|? ?; ?|
rusîns'kyj jazyk; ruski jazik
Census population: 70,000. These are numbers from national official bureaus for statistics:
Slovakia – 33,482
Serbia – 15,626
Poland – 10,000
Ukraine – 6,725
Croatia – 2,337
Hungary – 1,113
Czech Republic – 777
|Cyrillic script (Rusyn alphabets)|
Latin script (Slovakia)
Rusyn (;Carpathian Rusyn: ? ? (rusîn'skyj jazyk), (rusîn'ska bes'ida); Pannonian Rusyn: ? (ruski jazik), (ruska be?eda)), also known in English as Ruthene (, ; sometimes Ruthenian), is an East Slavic language spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe.
There are several controversial theories about the nature of Rusyn as a language or dialect. Czech, Slovak, and Hungarian, as well as American and some Polish and Serbian linguists treat it as a distinct language (with its own ISO 639-3 code), whereas other scholars (especially in Ukraine but also Poland, Serbia, and Romania) treat it as a Southwestern dialect of Ukrainian.
Carpathian Rusyn is spoken in:
The classification and identification of the Rusyn language is historically and politically problematic.
Before World War I, Rusyn people were recognized as Ukrainians of Galicia within the Austro-Hungarian Empire; however, in the Hungarian part they were recognized as Rusyns/Ruthenes. Crown Prince Franz Ferdinand had planned to recognize a Rusyn-majority area as one of the states of a planned United States of Greater Austria before his assassination. After the war, the former Austria and Hungary was partitioned, and Carpathian Ruthenia was appended to the new Czechoslovak state as its easternmost province. With the advent of World War II, Carpatho-Ukraine declared its independence, lasting not even one day, until its occupation and annexation by Hungary. After the war, the region was annexed by the Soviet Union as part of the Ukrainian SSR, which proceeded with an anti-ethnic assimilation program. Poland did the same, using internal exile to move all Ukrainians from the southern homelands to western areas incorporated from Germany, and switch everyday language to Polish, and Ukrainian at school.
Scholars with the former Institute of Slavic and Balkan Studies in Moscow (now the Institute of Slavonic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences) formally acknowledged Rusyn as a separate language in 1992, and trained specialists to study the language. These studies were financially supported by the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Ukrainian politicians do not recognise Rusyns as a separate ethnicity, regardless of Rusyn self-identification. Ukraine officially considers Rusyn a dialect of Ukrainian, related to the Hutsul dialect of Ukrainian.
It is not possible to estimate accurately the number of fluent speakers of Rusyn; however, their number is estimated in the tens of thousands.
Serbia has recognized Rusyn, more precisely Pannonian Rusyn, as an official minority language. Since 1995, Rusyn has been recognized as a minority language in Slovakia, enjoying the status of an official language in municipalities where more than 20 percent of the inhabitants speak Rusyn.
Rusyn is listed as a protected language by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in Slovakia, Serbia, Croatia and Romania.
Early grammars include Dmytrij Vyslockij's (? ) ? (Karpatorusskij bukvar') Vanja Hunjanky (1931),Metodyj Trochanovskij's . ?. (Bukvar. Per?a kny?e?ka dlja narodn?x ?kol.) (1935)., and Ivan Harajda (1941). The archaic Harajda's grammar is currently promoted in the Rusyn Wikipedia, although part of the articles are written using other standards (see below).
Currently, there are three codified varieties of Rusyn:
Apart from these codified varieties, there are publications using a mixture of these standards (most notably in Hungary and in Transcarpathian Ukraine), as well as attempts to revitalize the pre-war etymological orthography with old Cyrillic letters (most notably ?, or yat'); the latter can be observed in multiple edits in the Rusyn Wikipedia, where various articles represent various codified varieties.
A soft consonant combination sound [t] exists more among the northern and western dialects. In the eastern dialects the sound is recognized as [?], including the area on which the standard dialect is based. It is noted that a combination sound like this one, could have evolved into a soft fricative sound .
Each of the three Rusyn standard varieties has its own Cyrillic alphabet. The table below shows the alphabet of Slovakia (Pre?ov) Rusyn. The alphabet of the other Carpathian Rusyn standard, Lemko (Poland) Rusyn, differs from it only by lacking ? and ?. While the Pannonian Rusyn alphabet differs noticeably. Romanization (transliteration) is given according to ALA-LC, BGN/PCGN, generic European, ISO/R9 1968 (IDS), and ISO 9.
|?||?||?||ë||jo||jo/'o||ë||/jo/||not present in Lemko Rusyn or Pannonian Rusyn|
|?||?||i||i||I||i||I||ì||/i/||not present in Pannonian Rusyn|
|?||?||?||ï||ji||ji/'i||ï||ï||/ji/||not present in Lemko Rusyn|
|?||?||?||i/y||y||î||I||I||/?/||the Pannonian Rusyn alphabet places this letter directly after ?, like the Ukrainian alphabet. According to ALA-LC romanization, romanized i (Vojvodinian) for Rusyn materials published in the Serbian Vojvodina, historic Ba?ka, and Srem regions, with places of publication including Belgrade, Djurdjevo, Kucura, Novi Sad, Pan?evo, Ruski Krstur, Sremska Mitrovica, and Subotica, and as y for all other materials.|
|?||?||?||?||y||y||y/?||y||/?/||not present in Pannonian Rusyn|
|?||o||-||-||?||-||?||/o/||Does not appear in Pannonian Rusyn or Lemko Rusyn.|
|?||?||?||-||-||y||-||?||/y/||Does not appear in Pannonian Rusyn or Lemko Rusyn.|
|?||?||? ? ()||?||'||'||?||?||/?/||"Soft Sign": marks the preceding consonant as palatalized (soft)|
|?||?||? ? ()||?||'||"||-||?||"Hard Sign": marks the preceding consonant as NOT palatalized (hard). Not present in Pannonian Rusyn|
|?||?||î||-||-||-||Until World War II, the letter ? ? ( or yat') was used, and was pronounced /ji/ or /i/. This letter is still used in part of the articles in the Rusyn Wikipedia.|
The Pre?ov Rusyn alphabet of Slovakia and the Zakarpattia region of Ukraine has 36 letters. It includes all the letters of the Ukrainian alphabet plus ?, ?, and ?. In some regions, especially around Uzhhorod, it could also include and ?.
The Lemko Rusyn alphabet of Poland has 34 letters. It includes all the Ukrainian letters with the exception of ?, plus ? and ?.
The Lemko and Pre?ov Rusyn alphabets place ? at the very end, while the vast majority of Cyrillic alphabets place it after ?. They also place ? before ?, while the vast majority of Cyrillic alphabets place it after ?, ? (if present), and ? (if present).
In the Pre?ov Rusyn alphabet, ? and ? come before ?, and likewise, ? comes before ? in the Lemko Rusyn alphabet (which doesn't have ?). In the Ukrainian alphabet, however, ? precedes ? and ?, and the Pannonian Rusyn alphabet (which doesn't have ?) follows this precedent by placing ? before ?.