published by Little, Brown, 2010. ISBN978-1-4087-0195-9.
Designed to Kill. Bomb Disposal from World War I to the Falklands, by Major Arthur Hogben. Published by Patrick Stevens, 1987. ISBN0-85059-865-6.
UXB Malta. Royal Engineers Bomb Disposal 1940-44, by S A M Hudson. Published by The History Press, 2010. ISBN978-0-7524-5635-5.
The Underground War. Vimy Ridge to Arras, by Robinson, P & Cave, N. Published by Pen and Sword, 2011. ISBN978-1-84415-976-5.
XD Operations. Secret British Missions Denying Oil to the Nazis, by Brazier, C. C. H. Published by Pen and Sword, 2004. ISBN1-84415-136-0.
Blowing Our Bridges. A Memoir from Dunkirk to Korea via Normandy, by Maj Gen Tony Younger. Published by Pen and Sword, 2004. ISBN1-84415-051-8.
Code Name Mulberry. The Planning - Building & Operation of the Normandy Harbours, by Guy Hartcup. Published by Pen and Sword, 2006. ISBN1-84415-434-3.
Summon up the Blood. The war diary of Corporal J A Womack, Royal Engineers, by Celia Wolfe. Published by Leo Cooper, 1997. ISBN978-0-85052-537-3.
Fight, Dig and Live. The Story of the Royal Engineers in the Korean War, by George Cooper. Published by Pen and Sword, 2011. ISBN978-1-84884-684-5.
Stick & String, by Terence Tinsley. Published by Buckland Publishing, 1992. ISBN0-7212-0897-5.
Honourable Conquests. An account of the enduring works of the Royal Engineers throughout the Empire, by Smithers, A. J. Published by Leo Cooper, 1991. ISBN0-85052-725-2.
Never a Shot in Anger, by Gerald Mortimer. Published by Square One Publications, 1993. ISBN1-872017-71-1.
Platoon Commander (Memoirs of a Royal Engineers Officer), by Peter Steadman. Published by Pentlandite Books, 2001. ISBN1-85821-901-9.
Commander Royal Engineers. The Headquarters of the Royal Engineers at Arnhem, by John Sliz. Published by Travelouge 219, 2013. ISBN978-1-927679-04-3.
The Lonely War. A story of Bomb Disposal in World War II by on who was there, by Eric Wakeling. Published by Square One Publication, 1994. ISBN1-872017-84-3.
Bombs & Bobby Traps, by H. J. Hunt. Published by Romsey Medal Centre, 1986. ISBN0-948251-19-0.
With the Royal Engineers in the Peninsula & France, by Charles Boothby. Published by Leonaur, 2011. ISBN978-0-85706-781-4.
Inland Water Transport in Mesopotamia, by Lt Col L. J. Hall. Published by Naval & Military Press, 1919. ISBN1-84342-952-7.
A Short History of the Royal Engineers, by The Institution of Royal Engineers. Published by The Institution of Royal Engineers, 2006. ISBN0-903530-28-7.
Don't Annoy The Enemy, by Eric Walker. Published by Gernsey Press Co. ISBN Not on publication.
Oh! To be a Sapper, by M. J. Salmon. Published by The Institution of Royal Engineers. ISBN0-9524911-4-1.
Middle East Movers, Royal Engineers Transportation in the Suez Canal Zone 1947-1956, Hugh Mackintosh. Published by North Kent Books, 2000. ISBN0-948305-10-X.
Mediterranean Safari March 1943 - October 1944, by A. P. de T. Daniell. Published by Orphans Press, 2000. ISBN0-7212-0816-9.
A Sapper's War, by Leonard Watkins. Published by Minerva Press, 1996. ISBN1-85863-715-5.
A Game of Soldiers by C. Richard Eke. Published by Digaprint Ltd, 1997. ISBN0-9534264-0-8.
Wrong Again Dan! Karachi to Krakatoa, by Dan Raschen RE. Published by Buckland Publications, 1983. ISBN0-7212-0638-7.
Send Port & Pyjamas!, by Dan Raschen RE. Published by Buckland Publications, 1987. ISBN0-7212-0763-4.
Highly Explosive, The Exploits of Major Bill Hartley MBE GM late of Bomb Disposal, by John Frayn Turner. Published by George G. Harappa & Co Ltd, 1967. ISBN Not on Publication.
Sapper Martin, The Secret War Diary of Jack Martin, by Richard Van Emden. Published by Bloomsbury, 2009. ISBN978-1-4088-0311-0.
"The History of Central Volunteer Headquarters Royal Engineers" by Col GF Edwards TD, an Inst RE publication