Sakkara
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Sakkara
Saqqara
Saqqara pyramid ver 2.jpg
The stepped Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara
Saqqara is located in Egypt
Saqqara
Shown within Egypt
LocationGiza Governorate, Egypt
RegionLower Egypt
Coordinates29°52?16?N 31°12?59?E / 29.87111°N 31.21639°E / 29.87111; 31.21639Coordinates: 29°52?16?N 31°12?59?E / 29.87111°N 31.21639°E / 29.87111; 31.21639
TypeNecropolis
History
PeriodsEarly Dynastic Period to Middle Ages
Site notes
Part of"Pyramid fields from Giza to Dahshur" part of Memphis and its Necropolis - the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur
Includes
CriteriaCultural: (i), (iii), (vi)
Reference86-002
Inscription1979 (3rd session)
Area16,203.36 ha (62.5615 sq mi)

Saqqara (Arabic: ‎, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [s':]), also spelled Sakkara or Saccara in English , is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, serving as the necropolis for the ancient Egyptian capital, Memphis.[1] Saqqara contains numerous pyramids, including the world-famous Step pyramid of Djoser, sometimes referred to as the Step Tomb, and a number of mastaba tombs. Located some 30 km (19 mi) south of modern-day Cairo, Saqqara covers an area of around 7 by 1.5 km (4.35 by 0.93 mi).

At Saqqara, the oldest complete stone building complex known in history was built, the Pyramid of Djoser, built during the Third Dynasty. Another sixteen Egyptian kings built pyramids at Saqqara, which are now in various states of preservation. High officials added private funeral monuments to this necropolis during the entire Pharaonic period. It remained an important complex for non-royal burials and cult ceremonies for more than 3,000 years, well into Ptolemaic and Roman times.

North of the area known as Saqqara lies Abusir, and south lies Dahshur. The area running from Giza to Dahshur has been used as a necropolis by the inhabitants of Memphis at different times, and it was designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979.[2] Some scholars believe that the name Saqqara is not derived from the ancient Egyptian funerary deity, Sokar, but from a local Berber Tribe called Beni Saqqar.[3]

Relief from tomb (Louvre)

History

Early Dynastic

Map of the site
View of Saqqara necropolis, including Djoser's step pyramid (centre), the Pyramid of Unas (left) and the Pyramid of Userkaf (right)

of nobles can be traced back to the First Dynasty, at the northern side of the Saqqara plateau. During this time, the royal burial ground was at Abydos. The first royal burials at Saqqara, comprising underground galleries, date to the Second Dynasty. The last Second Dynasty king, Khasekhemwy, was buried in his tomb at Abydos, but also built a funerary monument at Saqqara consisting of a large rectangular enclosure, known as Gisr el-Mudir. It probably inspired the monumental enclosure wall around the Step Pyramid complex. Djoser's funerary complex, built by the royal architect Imhotep, further comprises a large number of dummy buildings and a secondary mastaba (the so-called 'Southern Tomb'). French architect and Egyptologist Jean-Philippe Lauer spent the greater part of his life excavating and restoring Djoser's funerary complex.

Early Dynastic monuments

Funerary complex of Djoser

Old Kingdom

Wooden statue of the scribe Kaaper, 5th or 4th dynasty of the Old Kingdom, from Saqqara, c. 2500 BC

Nearly all Fourth Dynasty kings chose a different location for their pyramids. During the second half of the Old Kingdom, under the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties, Saqqara was again the royal burial ground. The Fifth and Sixth Dynasty pyramids are not built wholly of massive stone blocks, but instead with a core consisting of rubble. Consequently, they are less well preserved than the world-famous pyramids built by the Fourth Dynasty kings at Giza. Unas, the last ruler of the Fifth Dynasty, was the first king to adorn the chambers in his pyramid with Pyramid Texts. During the Old Kingdom, it was customary for courtiers to be buried in mastaba tombs close to the pyramid of their king. Thus, clusters of private tombs were formed in Saqqara around the pyramid complexes of Unas and Teti.

Old Kingdom monuments

First Intermediate Period monuments

Middle Kingdom

From the Middle Kingdom onward, Memphis was no longer the capital of the country, and kings built their funerary complexes elsewhere. Few private monuments from this period have been found at Saqqara.

