Schadenfreude
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Schadenfreude
Return to the Convent, by Eduardo Zamacois y Zabala, 1868. The group of monks laughing while the lone monk struggles with the donkey.

Schadenfreude (; German: ['?a:dnf?d?] ; lit. 'harm-joy') is the experience of pleasure, joy, or self-satisfaction that comes from learning of or witnessing the troubles, failures, or humiliation of another.

Schadenfreude is a complex emotion, where rather than feeling sympathy towards someone's misfortune, schadenfreude evokes joyful feelings that take pleasure from watching someone fail. This emotion is displayed more in children than adults; however, adults also experience schadenfreude, though generally concealed.[1]

It is to see or have knowledge of someone's misfortune after the harm they have caused you. The desire to see other's suffer. "I experienced schadenfreude after hearing that my horrible manager had been fired." "Sarah couldn't help but feel a bit of schadenfreude when she discovered that the man who'd stolen her car was now in prison." Schadenfreude is steadily becoming a more popular word according to Google.[2]

Etymology

Schadenfreude is borrowed from German; it is a compound of Schaden, "damage, harm", and Freude, "joy". The German word was first mentioned in English texts in 1852 and 1867, and first used in English running text in 1895.[3] In German, it was first attested in the 1740s.[4]

Though common nouns are normally not capitalised in English, Schadenfreude is sometimes capitalised following the German convention.

Psychological causes of schadenfreude

Researchers have found that there are three driving forces behind schadenfreude: aggression, rivalry, and justice. Several studies have produced evidence that self-esteem has a negative relationship with the frequency and intensity of schadenfreude experienced by an individual.[5] This means that the less self-esteem an individual has, the more frequently and/or more intensely they will experience schadenfreude. The reverse also holds true - those with higher self-esteem experience schadenfreude less frequently and/or with less emotional intensity.[5] It is hypothesized that this inverse relationship is mediated through humans' psychological inclination to define and protect their self- and in-group- identity/self-conception.[5] Specifically, for someone with high self-esteem, seeing another person fail may still bring them a small (but effectively negligible) surge of confidence because the observer's high self-esteem significantly lowers the threat they believe the visibly failing human poses to their status or identity. Since this confident individual perceives that, regardless of circumstances, the successes and failures of the other person will have little impact on their own status or well-being, they have very little emotional investment in how the other person fares, be it positive or negative. Conversely, for someone with low self-esteem, someone who is more successful poses a threat to their sense of self, and seeing this 'mighty' person fall can be a source of comfort because they perceive a relative improvement in their internal and/or in-group standing. [6]

  • Aggression-based schadenfreude primarily involves group identity. The joy of observing the suffering of others comes from the observer's feeling that the other's failure represents an improvement or validation of their own group's (in-group's) status in relation to external (out-groups) groups. This is, essentially, schadenfreude based on group versus group status.
  • Rivalry-based schadenfreude is individualistic and related to interpersonal competition. It arises from humans' desire to stand out from and out-perform their peers. Another person's misfortune elicits pleasure because the observer now feels better about their personal identity and self-worth, instead of their group identity.
  • Justice-based schadenfreude comes from seeing that behavior seen as immoral or "bad" is punished. It is the pleasure associated with seeing a "bad" person being harmed or receiving retribution. Schadenfreude is experienced here because it makes people feel that fairness has been restored for a previously un-punished wrong.

Synonyms

Schadenfreude has equivalents in other languages (for example, German, Greek, Danish, Swedish, Dutch, Arabic, Croatian, Hebrew, Bangla, Czech, Norwegian, Filipino, Finnish and Russian), but no commonly used precise English single-word equivalent. There are other ways to express the concept in English.

"Epicaricacy" is a seldom-used direct equivalent,[7] borrowed from Greek epichairekakia (?, first attested in Aristotle[8]), from epi 'upon', ? chara 'joy', and kakon 'evil'.[9][10][11][12]

"Tall poppy syndrome" is a cultural phenomenon where people of high status are resented, attacked, cut down, or criticized because they have been classified as better than their peers. This is similar to begrudgery, the resentment or envy of the success of a peer. If someone were to feel joy by the victim's fall from grace, they would be experiencing Schadenfreude.

A "Roman holiday" is a metaphor from Byron's poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, where a gladiator in ancient Rome expects to be "butchered to make a Roman holiday" while the audience would take pleasure from watching his suffering. The term suggests debauchery and disorder in addition to sadistic enjoyment.[13]

"Morose delectation" (delectatio morosa in Latin), meaning "the habit of dwelling with enjoyment on evil thoughts".[14] was considered by the medieval church to be a sin.[15][16]French writer Pierre Klossowski maintained that the appeal of sadism is morose delectation.[17][18]

"Gloating" is an English word of similar meaning, where "gloat" means "to observe or think about something with triumphant and often malicious satisfaction, gratification, or delight" (e.g., to gloat over an enemy's misfortune).[19] Gloating is different from Schadenfreude in that it does not necessarily require malice (one may gloat to a friend about having defeated him in a game without ill intent), and that it describes an action rather than a state of mind (one typically gloats to the subject of the misfortune or to a third party). Also, unlike Schadenfreude, where the focus is on another's misfortune, gloating often brings to mind inappropriately celebrating or bragging about one's own good fortune without any particular focus on the misfortune of others.

