Sanjak of Scutari
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Sanjak of Scutari

Sanjak of Scutari / Sanjak of Shkodra
kodra Sanca
Sanxhaku i Shkodrës
sanjak of the Ottoman Empire
1479-1913
of Scutari
Coat of arms
Sanjak of Iskodra, Ottoman Balkans (late 19th century).png
The sanjak highlighted, late 19th century.
CapitalScutari (present-day Shkodër)
History 
1479
o Disestablished
30 May 1913
Today part of Albania
 Montenegro

The Sanjak of Scutari or Sanjak of Shkodra (Albanian: Sanxhaku i Shkodrës; Serbian: ; Turkish: ?skenderiye Sanca or kodra Sanca) was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire. It was established after Ottoman Empire acquired Shkodra after the siege of Shkodra in 1478-9. It was part of Rumelia Eyalet until 1867, when it became a part, together with Sanjak of Skopje, of newly established Scutari Vilayet. In 1912 and beginning of 1913 it was occupied by members of Balkan League during the First Balkan War. In 1914 the territory of Sanjak of Scutari became a part of Principality of Albania, established on the basis of peace contract signed during London Conference in 1913.

History

Background and formation

With short interruptions, the territory of northern Albania, including what would become the Sanjak of Scutari, belonged to the Serbian medieval states for many centuries.[1] The first Ottoman censuses (1431, 1467 and 1485) show a substantial presence of Slavic toponyms.

The last Slavic dynasty that controlled Shkodra was Bal?i? noble family.[2][better source needed] At the end of the 14th century the city came under the control of the Republic of Venice and after Ottoman Empire acquired Shkodra from Venice after the siege of Shkodra in 1478-9,[3][better source needed] it became the centre of Sanjak of Scutari.

Acquisition of Zeta

Since he was appointed on the position of sanjakbey of the Scutari in 1496, Feriz Beg had intention to annex Zeta to Ottoman Empire. ?ura? Crnojevi? who controlled neighboring Principality of Zeta maintained frequent correspondence with other Christian feudal states with intention to establish an anti-Ottoman coalition. When his brother, Stefan, betrayed him to Ottomans in 1496,[4] ?ura? proposed to accept the suzerainty of Ottoman Empire if Feruz Beg accept to recognize him as governor in Zeta. Feriz Beg refused this proposal and invited ?ura? to either come to Scutari to clarify his anti-Ottoman activities or to flee Zeta. When Firuz Beg attacked Zeta with strong forces in 1496 ?ura? decided to flee to Venice.[5] In 1497 Firuz Beg captured Grbalj and put Zeta under his effective military control, although it was still part of the Zeta governed by Stefan II Crnojevi?.[6] In 1499 Feriz Beg formally annexed Zeta to the territory of his Sanjak of Scutari, and Zeta lost its status as an independent state.[6][5][7] In 1514, this territory was separated from the Sanjak of Scutari and established as a separate sanjak, under the rule of Skenderbeg Crnojevi?. When he died in 1528, the Sanjak of Montenegro was reincorporated into the Sanjak of Scutari as a unique administrative unit (vilayet) with certain degree of autonomy.[8]

Late 16th and early 17th century

The census of 1582--1583 registered the "vilayet of the Black Mountain" (vilayet-i Kara Da?) as separate administrative unit within Sanjak of Scutari. The vilayet consisted of the following nahiyah and villages: Grbavci with 13 villages, ?upa 11, Malon?i?i 7, Plje?ivci 14, Cetinje 16, Rijeka 31, Crmnica 11, Pa?trovi?i 36 and Grbalj 9 villages; a total of 148 villages.[9]

Marino Bizzi, the Archbishop of Bar (Antivari), in his 1610 report stated that name of the sanjakbey of Sanjak of Scutari was Ali Pasha.[10]

Pashalik of Scutari

In the period between 1757 and 1831, the Sanjak of Scutari was elevated to the Pashalik of Scutari, a semi-autonomous[11]pashalik under the Ottoman empire created by the Albanian Bushati family. Its territory encompassed parts of modern-day northern Albania and Montenegro, with its center in city of Shkodër. The weakening of Ottoman central authority and the timar system of land ownership brought anarchy to the West Balkans region of Ottoman Empire. In the late 18th century, two centers of power emerged in this region: Shkodër, under the Bushati family; and Janina, under Ali Pasha of Tepelenë. Both regions cooperated with and defied the Sublime Porte as their interests required.[12]