Second Intermediate Period monuments

New Kingdom

Lantern Slide Collection: Views, Objects: Egypt. - Apis Tombs, passage showing Sarcophagi Recess, Sakkara., n.d., Brooklyn Museum Archives

During the New Kingdom Memphis was an important administrative and military centre, being the capital after the Amaran Period. From the Eighteenth Dynasty onward many high officials built tombs at Saqqara. While still a general, Horemheb built a large tomb here, although he later was buried as pharaoh in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes. Other important tombs belong to the vizier Aperel, the vizier Neferrenpet, the artist Thutmose, and the wet-nurse of Tutankhamun, Maia.

Many monuments from earlier periods were still standing, but dilapidated by this period. Prince Khaemweset, son of Pharaoh Ramesses II, made repairs to buildings at Saqqara. Among other things, he restored the Pyramid of Unas and added an inscription to its south face to commemorate the restoration. He enlarged the Serapeum, the burial site of the mummified Apis bulls, and was later buried in the catacombs. The Serapeum, containing one undisturbed interment of an Apis bull and the tomb of Khaemweset, were rediscovered by the French Egyptologist Auguste Mariette in 1851.

New Kingdom monuments

After the New Kingdom

During the periods after the New Kingdom, when several cities in the Delta served as capital of Egypt, Saqqara remained in use as a burial ground for nobles. Moreover, the area became an important destination for pilgrims to a number of cult centres. Activities sprang up around the Serapeum, and extensive underground galleries were cut into the rock as burial sites for large numbers of mummified ibises, baboons, cats, dogs, and falcons.

Monuments of the Late Period, the Graeco-Roman and later periods

Site looting during 2011 protests

Saqqara and the surrounding areas of Abusir and Dahshur suffered damage by looters during the 2011 Egyptian protests. Store rooms were broken into, but the monuments were mostly unharmed.[4][5]

Recent discoveries

During routine excavations in 2011 at the dog catacomb in Saqqara necropolis, an excavation team led by Salima Ikram and an international team of researchers led by Paul Nicholson of Cardiff University, uncovered almost eight million animal mummies at the burial site next to the sacred temple of Anubis. It is thought that the mummified animals, mostly dogs, were intended to pass on the prayers of their owners to their deities.[6]

"You don't get 8 million mummies without having puppy farms," she says. "And some of these dogs were killed deliberately so that they could be offered. So for us, that seems really heartless. But for the Egyptians, they felt that the dogs were going straight up to join the eternal pack with Anubis. And so they were going off to a better thing" said Salima Ikram.[7][8]

In July 2018, German-Egyptian researchers' team head by Ramadan Badry Hussein of the University of Tübingen reported the discovery of an extremely rare gilded burial mask that probably dates from the Saite-Persian period in a partly damaged wooden coffin. The last time a similar mask was found was in 1939.[9] The eyes were covered with obsidian, calcite, and black hued gemstone possibly onyx. "The finding of this mask could be called a sensation. Very few masks of precious metal have been preserved to the present day, because the tombs of most Ancient Egyptian dignitaries were looted in ancient times." said Hussein.[10][11]

In September 2018, several dozen cache of mummies dating 2,000 years back were found by a team of Polish archaeologists led by Kamil Kuraszkiewicz from the Faculty of Oriental Studies of the University of Warsaw.[12] The Polish-Egyptian expedition works under the auspices of the Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology University of Warsaw.[13] Investigations were carried out for over two decades in the area to the west of the Djoser Pyramid. The most important discoveries include the tomb of vizier Merefnebef with a funerary chapel decorated with multi-colored reliefs, which was uncovered in 1997.[14] as well as the tomb of courtier Nyankhnefertem uncovered in 2003.[15] The expedition also explored two necropoles. Archaeologists revealed several dozen graves of noblemen from the period of the 6th Dynasty, dating to the 24th-21st century BC, and 500 graves of indigent people dating approximately to the 6th century BC - 1st century AD. Most of the bodies were poorly preserved and all organic materials, including the wooden caskets, had decayed.[12][16][17] The tombs discovered most recently (in 2018) form part of the younger, so-called Upper Necropolis.[18]

Most of the mummies we discovered last season were very modest, they were only subjected to basic embalming treatments, wrapped in bandages and placed directly in pits dug in the sand

-- Kamil Kuraszkiewicz.