Related emotions or concepts

Permutations of the concept of pleasure at another's unhappiness are: pleasure at another's happiness, displeasure at another's happiness, and displeasure at another's unhappiness. Words for these concepts are sometimes cited as antonyms to Schadenfreude, as each is the opposite in some way.

Pleasure at another's happiness is described by the Buddhist concept of mudita[20][21][22] or the concept of "compersion" in the polyamory community. A similar concept is the Hebrew slang term firgun, happiness at another's accomplishment.[23]

Displeasure at another's happiness is involved in envy, and perhaps in jealousy. The coinage "freudenschade" similarly means sorrow at another's success.[24][25]

Displeasure at another's good fortune is Gluckschmerz.

Displeasure at another's unhappiness is sympathy, pity, or compassion.

Sadism gives pleasure through the infliction of pain, whereas schadenfreude is pleasure on observing misfortune and in particular the fact that the other somehow deserved the misfortune.[26]

Neologisms and variants

Neologisms and portmanteau words were coined from the word as early as 1993, when Lincoln Caplan, in his book Skadden: Power, Money, and the Rise of a Legal Empire,[27] used the word Skaddenfreude to describe the delight that competitors of Skadden Arps took in its troubles of the early 1990s. Others include spitzenfreude, coined by The Economist to refer to the fall of Eliot Spitzer[28] and Schadenford, coined by Toronto Life in regard to Canadian politician Rob Ford.[29]

Literary usage and philosophical analysis

The Book of Proverbs mentions an emotion similar to Schadenfreude: "Rejoice not when thine enemy falleth, and let not thine heart be glad when he stumbleth: Lest the LORD see it, and it displease him, and he turn away his wrath from him." (Proverbs 24:17-18, King James Version).

In the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle used epikhairekakia (? in Greek) as part of a triad of terms, in which epikhairekakia stands as the opposite of phthonos (), and nemesis (?) occupies the mean. Nemesis is "a painful response to another's undeserved good fortune", while phthonos is a painful response to any good fortune, deserved or not. The epikhairekakos (?) person takes pleasure in another's ill fortune.[30][31]

Lucretius characterises the emotion in an extended simile in De rerum natura: Suave, mari magno turbantibus aequora ventis, e terra magnum alterius spectare laborem, "It is pleasant to watch from the land the great struggle of someone else in a sea rendered great by turbulent winds." The abbreviated Latin tag suave mare magno recalled the passage to generations familiar with the Latin classics.[32]

Caesarius of Heisterbach regards "delight in the adversity of a neighbour" as one of the "daughters of envy ... which follows anger" in his Dialogue on Miracles.[33]

During the 17th century, Robert Burton wrote in his work The Anatomy of Melancholy, "Out of these two [the concupiscible and irascible powers] arise those mixed affections and passions of anger, which is a desire of revenge; hatred, which is inveterate anger; zeal, which is offended with him who hurts that he loves; and ?, a compound affection of joy and hate, when we rejoice at other men's mischief, and are grieved at their prosperity; pride, self-love, emulation, envy, shame, &c., of which elsewhere."[34]

The philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer mentioned Schadenfreude as the most evil sin of human feeling, famously saying "To feel envy is human, to savor schadenfreude is diabolic."[35]

The Bob Dylan 1965 song Like a Rolling Stone is an expression of schadenfreude in popular culture.

Rabbi Harold S. Kushner in his book When Bad Things Happen to Good People describes Schadenfreude as a universal, even wholesome reaction that cannot be helped. "There is a German psychological term, Schadenfreude, which refers to the embarrassing reaction of relief we feel when something bad happens to someone else instead of to us." He gives examples and writes, "[People] don't wish their friends ill, but they can't help feeling an embarrassing spasm of gratitude that [the bad thing] happened to someone else and not to them."[36]

Susan Sontag's book Regarding the Pain of Others, published in 2003, is a study of the issue of how the pain and misfortune of some people affects others, namely whether war photography and war paintings may be helpful as anti-war tools, or whether they only serve some sense of Schadenfreude in some viewers.

