Second Scutari War
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Second Scutari War
Second Scutari War

Map of operations in 1421-1423, 1. Forces of Serbian Despotate, 2. Venetian forces
DateMarch 1419 - August 1423
Location
Coast of the Lordship of Zeta
Result Inconclusive
Territorial
changes
  • Venice captured Ulcinj, Grbalj and territory of Pa?trovi?i, with Kotor deciding to accept Venetian suzerainty
  • Serbian Despotate captured Drivast and returned its suzerainty over Bar, Budva and Lu?tica
Belligerents

Balsic small COA.jpg Zeta (until 1421)
Despot of Serbia.png Serbian Despotate (after 1421)
Albanian nobility

 Republic of Venice
Commanders and leaders
Balsic small COA.jpg Bal?a III
Despot of Serbia.png Stefan Lazarevi?
Mazarek
?ura? Brankovi?
Stanisha Kastrioti
Little Tanush (Dukagjini)[1]
Big Tanush (Dukagjini)[1]
Koja Zaharia
Andrija Humoj[2]

The Second Scutari War (Serbian Cyrillic: ) was an armed conflict in 1419-1426 between Zeta (1419-1421) and then the Serbian Despotate (1421-1423) on the one side and the Venetian Republic on the other, over Scutari and other former possessions of Zeta captured by Venice.

Background

The First Scutari War was waged in period 1405-1413 between Bal?a III and Venetian Republic.[3] In this war Bal?a III tried to capture Scutari and its surrounding region which was given to Venetians by his father ?ura? II Bal?i? in 1396. Using the anti-Venetian rebellion of the Scutari population Bal?a III managed to capture several nearby towns in 1405. Venetians then convinced Bal?a's towns Budva, Bar and Ulcinj to accept their suzerainty. After several years of battles and negotiations the war was ended in 1412 with treaty which obliged Bal?a III and Venice to return everything to pre-war situation. Both parties were unsatisfied with the peace treaty and believed that the other party was in breach of the agreed terms and that the other party should pay more for the damage during the war.

War

Between Zeta and Venice

In March 1419 Bal?a III again attempted to recapture Scutari and its surrounding area. In May he managed to capture Drivast and in August 1419 its castle. The Venetians tried to bribe Kastriotis and Dukagjinis to fight against Zeta in 1419, but it seems without success.[4] Venetians also tried to win over some other prominent members of Albanian nobility who supported Bal?a III, like Koja Zaharia who was asked to recognize Venetian suzerainty over his Dagnum. Then they tried to win over tribes Hoti and Matagu?i.[5]

Between the Serbian Despotate and Venice

Possession changes in Zeta

Capture of Drivast, Sveti Sr? and Bar

Lazarevi? and his Serbian Despotate had been ceded Lordship of Zeta from Bal?a III in April 1421, but the Venetians did not recognize him, holding on to the occupied Zetan coast and Bojana, including Drivast recaptured by them after Bal?a's death.[6] Venetians emphasized to despot's envoy that they have no intention to cede Bal?a's former possessions to despot and even requested Ottoman support in case of despot's attack.[7] In August 1421, Lazarevi? led his army into Zeta. Gjon Kastrioti, who was a Serbian ally,[8] reinforced Lazarevi? with troops led by one of his sons immediately upon the arrival of the latter in Zeta.[9][10] According to Fan Noli it was Stanisha who was sent by his father, together with auxiliary forces, to help Serbian despot to capture Scutari from Venetians.[11] With their support despot immediately captured Sveti Srdj and Drivast. Then he went to the coast and took Bar in middle of November 1421.

Lazarevi? appointed voivode Mazarek to administer his possessions in Zeta.[12] Until then Mazarek administered despot's possessions in Rudnik (1414)[13] and Ostrovica.[14] Noblemen from Bar were then invited to a meeting in cathedral of St. George where they recognized the suzerainty of Serbian despot while Mazarek recognized their right to govern the city according to their own legislations.[15]

Serbian despotate in 1422

Truce

Lazarevi? concluded the six-months truce with Venice and left to support king Sigismund in his fight against the Hussites. The truce was agreed to last until 15 May 1422.[16] After despot's initial success Venetians readily accepted the truce. The towns of Scutari, Ulcinj and Budva at that moment remainined under their control.

