Saraiki Alphabet
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Saraiki Alphabet

There are three writing systems for Saraiki, but very few of the language's speakers, even those who are literate in other languages, are able to read or write Saraiki in any writing system.[]

Multani script

Multani is a Brahmic script originating in the Multan region of Punjab. The script was used for routine writing and commercial activities. Multani is one of four Landa scripts whose usage was extended beyond the mercantile domain and formalized for literary activity and printing; the others being Gurmukhi (Punjabi), Khojki (Marwari) and Khudawadi (Sindhi). Although Multani is now obsolete, it is a historical script in which written and printed records exist.

Traders or bookkeepers wrote in a script known as Langdi, although use of this script has been significantly reduced in recent times. Preliminary Proposal to Encode the Multani Script in ISO/IEC 10646 is submitted by Anshuman Pandey, on 26-04-2011.[1] Saraiki Unicode has been approved in 2005.[2]

Arabic script

The most common Saraiki writing system today is the Perso-Arabic script. Saraiki has a 43-letter alphabet including, which includes five letters not used in the related Punjabi and Hindko languages.[3] The additional letters are:

Letter Romanization IPA
⟨?⟩ bb
⟨?⟩ jj
⟨?⟩ dd
⟨?⟩ gg
⟨?⟩ ?

The full alphabet is:

Saraiki Perso-Arabic alphabet
Letter Name
? Alif madd
? alif
? be
? ?e
? pe
? te
? ?e
? se
? j?m
? ce
? ?e
? ba he
? xe
? d?l
? l
? l
? z?l
? re
? ?e
? ze
? ?e
? s?n
? n
? sv?d
? zv?d
? toë
? zoë
? 'ain
? ?ain
? fe
? q?f
? k?f
? g?f
? f
? l?m
? m?m
? n?n
? n
? v?v
? cho he
? do cha?m? he
? cho ye
? ba ye

Diacritics

  • (? ? and stand alone ?) hamza: indicates a glottal stop.
  • ?arak?t (In Arabic? also called tashk?l):
    • (?) fat?a (a)
    • (?) kasra (i)
    • (?) ?amma (u)
    • (?) suk?n (no vowel)
  • (?) superscript alif (also "short" or "dagger alif": A replacement for an original alif that is dropped in the writing out of some rare words, e.g. ? is not written out with the original alif found in the word pronunciation, instead it is written out as ?.
  • (?) shadda: Gemination (doubling) of consonants.
  • (--?--) Arabic subscript alef (U+0656), KhaRRi Zeer
  • (___?__) Inverted Zamma , Ulti Pesh , Such as in :
  • (___?__) Ghunna, over the noon
  • Tanween
    
    • (__?_)
    • (?--)
    • (____)

Numerals

Saraiki uses the Eastern Arabic numerals:

Hindu-Arabic 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Saraiki ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Romanization

Romanization is often termed "transliteration" but that is not strictly correct,[] as transliteration is the direct representation of letters by using foreign symbols, but most systems for romanizing Arabic are actually transcription systems that represent the sound of the language. For example, the above rendering munaratu l-?ur?fi l-?arab?yah of the Arabic:   ?‎ is a transcription, indicating the pronunciation; an example of transliteration would be mna?r? al?rwf al?rby?.

For Saraiki, all letters and symbols are used in Saraiki in Latin script.[4]

Other writing systems

The Devanagari and Gurmukhi scripts, written from left to right, were used by Sikhs and Hindus. Though not used in present-day Pakistan, there are still emigrant speakers in India who know the Devanagari or Gurmukhi scripts for Saraiki.[5]

References

  1. ^ "Preliminary Proposal to Encode the Multani Script in ISO/IEC 10646" (PDF).
  2. ^ "Unicode 4.1.0 (March 2005)". www.fileformat.info.
  3. ^ Bashir, Elena; Conners, Thomas J.; Hefright, Brook (2019). A descriptive grammar of Hindko, Panjabi, and Saraiki. Hefright, Brook,. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 62, 77. ISBN 978-1-61451-296-7. OCLC 1062344143.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  4. ^ ?, (20 November 2015). "? ? ? ?  : Latin Saraiki".
  5. ^ "Multani poets relive memories of struggle". Indian Express. Retrieved .

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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