The front cover of a Russian biometric passport
|Date first issued||1997 (non-biometric, handwritten)|
2000 (non-biometric, MRP)
March 1, 2010 (biometric, current version)
|Issued by||Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs|
|Type of document||Passport|
|Eligibility requirements||Russian Federation citizenship|
|Expiration||10 years (biometric), 5 years (non-biometric)|
|Cost||5000? (~75$) for biometric passport, 2000? (~30$) for non-biometric|
The Russian passport (officially in Russian: ? ? ? – 'Transborder passport of a citizen of the Russian Federation') is a booklet issued by Ministry of Internal Affairs to the citizens of the Russian Federation for international travel. The Russian passport is distinct from the Internal Russian passport, which is a mandatory identity document for travel and identification purposes within Russia. Russian citizens must use their Russian passports when leaving or entering the Russian Federation, unless traveling to/from a country where Russian internal ID is recognized as a valid travel document.
After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Soviet Union passport continued to be issued until 1997, when the first modern Russian passport are known to be issued. The first version of the Russian passports issued in 1997 were handwritten and passports issued since 2000 were machine-readable passports with 36 pages and validity of 5 years. In 2006, Russia issued the first biometric passport and in 2010, the design of the biometric passports were modified, which are currently issued with 46 pages and are valid for 10 years.
Citizens under 18 traveling without both parents must have written consent of both parents allowing their departure from country. When a child travels with one parent, consent of another parent is not required. Articles 20 and 21 of the Federal Law "On the entry in the Russian Federation and departure from the Russian Federation" govern only departure from Russia and have nothing to do with the requirements of other countries regarding entry to these countries.
In addition to regular passport there are two special-purpose types of passports for travelling abroad: diplomatic passport and service passport (issued to government employees going abroad on official business).
This section is a rough translation from Russian. It may have been generated by a computer or by a translator without dual proficiency.
Foreigners arriving at Russia met various restrictions in the Tsarist period; border magistrates could allow foreigners to pass within the state only with the permission of the senior government. In troubled times, it began to produce and to travel within the country system "roadways" letters (Russian: ) in order, mainly police. As a general rule letters carriageways were built by Peter I (decree of October 30, 1719), in connection with the entered his conscription and head tax. In 1724, to prevent the possibility to evade the payment of the poll tax, special rules about absences of peasants.
Under the legislation in force for the period of 1906 in Russia in the place of residence, as a general rule, the passport was not required. The capital and other cities which declared an emergency situation or enhanced protection were the exception. In addition, in areas that were subject to the rules on the supervision of industrial establishments, the workers of factories and plants were required to have a passport, and in the place of permanent residence. A passport was not needed when absent from the place of permanent residence: 1) within the district and outside it as recently as 50 vents and no more than 6 months, and 2) from the persons hired for rural work, – in addition, within the townships adjacent to the county of residence, even if more than 6 months.
Law of June 10, 1902 the regulations on residence permits June 3, 1894 extended to the provinces of the Kingdom of Poland, with some modifications. Formed in 1902, the Committee on the needs of the agricultural industry is recognized as desirable in the types of facilitating the movement of agricultural workers, the simplification of passport regulations. A special meeting of the needs of the agricultural industry has been entrusted to the Minister of Internal Affairs of the revision of statutes on residence permits, in the sense of saving for a passport solely value of an identity document. Elaborated on these grounds in 1905, a new draft statute was a passport to postpone consideration until the convocation of the State Duma.
Immediately after the Russian Revolution the Russian Republic not followed the emigration; Many disagreed with the new regime left the country since 1917 to the end of the 1920s left the country about 8,000 people, including about 500 scientists (for comparison, in the period from 1989 to 2004, according to various estimates from 25,000-80,000 scientists left Russia). In 1922, two flights so-called philosophical ship from Petrograd to Stettin and several ships from the territory of Ukraine and trains from Moscow on the personal instructions of Lenin were expelled 225 intellectuals (philosophers Berdyaev, Ilyin, Frank and Bulgakov). Of the emigrants only a small part returned, such as Marina Tsvetaeva and Alexei Tolstoy.
By the mid-1930s the Soviet government sealed the borders. Traveling to capitalist countries was only possible to employees of the Foreign Ministry, the nomenklatura and selected artists while most ordinary Soviet citizens had the opportunity to travel only in socialist countries with trade union tours.
The third and final wave of Soviet emigration coincided with the rupture of relations with Israel. June 10, 1968 the Central Committee received a joint letter to the leadership of the Foreign Ministry and the KGB signed by Andrey Gromyko and Yuri Andropov to the proposal to allow Soviet Jews to emigrate from the country. As a result, in the 1970s only about 4,000 people had left, many against their will, for example, such well-known dissidents as Brodsky, Aksenov, Aleshkovsky, Voinovich, Dovlatov, Gorenstein, Galich.