Venetians used the truce to reinforce the Scutari garrison. They transported soldiers, food and arms to Skadar through river Bojana.[17]

During the truce in the first half of 1422 peace negotiations were held in Venice and attended by despot's envoy duke Vitko. They were continued in Serbia between Venice's envoy Marco Barbadigo and despot himself.[18] When Lazarevi? demanded the surrender of disputed towns, Venice refused and war resumed.[6]

Battles on Bojana

Despot Stefan did not continue the war immediately after the truce because he was busy with other activities, but his voivode Mazarek undertook actions to prevent Venetian reinforcement of the Scutari garrison.[17] He erected several fortresses on the right bank of river Bojana from where he controlled the river. When Venetian captain Niccolo Capello was sent to transport food supplies and archers to the besieged Scutari using three galleys, Mazarek's forces on Bojana forced his galleys to retreat to the Adriatic sea.[19] In July 1422, the Venetian Senate ordered Niccolo Capello to return to Bojana and complete his mission, but he decided to wait for two galleys of providur and supracomite Marco Bembo and Marco Barbo carrying soldiers and material for destruction of the fortress Mazarek had erected in Sveti Sr?.[20]

Siege of Scutari in 1422

Lazarevi?'s forces besieged Scutari, probably in June 1422, and for a year, it seemed that Venice would have lost their possessions. In November 1422 Venetian fleet destroyed Mazarek's fortresses on Bojana and reached Sveti Sr?. Due to low water level they could not continue their voyage through Bojana.[21]

Supported by some local Albanians, Venice managed to break the siege in December 1422.[22] Scutari garrison led by captain Niccolo Capello unexpectedly attacked despot's army during one December night and broke the siege.[23] After the siege was broken Venetians reinforced Scutari's garrison with additional 400 cavalry and between 200 and 300 infantry.[23]

Siege of Scutari in 1423

Despot's army did not suffer serious casualties and returned under Scutari's fortress in January 1423.[24] In January 1423, Venice bribed and won over the Pamaliots on Bojana, and then bought over several tribal leader in or near Zeta: the Pa?trovi?i, Gjon Kastrioti (who had extended to the outskirts of Alessio), the Dukagjins, and Koja Zaharija.[22] Though none of these were mobilized militarly by Venice, they left the ranks of Lazarevi?'s army, thus became a potential danger to Lazarevi?.[22] Although Venetian admiral Francesco Bembo offered money to Gjon Kastrioti, Dukagjins and to Koja Zaharija in April 1423 to join the Venetian forces against Serbian Despotate, they refused.[25]

In summer of 1423 despot Lazarevi? sent ?ura? Brankovi? with 8,000 cavalry to Zeta. He besieged Scutari and erected fortresses on Bojana to cut off Venetian supplies of the besieged city. Duke Sandalj was prepared to support Serbian despot in his attempts to capture Scutari. Faced with such difficult situation Venetian governors were instructed to negotiate peace.

End of war

Treaty of Sveti Srdj

The conflict was ended in August 1423, after conclusion of the treaty (the Peace of Sveti Srdj).[26] In the name of the Serbian Despotate, the treaty was signed by ?ura? Brankovi? (with two witnesses who were Ottoman officials). Brankovi? was the despot's representative in Zeta since 1423 and was also in charge for all negotiations. According to the treaty the Serbian Despotate kept Drivast and Bar while Venice kept Scutari, Ulcinj and Kotor. Venice was obliged to return Budva and Grbalj region to Serbia and to pay 1,000 ducats in annual tribute for Scutari to the Lazarevi?i, which they initially had paid out to Bal?a III. Both parties agreed to exchange prisoners and to raze their forts on Bojana which was agreed to be completely in Venetian hands.

After the treaty was signed Francesco Bembo invited ?ura? Brankovi? to a ceremonial reception organized on his ship sailing through Bojana, followed by other ships of the Venetian fleet. ?ura? then asked Venice to support him with six galleys in an eventual war against the Ottomans and to confirm him all privileges previously held by his father Vuk, knez Lazar, and despot Stefan Lazarevi?.[27]

Treaty of Vu?itrn

Although the treaty of Sveti Sr? had been signed there were many issues that remained unresolved. Therefore, the situation was not fully resolved until the final settlement was achieved by an agreement signed in Vu?itrn in 1426. The treaty of Vu?itrn was revised in Drivast on 11 November 1426.[28]

Aftermath

?ura? Brankovi? succeeded Stefan Lazarevi? after his death in 1427 and lost control over Bar to Venetians in 1443.[29]