Scutari Vilayet

Before 1867, Shkodër (kodra) was a sanjak within the Rumelia Eyalet. In 1867, the Sanjak of Scutari merged with the Sanjak of Üsküb (Skopje), forming the Scutari Vilayet. The vilayet was subsequently divided into three sanjaks?kodra (Scutari), Prizren and Dibra. In 1877, the Sanjak of Prizren was transferred to the Kosovo Vilayet, and the Sanjak of Dibra was transferred to the Monastir Vilayet. Following the territorial transfers, the Sanjak of Scutari was subsequently divided into two sanjaks: Sanjak of Scutari and Sanjak of Draç (Durrës).

Following the invasion of Montenegrin forces during the Montenegrin-Ottoman War between 1876 and 1878, ownership of the cities of Bar, Podgorica, and Ulcinj was transferred from the Sanjak of Scutari to the Principality of Montenegro.

The Sanjak of Shkodra (1907)

In 1900, the Vilayet of Scutari was disestablished, demerging into two separate sanjaks: Sanjak of Scutari and Sanjak of Durrës.

Disestablishment

In 1912 and beginning of 1913 it was occupied by members of Balkan League during the First Balkan War. In 1914 the territory of Sanjak of Scutari became a part of Principality of Albania, established on the basis of peace contract signed during London Conference in 1913.[13]

Demographics and social organisation

The majority religious population in kodra sanjak were Catholics.[14]

The Albanian Malisors (highlanders) lived in three geographical regions within kodra sanjak.[15] Malesia e Madhe (great highlands) with its religiously mixed Catholic-Muslim five large (Hoti, Kelmendi, Shkreli, Kastrati and Gruda) and seven small tribes; Malesia e Vogel (small highlands) with seven Catholic tribes such as the Shala, Shoshi, Toplana, Nikaj; and Mirdita, which was also a large powerful tribe that could mobilise 5,000 irregular troops.[15] The government estimated the military strength of Malisors in kodra sanjak as numbering over 30,000 tribesmen and Ottoman officials were of the view that the highlanders could defeat Montenegro on their own with limited state assistance.[16] Ottoman control over the highland areas of kodra sanjak was limited.[17] In the 1880s, from an Albanian point of view the sanjak of kodra belonged to the region of Gegënia.[18]

Based on the people names registered in the census, it may be concluded that population of Sanjak of Scutari was mainly composed of Serbs and Albanians (Orthodox, Catholic and Muslim). There was also certain number of Vlachs, Turks and other people present, mainly in towns.[19]

1485 census

The first Ottoman census of the Sanjak of Scutari was organized in 1485. It was the third Ottoman census which was organized on the territory within modern Republic of Albania. The first census was organized in 1431 on the territory of Sanjak of Albania. The 1485 census shows that Sanjak of Scutari consisted of four kazas: kodra (Shkodër), Depedö?en (Podgorica), ?pek (Pe?), and Bihor.[20] The kazas were divided into smaller administrative units, nahiyah.

1582--1583 census

The census organized in period 1582--1583 shows that there were many nahiyah within Sanjak of Scutari with following number of villages:[21]