In May 20, 1991, a few months before the collapse of the USSR, the last Soviet law on the exit of citizens abroad was adopted, according to which citizens could leave at the request of the state, public and religious organisations and enterprises.
In 1993, exit visas were canceled and free issuing of passports was allowed. The right to freely leave the country was enshrined in the new law of 1996. Passports with the symbols of the Soviet Union were issued to citizens of the Russian Federation until the end of 2000. They expired in the early years of the 21st century, about 10 years after the dissolution of the Soviet state. Since 2001, Russian passports were issued with the new design which includes the emblem of Russia, a double-headed eagle. Since 2010, the application for registration of passport can be submitted via the website www.gosuslugi.ru.
In 2006, biometric passports were introduced in Russia. Since 2009, in all regions of Russia there are points of issue of passport and visa documents of new generation (passports containing electronic media). The data of these items come in a single personalisation center. After 1 March 2010, biometric passport are valid for 10 years. The data on the chip Russian passports are protected by a technology access control BAC (basic access control), which allows producing read data only after entering the passport number, date of birth of the holder and the expiration date of the passport (usually by means of recognition of the machine readable zone of the passport), which excludes unauthorised access to data on the chip.
Each passport has a data page and a signature page. A data page has a visual zone and a machine-readable zone. The visual zone has a digitized photograph of the passport holder, data about the passport, and data about the passport owner:
At the bottom of the data page is a machine-readable zone, which can be read both visually and by an optical scanner. The machine-readable zone consists of two lines. There are no blank spaces in either line. A space which does not contain a letter or a number is filled with "<".
The first line of the machine-readable zone contains a letter to denote the type of travel document ("P" for passport), the code for the citizenship of the passport holder ("RUS" for "Russian Federation"), and the name (surname first, then given names) of the passport holder.
The second line of the machine-readable zone contains the passport number (supplemented by a check digit), the code of the issuing country ("RUS" for "Russian Federation"), the date of birth of the passport holder (supplemented by a check digit), a notation of the sex/gender of the passport owner ("M" or "F"), the date of expiration of the passport (supplemented by a check digit), and, at the very end of the line, one or more overall check digits.
A signature page has a line for the signature of a passport holder. A passport is not valid unless it is signed by the passport owner (except for passport owners under age of 14).
Due to the fact that Russian visas (and Russian internal passports since 2011) are intended for use in Russia only, there are certain other Latin letters as well as other alphanumerical symbols used to transliterate the letter with no direct analogue in Latin script into the machine-readable zone. As an example, the letter "?" is usually transcribed as "ch" in Russian travel documents, however, Russian visas and internal passports use "3" in the machine-readable zone instead. Another example is "Alexei" (travel passport) => "?" (Cyrillic version) => "ALEKSEQ" (machine-readable version in an internal document)
Visa requirements for Russian citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other countries placed on citizens of Russia. As of 26 March 2019, Russian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 118 countries and territories, ranking the Russian passport 47st in terms of travel freedom (tied with Palau Islands) according to the Henley visa restrictions index.
According to the national statistics these are the numbers of Russian visitors arriving to various countries per annum:
|Foreign travel statistics|
|Destination||Number of visitors from Russia||Year|
|Antigua and Barbuda||372||2017|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||5,268||2017|
|Cayman Islands[note 2]||65||2017|
|Czech Republic[note 1]||551,191||2017|
|Estonia||1,803,249 / 238,636[note 1]||2017|
|Finland||3,629,121 / 373,701[note 1]||2018|
|Latvia||424,842 / 241,435[note 1]||2017|
|Lithuania||742,333 / 150,600||2016|
|Northern Mariana Islands||2,130||2017|
|Papua New Guinea||414||2016|
|United Arab Emirates||530,000||2017|
|United States[note 3]||344,368||2017|
According to the federal law and the orders from 2012 and 2014 for the old 5-year laminated and the new 10-year biometric passport, respectively, either document has to be issued within one to four months, depending on circumstances, with the issue time being three months in case of an application being made to a consulate outside of Russia.
However, in practice, some consulates require an appointment to be made prior to the applicant being able to provide documents to apply for the passport, in some cases, appointments can only be available many months or even possibly years into the future, effectively undoing the upper limit for a timely issuance of the travel document.
Additionally, if passports are expired or lost, applications for the new passport are routinely declined to be accepted when abroad, prior to the verification of citizenship, for which the consuls require a separate application to be made, either in person or notarised by a notary public, with the processing times for verification itself often exceeding many months. Such practice of causing the extra costs for the applicant, however, seems to be in violation of point 23 of orders 10303 from 2012-06-28 and 3744 from 2014-03-19, which guarantee that no extra services are required in order to apply for a passport.
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