Philosopher and sociologist Theodor Adorno defined schadenfreude as "... largely unanticipated delight in the suffering of another, which is cognized as trivial and/or appropriate."[37]

Scientific studies

A New York Times article in 2002 cited a number of scientific studies of Schadenfreude, which it defined as "delighting in others' misfortune". Many such studies are based on social comparison theory, the idea that when people around us have bad luck, we look better to ourselves. Other researchers have found that people with low self-esteem are more likely to feel Schadenfreude than are those who have high self-esteem.[38]

A 2003 study examined intergroup Schadenfreude within the context of sports, specifically an international football (soccer) competition. The study focused on the German and Dutch football teams and their fans. The results of this study indicated that the emotion of Schadenfreude is very sensitive to circumstances that make it more or less legitimate to feel such malicious pleasure towards a sports rival.[39]

A 2011 study by Cikara and colleagues using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examined Schadenfreude among Boston Red Sox and New York Yankees fans, and found that fans showed increased activation in brain areas correlated with self-reported pleasure (ventral striatum) when observing the rival team experience a negative outcome (e.g., a strikeout).[40] By contrast, fans exhibited increased activation in the anterior cingulate and insula when viewing their own team experience a negative outcome.

A 2006 experiment about justice served suggests that men, but not women, enjoy seeing "bad people" suffer. The study was designed to measure empathy by watching which brain centers are stimulated when subjects observed via fMRI see someone experiencing physical pain. Researchers expected that the brain's empathy center of subjects would show more stimulation when those seen as "good" got an electric shock, than would occur if the shock was given to someone the subject had reason to consider "bad". This was indeed the case, but for male subjects, the brain's pleasure centers also lit up when someone got a shock that the male thought was "well-deserved".[41]

Brain-scanning studies show that Schadenfreude is correlated with envy in subjects. Strong feelings of envy activated physical pain nodes in the brain's dorsal anterior cingulate cortex; the brain's reward centers, such as the ventral striatum, were activated by news that other people envied had suffered misfortune. The magnitude of the brain's Schadenfreude response could even be predicted from the strength of the previous envy response.[42][43]

A study conducted in 2009 provides evidence for people's capacity to feel Schadenfreude in response to negative events in politics.[44] The study was designed to determine whether or not there was a possibility that events containing objective misfortunes might produce Schadenfreude. It was reported in the study that the likelihood of experiencing feelings of Schadenfreude depends upon whether an individual's own party or the opposing party is suffering harm. This study suggests that the domain of politics is prime territory for feelings of Schadenfreude, especially for those who identify strongly with their political party.