  • Shkodër with 128 villages
  • Du?men with 24 villages; majority had personal names with an Albanian character, minority with a Serbian character.
    • Toponyms show some South Slavic influence
    • Islamisation was slowly occurring within the nahiyah, based on the presence of characteristically Muslim names within its population
  • Zabojana with 48 villages; majority had personal names with an Albanian character, minority with a Serbian character.
  • Mrko with 9 villages; majority had personal names with a Serbian character, minority with an Albanian character.
  • Krajina with 18 villages; majority had personal names with an Albanian character
    • Toponyms show an overwhelming South Slavic influence
  • Gorje ?estan (D?ebel-i ?estan) with 7 villages; majority had personal names with a Serbian character, minority with an Albanian character.
  • Podgorica with 13 villages; majority had personal names with a Serbian character, minority with an Albanian character.
  • ?abljak with 8 villages; majority had personal names with a Serbian character, minority with an Albanian character.
  • Hoti with 8 villages; majority had personal names with an Albanian character, while a minority had with a Serbian character.
  • Bjelopavli?i with 6 villages; overwhelming majority had personal names with a Serbian character
  • Vra?egrmci with 16 villages; overwhelming majority had personal names with a Serbian character
  • Pobor with 11 villages; overwhelming majority had personal names with a Serbian character
  • Klemente with 2 villages; majority had personal names with an Albanian character, minority with a Serbian character.
  • Ku?i with 13 villages; majority had personal names with a Serbian character, minority with an Albanian character.
  • Pe? with 235 villages; overwhelming majority had personal names with a Serbian character; very few personal names with an Albanian character mentioned
    • Islamisation was common within the nahiyah, with many Serbs and Albanians converting to Islam
  • Altin (Altun li) with 41 villages; relative majority had names with a Serbian character, minority with an Albanian character
  • Petri?pan with 33 villages
  • Budimlje with 31 villages; overwhelming majority had personal names with a Serbian character
    • Presence of Muslim inhabitants shown in one village within the nahiyah
  • Komoran with 20 villages; overwhelming majority had personal names with a Serbian character
    • Presence of Muslim inhabitants shown in two villages within the nahiyah
  • Plav with 18 villages; all inhabitants had personal names with a Serbian character
    • No Muslim inhabitants within the nahiyah
  • Zla Rijeka with 12 villages

There was a total of 709 villages in the Sanjak of Scutari.

Additionally, a smaller part of Ottoman census from 1582--1583 dealt with Montenegro (Vilâyet-i Karaca-da?) as separate administrative unit within Sanjak of Scutari. This part consisted of following nahiyah and villages: Grbavci with 13 villages, ?upa with 11 villages, Malon?i?i with 7 villages, Plje?ivci with 14 villages, Cetinje with 16 villages, Rijeka with 31 villages, Cernica (Crmnica) with 11 villages, Pa?trovi?i with 36 villages, Grbalj with 9 villages. There was a total of 148 villages belonging to the Montenegrin subdivision.

The 1582--1583 census shows 857 villages and several towns including Shkodër (kodra), Pe? (?pek), Podgorica (Depedö?en), Bar (Bar) and Ulcinj (Ülgün).

1874 estimation

According to Russian consulate Ivan Yastrebov's estimations, there were 80.000 Catholic males, 20.000 Orthodox males, and 9.500 Muslim males. The majority of the population spoke the Albanian language. He asserted that the Orthodox, and a number of Catholics and Muslims spoke the Serbian language.[22]

