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The County of St. Charles was originally called the District of St. Charles and had no definite limits until 1816 to 1818 when neighboring counties were formed. The borders of St. Charles are the same today as they were in 1818.
St. Charles County is the only known habitat of the threatened decurrent false aster in Missouri.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 593 square miles (1,540 km2), of which 560 square miles (1,500 km2) is land and 32 square miles (83 km2) (5.4%) is water.
The highest elevation is 901 feet (275 m) northwest of Augusta near Femme Osage Creek headwaters.
I-64 - Major freeway in the western portion of the county. Originally U.S. Route 40, the highway was upgraded to Interstate standards in the late 2000s. The highway was re-signed as Interstate 64 from the Daniel Boone Bridge to Interstate 70 in Wentzville in 2009.
I-70 - The major east-west thoroughfare in the county. It is mostly a six-lane freeway in the county, but there are sections in St. Charles and St. Peters where the Interstate widens to 11 lanes of traffic.
As of 2010, there were 360,485 people, 132,906 households, and 77,060 families residing in the county. The population density was 643 people per square mile (1665/km²). There were 142,766 housing units at an average density of 73 persons/km² (188 persons/sq mi). The racial makeup of the county was 91.3% White, 4.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.3% Asian (0.9% Asian Indian, 0.4% Chinese, 0.2% Filipino, 0.2% Vietnamese, 0.2% Korean, 0.1% Japanese, 0.2% Other), 0.1% Pacific Islander, and 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino made up 2.5% of the population (1.8% Mexican, 0.2% Puerto Rican, 0.1% Cuban, 0.7% Other).
There were 101,663 households out of which 40.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.20% were married couples living together, 9.20% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 24.20% were non-families. 19.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.18.
In the county, the population was spread out with 29.00% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 32.60% from 25 to 44, 21.60% from 45 to 64, and 8.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 97.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.10 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $71,458, and the median income for a family was $64,415. Males had a median income of $44,528 versus $29,405 for females. The per capita income for the county was $23,592. 4.00% of the population and 2.80% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 4.90% are under the age of 18 and 5.10% are 65 or older.
St. Charles County, with an estimated population of 373,495, has been one of the fastest-growing counties in the country for decades, with 55% growth in the 1970s, 48% in the 1980s, 33% in the 1990s, and another 27% in the 2000s. The county features a cross-section of industry, as well as extensive retail and some agriculture. With the Missouri River on the south and east and the Mississippi River on the north, the county is bisected east to west by Interstate 70. St. Charles County has one small airport St. Charles County Smartt Airport ( St. Charles Airport closed in 2010 ) and two ferries that cross the Mississippi River.
St. Charles County is governed by a county executive and a county council. The county council consists of seven members, each elected from various districts in the county. The county executive is elected by the entire county. The current executive is Steve Ehlmann. He was preceded by Joe Ortwerth, who was preceded by Gene Schwendemann, the first county executive of St. Charles County under the new form of government. The executive under the old form of county government was termed a "judge." The county had 258,525 registered voters as of March 2016.
St. Charles County is divided into two districts in the Missouri Senate, both of which have elected Republicans.
District 2 - Bob Onder (R-Lake St. Louis, since 2015). Consists of the communities of Augusta, Dardenne Prairie, Flint Hill, Foristell, Josephville, Lake St. Louis, New Melle, O'Fallon, St. Paul, Weldon Spring Heights, and Wentzville.
District 23 - Bill Eigel (R-Weldon Spring, since 2017). Consists of Portage Des Sioux, St. Charles, St. Peters, Weldon Spring, and West Alton.
The Westplex is part of St. Charles County that used to be called "The Golden Triangle". The "triangle" was formed by I-70 to the north, Missouri Route 94 to the southeast, and I-64 to the southwest. Since almost all of the growth in St. Charles County was within this triangle it was dubbed the "Golden" area of St. Charles county, hence, Golden Triangle. Today the Westplex is made up of St. Charles, St. Peters, Weldon Spring, Cottleville, Dardenne Prairie, O'Fallon, Lake St. Louis, Wentzville and St. Paul.
^Korando, Russell (November 23, 2012). "St. Charles County judge nominated for prosecutor". St. Charles County Suburban Journal. Retrieved 2013. Ehlmann was required to appoint someone from the same political party as Banas, a Republican, to serve until the office comes up for election in November 2014.