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Paulus, Shannon. "Schadenfreude is a Childish Emotion". smithsonian.com.
  2. ^ https://www.wordgenius.com/all-words/schadenfreude WordGenius.com August 13, 2019
  3. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 1982, s.v.
  4. ^ Google Books (the 1659 and 1700 dates are incorrect)
  5. ^ a b c van Dijk, Wilco W.; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M.; Ouwerkerk, Jaap W.; Wesseling, Yoka M. (August 30, 2011), "Self-Esteem, Self-Affirmation, and Schadenfreude" (PDF), Emotion, American Psychological Association, 11 (6), pp. 1441-1445, doi:10.1037/a0026331, retrieved 2019
  6. ^ Hendricks, Scotty (2018-11-25). "3 types of Schadenfreude and when you feel them".
  7. ^ Byrne, Josefa H. (1984). Mrs. Byrne's Dictionary of Unusual, Obscure, and Preposterous Words. Pocket. ISBN 978-0-671-49782-8.
  8. ^ Liddell-Scott-Jones, A Greek-English Lexicon s.v. Archived October 6, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Bailey, Nathan (1737). Universal Etymological English Dictionary. London. Retrieved .
  10. ^ Bailey, Nathan (1751). Dictionarium Britannicum. London.
  11. ^ Shipley, Joseph T. (1955). Dictionary of Early English. Philosophical Library. ISBN 978-0-8065-2926-4.
  12. ^ Novobatzky, Peter; Shea, Ammon (1955). Depraved and Insulting English. Harvest Books. ISBN 978-0-15-601149-5.
  13. ^ "Roman holiday - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. 2007-04-25. Retrieved .
  14. ^ definition of morose delectation Archived April 14, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Oxford English Dictionary
  15. ^ Prima Secundae Partis, Q. 74 Archived July 2, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Second and Revised Edition, 1920; Literally translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province, Online Edition Copyright © 2006 by Kevin Knight.
  16. ^ Chapter 6 Proposing the Story of the World Archived August 27, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Richard John Neuhaus, Catholic Matters: Confusion, Controversy, and the Splendor of Truth, Basic Books, 2006.
  17. ^ Heterodox Religion and Post-Atheism: Bataille / Klossowski/ Foucault Archived April 26, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Jones Irwin, ISSN 1393-614X Minerva - An Internet Journal of Philosophy Vol. 10 2006.
  18. ^ Klossowski, Pierre. 1991. Sade, My Neighbour, translated by Alphonso Lingis. Illinois. Northwestern University Press.
  19. ^ "Dictionary definition of gloat" Archived August 27, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ The Upside of Shadenfreude Archived April 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Joshua Zader, Mudita Journal, December 6, 2005.
  21. ^ Are you Schadenfreude or Mudita? Archived March 11, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Sirtumble, One of Six Billion..., February 6, 2005.
  22. ^ Nell, Regen (September 16, 2011). "Regen" (PDF). Iowa City Public Library and the International Writing Program Panel Series. The International Writing Program. Retrieved 2017.
  23. ^ "Word of the Day / Firgun: The Art of Tooting Someone Else's Horn". Haaretz. 2014-08-25. Retrieved .
  24. ^ "Yahoo Groups "worthless word for the day is ... freudenschade"". Groups.yahoo.com. Retrieved .
  25. ^ Daily Stanford (2006) "Freudenschade"
  26. ^ Aaron Ben-Ze'ev, "The personal comparative concern in schadenfreude" in Wilco W. can Dijk, Jaap W. Ouwerkerk, eds., Schadenfreude: Understanding Pleasure at the Misfortune of Others, Cambridge 2014, ISBN 1107017505, p. 86f
  27. ^ Latest activity 19 hours ago (1994-10-30). Skadden: Power, Money, and the Rise of a Legal Empire (9780374524241): Lincoln Caplan: Books. ISBN 978-0374524241.
  28. ^ "Premium content". Economist.com. 2008-03-13. Retrieved .
  29. ^ Bartley Kives (26 May 2013). "When the Ford jokes stop". Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved 2013.
  30. ^ Pedrick, Victoria; Oberhelman, Steven M. (2006). The Soul of Tragedy: Essays on Athenian Drama. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-65306-8.
  31. ^ Nicomachean Ethics, 2.7.1108b1-10
  32. ^ Patrick O'Brian's usage of the tag in his Aubrey-Maturin historical novels is reflected in Dean King's companion lexicon A Sea of Words (3rd ed.2000).
  33. ^ Dialogus miraculorum, IV, 23.
  34. ^ Robert Burton (1621). The Anatomy of Melancholy. pp. t. 1, sect. 1, memb. 2, subsect. 8.
  35. ^ Schopenhauer, Arthur (January 2004). The Essays of Arthur Schopenhauer On Human Nature. On Human Nature. But it is Schadenfreude, a mischievous delight in the misfortunes of others, which remains the worst trait in human nature. It is a feeling which is closely akin to cruelty, and differs from it, to say the truth, only as theory from practice.
  36. ^ Harold S. Kushner (1981). When Bad Things Happen to Good People. first published by Schocken Books. p. 39.
  37. ^ Cited in Portmann, John (2000). When bad things happen to other people. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-92335-4.
  38. ^ St. John, Warren (24 August 2002). "Sorrow So Sweet: A Guilty Pleasure in Another's Woe". The New York Times.
  39. ^ Leach, C.; Spears, R.; Branscombe, N. R.; Doosje, B. (2003). "Malicious pleasure: Schadenfreude at the suffering of another group" (PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 84 (5): 932-943. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.5.932.
  40. ^ Cikara, Mina; Botvinick, Matthew M.; Fiske, Susan T. (2011-03-01). "Us Versus Them Social Identity Shapes Neural Responses to Intergroup Competition and Harm". Psychological Science. 22 (3): 306-313. doi:10.1177/0956797610397667. ISSN 0956-7976. PMC 3833634. PMID 21270447.
  41. ^ Singer T; Seymour B; O'Doherty JP; Stephan KE; Dolan RJ; Frith CD (January 2006). "Empathic neural responses are modulated by the perceived fairness of others". Nature. 439 (7075): 466-9. Bibcode:2006Natur.439..466S. doi:10.1038/nature04271. PMC 2636868. PMID 16421576.Lay-summary Archived April 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ Takahashi, H.; Kato, M.; Matsuura, M.; Mobbs, D.; Suhara, T.; Okubo, Y. (2009-02-13). "When Your Gain Is My Pain and Your Pain Is My Gain: Neural Correlates of Envy and Schadenfreude". Science. 323 (5916): 937-9. Bibcode:2009Sci...323..937T. doi:10.1126/science.1165604. PMID 19213918.
  43. ^ Angier, Natalie (17 February 2009). "In Pain and Joy of Envy, the Brain May Play a Role". The New York Times.
  44. ^ Combs, D. J. Y.; Powell, C. A. J.; Schurtz, D. R.; Smith, R. H. (2009). "Politics, schadenfreude, and ingroup identification: The sometimes happy things about a poor economy and death" (PDF). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 45 (4): 635-646. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2009.02.009.

Sources

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Further reading

  • Smith, Richard H. 2013. The Joy of Pain: Schadenfreude and the Dark Side of Human Nature. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-973454-2

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Schadenfreude
 



 



 
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