Governors

See also

References

  1. ^ Luka, David. "Regjistri turk i vitit 1485*" (in Albanian). Retrieved 2011. Për katër shekuj me radhë (XI-XIV) me pak ndërprerje krahinat e Shqipërisë Veriore (përafërsisht ato që në të ardhmen do të bëjnë pjesë në sanxhakun e Shkodrës), qëndruan nën sundimin e feudalëve serbë të shtetit të Dioklesë dhe të Rashës.
  2. ^ "Bashkia Shkoder" (in Albanian). Shkoder official web site. 2008. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 2011. Me dyndjet sllave pushtohet dhe bëhet kryeqendër e shtetit të Zetës në shek. Xl. Më pas vjen pushtimi i shkurtër Bullgar. Në shekullin XIV bëhet qendër e rëndësishme autonome me institucione të zhvilluara dhe në vitin 1360 bëhet kryeqendër e Principatës së familjes Balshaj.
  3. ^ "Bashkia Shkoder" (in Albanian). Shkoder official web site. 2008. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 2011. Më 1396 kalon nën sundimin e Republikës së Venedikut e cila rikonstrukton kalanë dhe qytetin e quan Scutari. ... në vitin 1479 Sulltan Mehmeti II rrethon përsëri Shkodrën me mbi 100'000 ushtarë...
  4. ^ dru?tvo 1935, p. 194.
  5. ^ a b Jovanovi? 1947, p. 52.
  6. ^ a b Pavle S. Radusinovi? 1978, p. 44.
  7. ^ ?orovi?, Vladimir (1933). Istorija Jugoslavije (in Serbian). Beograd: Narodno Delo. Retrieved 2011. . 1499. ? ? ? ? . , . 1514. ? ? , -?, ? ?, ? ?-? ?.
  8. ^ ?orovi?, Vladimir (1933). Istorija Jugoslavije (in Serbian). Beograd: Narodno Delo. Retrieved 2011. 1528... ? ? ? ? ... ? ...
  9. ^ Vasi?, Milan (1991), "Etni?ki odnosi u jugoslovensko-albanskom grani?nom podru?ju prema popisnom defteru sand?aka Skadar iz 1582/83. godine", Stanovni?tvo slovenskog porijekla u Albaniji : zbornik radova sa me?unarodnog nau?nog skupa odr?anog u Cetinju 21, 22. i 23. juna 1990 (in Serbo-Croatian), OCLC 29549273
  10. ^ Bizzi, Marino (1610), Relatione della visita fatta da me, Marino Bizzi, Arcivescovo d'Antivari, nelle parti della Turchia, Antivari, Albania et Servia alla santità di nostro Signore papa Paolo V (Report of Marino Bizzi, Archbishop of Bar (Antivari), on his visit to Turkey, Bar, Albania and Serbia in the year 1610), archived from the original on 25 September 2010, To Ali Pasha, the mighty Sanjak Bey of Shkodra...
  11. ^ Elsie, Robert (2005). Albanian literature: a short history. London: I. B. Tauris: The Centre for Albanian Studies. ISBN 978-1-84511-031-4. Retrieved 2017.
  12. ^ Zickel, Raymond; Iwaskiw, Walter R. (1994). Albania: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: GPO for Library of Congress.
  13. ^ Vickers, Miranda (1999). The Albanians: a modern history. I.B.Tauris. pp. 77, 78. ISBN 978-1-86064-541-9.
  14. ^ Gawrych 2006, p. 29.
  15. ^ a b Gawrych 2006, pp. 31-32.
  16. ^ Gawrych 2006, p. 33.
  17. ^ Gawrych 2006, p. 30.
  18. ^ Gawrych, George (2006). The Crescent and the Eagle: Ottoman rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874-1913. London: IB Tauris. p. 28. ISBN 9781845112875.
  19. ^ Vasi?, Milan (1991), "Etni?ki odnosi u jugoslovensko-albanskom grani?nom podru?ju prema popisnom defteru sand?aka Skadar iz 1582/83. godine", Stanovni?tvo slovenskog porijekla u Albaniji : zbornik radova sa me?unarodnog nau?nog skupa odr?anog u Cetinju 21, 22. i 23. juna 1990 (in Serbo-Croatian), OCLC 29549273, ?to se stanovni?tva ti?e,... Njegovu osnovnu masu ?inili su Srbi i Arbanasi, pravoslavni, katolici i muslimani. Bilo je tamo i vla?ko-cincarskih (aromunskih) grupa, pa turskog i drugog etni?kog elementa, naro?ito u gradovima.
  20. ^ Luka, David. "Regjistri turk i vitit 1485*" (in Albanian). www.kulturserver-hamburg.de. Retrieved 2011. Ky sanxhak në vitin 1485 ndahej në katër kaza: të Shkodrës, të Podgoricës, të Pejës dhe të Bihorit.
  21. ^ Vasi?, Milan (1991), "Etni?ki odnosi u jugoslovensko-albanskom grani?nom podru?ju prema popisnom defteru sand?aka Skadar iz 1582/83. godine", Stanovni?tvo slovenskog porijekla u Albaniji : zbornik radova sa me?unarodnog nau?nog skupa odr?anog u Cetinju 21, 22. i 23. juna 1990 (in Serbo-Croatian), OCLC 29549273
  22. ^ Foli?, Milutin (1991), "Izve?taji ruskog konzula Ivana Stepanovi?a Jastrebova iz Skadra o slovenskom ?ivlju i njihovim crkvama u Albaniji u drugoj polovini XIX veka", Stanovni?tvo slovenskog porijekla u Albaniji : zbornik radova sa me?unarodnog nau?nog skupa odr?anog u Cetinju 21, 22. i 23. juna 1990 (in Serbian), Titograd: Istorijski institut SR Crne Gore ; Stru?na knj., OCLC 29549273; ? ? ?, . XL. . 182-183

Sources

Further reading


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