The research of the Polish-Egyptian expedition also focuses on the interpretation of the so-called Dry Moat, a vast trench hewn around the Djoser Pyramid. The most recent discoveries confirm the hypothesis that the Dry Moat was a model of the pharaoh's journey to the netherworld, a road the deceased ruler had to follow to attain eternal life.[13][19][20]

In November, 2018, an Egyptian archaeological mission located seven ancient Egyptian tombs at the ancient necropolis of Saqqara containing a collection of scarab and cat mummies dating back to the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties.[21] Three of the tombs were used for cats, some dating back more than 6,000 years, while one of four other sarcophagi was unsealed. With the remains of cat mummies were unearthed gilded and 100 wooden statues of cats and one in bronze dedicated to the cat goddess Bastet. In addition, funerary items dating back to the 12th Dynasty were found besides the skeletal remains of cats.[22][23][24][25]

In mid-December 2018, the Egyptian government announced the discovery at Saqqara of a previously unknown 4,400-year-old tomb, containing paintings and more than fifty sculptures. It belongs to Wahtye, a high-ranking priest who served under King Neferirkare Kakai during the Fifth Dynasty.[26] The tomb also contains four shafts that lead to a sarcophagus below.[27]

On 13 April 2019, an expedition led by a member of the Czech Institute of Egyptology, Mohamed Megahed, discovered a 4,000-year-old tomb near Egypt's Saqqara Necropolis. Archaeologists confirmed that the tomb belonged to an influential person named Khuwy, who lived in Egypt during the 5th Dynasty.[28][29][30][31] "The L-shaped Khuwy tomb starts with a small corridor heading downwards into an antechamber and from there a larger chamber with painted reliefs depicting the tomb owner seated at an offerings table", reported Megahed.[29] Some paintings maintained their brightness over a long time in the tomb. Mainly made of white limestone bricks, the tomb had a tunnel entrance generally typical for pyramids.[29] Archaeologists say that there might be a connection between Khuwy and pharaoh because the mausoleum was found near the pyramid of Egyptian Pharaoh Djedkare Isesi, who ruled during that time.[28][30][29][31]

On 3 October 2020, Khalid el-Anany, Egypt's tourism and antiquities minister announced the discovery of at least 59 sealed sarcophagi with mummies more than 2,600 years ago. Archaeologists also revealed the 20 statues of Ptah-Soker and a carved 35-centimeter tall bronze statue of god Nefertem.[32][33][34]

On 19 October 2020, the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities announced the discovery of more than 2,500 years of colorful, sealed sarcophagi. The archaeological team unearthed gilded, wooden statues and more than 80 coffins.[35][36]

In November, 2020, Archaeologists unearthed more than 100 delicately painted wooden coffins and 40 funeral statues. The sealed, wooden coffins, some containing mummies, date as far back as 2,500 years. Other artifacts discovered include funeral masks, canopic jars and amulets.[37]