References

  1. ^ a b M. Be?i?, Zarij (1970), Istorija Crne Gore / 2. Crna gora u doba oblasnih gospodara. (in Serbian), Titograd: Redakcija za istoiju Crne Gore, p. 143, OCLC 175122851, ? ? - ? ?.
  2. ^ M. Be?i?, Zarij (1970), Istorija Crne Gore / 2. Crna gora u doba oblasnih gospodara. (in Serbian), Titograd: Redakcija za istoiju Crne Gore, p. 145, OCLC 175122851, ? , ? ? , ? , ? ? ? ? ? ,,?".
  3. ^ Kotor (Montenegro) Pomorski muzej (1969). Annual of Maritime Museum at Kotor (in Serbian). Kotor. p. 34. Retrieved 2012. Prvi skadarski rat protiv Balse III 1405-1412.
  4. ^ Fine 1994, p. 515
  5. ^ Glas, 338. Belgrade: Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. 1983. p. 67. Retrieved 2012.
  6. ^ a b Fine 1994, p. 516
  7. ^ Glas, 338. Belgrade: Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. 1983. p. 67. Retrieved 2012.
  8. ^ Egro, Dritan (2010), Oliver Jens Schmitt (ed.), Religion und Kultur im albanischsprachigen Südosteuropa, 4, Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien, p. 20, ISBN 978-3-631-60295-9, Gjon Kastrioti... converted to Orthodoxy from 1419-1426, accepting the alliance of Stephen Lazarevic of Serbia ...
  9. ^ ?orovi? 2001: " ? ? , ? ? ? ? ? ?."
  10. ^ Vujovi?, Dimitrije; Risto Dragi?evi?; Nikola ?akonovi?; Milinko ?urovi?; Mir?eta ?urovi?; Pavle Mijovi?; ?oko Pejovi?; Vlado Strugar (1970), Milinko ?urovi? (ed.), Istorija Crne Gore [History of Montenegro] (in Serbian), II, Titograd: Nau?no Delo, p. 143, OCLC 633018773, ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ?, ? ? ....
  11. ^ Noli, Fan Stilian (1947), George Castrioti Scanderbeg (1405-1468), International Universities Press, OCLC 732882, As a matter of fact, he had sent his son Stanisha with an auxiliary corps to help the Serbians against the Venetians at Scutari
  12. ^ Bo?i? 1979, pp. 178, 179

    , ? ? 1421 ? ?, ? ? ? ?. ? ? ? ? , ? ? ? . ... ? ? ? ? ? 1422 ? ? .

  13. ^ Dru?tvo za nauku i umjetnost Crne Gore. Odjeljenje dru?tvenih nauka, Dru?tvo za nauku i umjetnost Crne Gore (1975). Odjeljenje dru?tvenih nauka. Dru?tvo za nauku i umjetnost Crne Gore. p. 8.
  14. ^ Be?i?, Zarij M (1970). Istorija ?rne Gore. Red. za istoriju ?rne Gore. p. 139. Retrieved 2012.
  15. ^ Bo?i? 1979, p. 178

    ? , ? ? . . , ,,?" ?, - ? ?. ? ? , , ? ? ? ? ? .

  16. ^ Srejovi?, Dragoslav; Slavko Gavrilovi?; Sima M. ?irkovi? (1982). Istorija srpskog naroda: knj. Od najstarijih vremena do Mari?ke bitke (1371) (in Serbian). Srpska knji?evna zadruga. p. 199.
  17. ^ a b Srejovi?, Dragoslav; Slavko Gavrilovi?; Sima M. ?irkovi? (1982). Istorija srpskog naroda: knj. Od najstarijih vremena do Mari?ke bitke (1371) (in Serbian). Srpska knji?evna zadruga. p. 199. Retrieved 2012.
  18. ^ Maleti?, Mihailo (1976). Crna Gora (in Serbian). Knji?evne novine. p. 162. Retrieved 2012. ? 1422. ? ? . ?,
  19. ^ Godisnjak Pomorskog muzeja u Kotoru. Kotor: Pomorski muzej u Kotoru. 1968. p. 36. Retrieved 2012.
  20. ^ Bo?i? 1979, p. 222
  21. ^ Godisnjak Pomorskog muzeja u Kotoru. Kotor: Pomorski muzej u Kotoru. 1968. p. 37. Retrieved 2012.
  22. ^ a b c Fine 1994, p. 517
  23. ^ a b Purkovi?, Miodrag Al (1978). Knez i despot Stefan Lazarevi? (in Serbian). Sveti arhijerejski sinod Srpske pravoslavne crkve. p. 123. Retrieved 2012.
  24. ^ Bo?i? 1979, p. 179
  25. ^ Vujovi?, Dimitrije; Risto Dragi?evi?; Nikola ?akonovi?; Milinko ?urovi?; Mir?eta ?urovi?; Pavle Mijovi?; ?oko Pejovi?; Vlado Strugar (1970), Milinko ?urovi? (ed.), Istorija Crne Gore [History of Montenegro] (in Serbian), II, Titograd: Nau?no Delo, p. 144, OCLC 633018773, . 300, ? 200, ? ? .... ? ...
  26. ^ Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994), The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, University of Michigan Press, p. 519, ISBN 978-0-472-08260-5
  27. ^ Srejovi?, Dragoslav; Slavko Gavrilovi?; Sima M. ?irkovi? (1982), Istorija srpskog naroda: knj. Od najstarijih vremena do Mari?ke bitke (1371), p. 201
  28. ^ Spremi?, Mom?ilo (1964). Zbornik Filozofskog fakulteta. Nau?no delo. p. 197. Retrieved 2014. ? ? 11. ? ? ...
  29. ^ Katani?, Nade?da (1961). Gra?a za prou?avanje starih kamenih mostova i akvedukata u Srbiji, Makedoniji i Crnoj Gori. Savezni institut za za?titu spomenika kulture. p. 298.

Sources

Further reading

  • Dabinovi?, Antun (1937), Kotor u drugom skadarskom ratu : 1419-1423 (in Croatian), Zagreb: Jugoslavenska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti, OCLC 774252729

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