See also

References

  1. ^ Fernandez, I., J. Becker, S. Gillies. "Places: 796289136 (Saqqarah)". Pleiades. Retrieved 2013.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ "Memphis and its Necropolis - the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur -- UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved .
  3. ^ Graindorge, Catherine, "Sokar". In Redford, Donald B., (ed) The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, vol. III, pp. 305-307.
  4. ^ "Egyptological Looting Database 2011".
  5. ^ "Saqqara.nl".
  6. ^ "Eight million dog mummies found in Saqqara - Ancient Egypt - Heritage". Ahram Online. Retrieved .
  7. ^ "Millions Of Mummified Dogs Found In Ancient Egyptian Catacombs". NPR.org. Retrieved .
  8. ^ June 2015, Laura Geggel 18. "8 Million Dog Mummies Found in 'God of Death' Mass Grave". livescience.com. Retrieved .
  9. ^ Michelle Starr. "Archaeologists Have Uncovered a Place Where The Ancient Egyptians Mummifed Their Dead", Science Alert, 16 July 2018
  10. ^ "Researchers discover gilded mummy mask". HeritageDaily - Archaeology News. 2018-07-16. Retrieved .
  11. ^ M, Dattatreya; al (2018-07-16). "The Mummy With The Silver Gilded Mask - Discovered In Saqqara, Egypt". Realm of History. Retrieved .
  12. ^ a b S.A, Telewizja Polska. "Polish archeologists uncover Egyptian mummies". polandin.com. Retrieved .
  13. ^ a b "Saqqara". pcma.uw.edu.pl. Retrieved .
  14. ^ My?liwiec, K.; Kuraszkiewicz, K. O.; Czerwik, D.; Rzeuska, T.; Kaczmarek, M.; Kowalska, A.; Radomska, M.; Godziejewski, Z. (2004). Saqqara I. The Tomb of Merefnebef. Varsovie: ZA? PAN, PCMA UW, Neriton.
  15. ^ My?liwiec, K.; Kuraszkiewicz, K. (2010). Saqqara IV. The Funerary Complex of Nyankhnefertem. Varsovie: ZA? PAN, PCMA UW, Neriton.
  16. ^ "Dozens of mummies discovered by Polish archaeologists next to the world`s oldest pyramid". Science in Poland. Retrieved .
  17. ^ "Dozens of mummies dating back 2,000 years found next to world's oldest pyramid". www.thefirstnews.com. Retrieved .
  18. ^ Kuraszkiewicz, K. O. (2018). "2018 Campaign" (PDF). Polish-Egyptian Archaeological Mission Saqqara.
  19. ^ Szulc-Kajak, Agnieszka (2019). "Sakkara - nowe odkrycia, nowe interpretacje". PCMA UW.
  20. ^ Zdzieb?owski, Szymon. "Egyptologist: The trench surrounding the oldest pyramid of Egypt was a model of the way to the afterlife". Science in Poland. Retrieved .
  21. ^ "Ancient Egyptian tombs yield rare find of mummified scarab beetles". Reuters. 11 November 2018.
  22. ^ "Dozens of Mummified Cats Found in 6,000-yr-old Egyptian Tombs". The Vintage News. 2018-11-12. Retrieved .
  23. ^ "Dozens of cat mummies found in 6,000-year-old tombs in Egypt". The Guardian.
  24. ^ "Dozens of mummified cats, beetles unearthed in 6,000-year-old Egyptian tombs". Business Recorder. 2018-11-12. Retrieved .
  25. ^ newscabal (2018-11-11). "Dozens of cat mummies found in 6,000-year-old tombs in Egypt". NEWSCABAL. Retrieved .
  26. ^ Brice-Saddler, Michael, "Look inside a 'one of a kind,' 4,400-year-old tomb discovered in Egypt", The Washington Post, December 16, 2018.
  27. ^ Owen Jarus (December 15, 2018). "4,400-Year-Old Tomb of 'Divine Inspector' with Hidden Shafts Discovered in Egypt". Live Science. Retrieved 2018. Wahtye was a high-ranking priest who carried the title of divine inspector, said Mostafa Waziri, the general secretary of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities who led the Egyptian team that discovered the tomb... Several other discoveries have been made this year at Saqqara. They include a 3,300-year-old tomb of a high general, a burial ground containing a 2,500-year-old mummy wearing a silver face mask gilded with gold and a tomb complex that has more over 100 cat statues.
  28. ^ a b "Newly Discovered 4,000-Year Old Egyptian Tomb Stuns Archaeologists". Geek.com. 2019-04-15. Retrieved .
  29. ^ a b c d Guy, Jack (2019-04-15). "Colorful tomb puzzles Egypt archaeologists". CNN Travel. Retrieved .
  30. ^ a b Earl, Jennifer (2019-04-15). "Discovery of Egyptian dignitary's 4,000-year-old colorful tomb stuns archaeologists". Fox News. Retrieved .
  31. ^ a b "Egypt: Vivid 4,300-year-old tomb belonging to Fifth Dynasty senior official unveiled". Sky News. Retrieved .
  32. ^ Magdy, Samy. "Egypt reveals 59 ancient coffins found near Saqqara pyramids, many of which hold mummies". USA TODAY. Retrieved .
  33. ^ "59 sealed sarcophagi and mummies discovered in Egypt". SlashGear. 2020-10-06. Retrieved .
  34. ^ "Egyptian archaeologists unveil discovery of 59 sealed sarcophagi". Arab News. 2020-10-03. Retrieved .
  35. ^ "Egypt says another trove of ancient coffins found in Saqqara". ABC News. Retrieved .
  36. ^ Oct 19. "Egypt says another trove of ancient coffins found in Saqqara". Times of India. Associated Press. Retrieved .
  37. ^ Kwai, Isabella (2020-11-15). "Egypt Unearths New Mummies Dating Back 2,500 Years". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved .

External links


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