Commonly "cousin" refers to a "first cousin", a relative whose most recent common ancestor with the subject is a grandparent.. More generally, in the lineal kinship system used in the English-speaking world, a cousin is a type of familial relationship in which two relatives are two or more familial generations away from their most recent common ancestor.
Degrees and removals are used to more precisely describe the relationship between cousins. Degree measures the separation, in generations, from the most recent common ancestor to the closest of the cousins, while removal measures the difference between the generations the cousins are from. To illustrate usage, a "second cousin" is a cousin with a degree of two. When the degree is not specified first cousin is assumed. A cousin that is "once removed" is a cousin with one removal. When the removal is not specified no removal is assumed. This definition distinguishes a cousin from an ancestor, descendant, sibling, aunt, uncle, niece, or nephew.
Various governmental entities have established systems for legal use that can precisely specify kinship with common ancestors any number of generations in the past, for example, in medicine and law, a first cousin is a type of third-degree relative.
|Basic family tree|
|The relationship between every solid shaded box and a similar one on the other branch of the tree is that of a cousin. The removal is the number of rows they are separated by. The degree of the relationship is that of the cousin with the lightest shading, the lightest shading represents a degree of one and increases with darkness. The rules are the same for cousin-in-laws, except they exist between shaded solid lines and shaded dotted lines.|
People are related with a type of cousin relationship if they share a common ancestor, and the most recent common ancestor is two or more generations away from both people. This means neither person is an ancestor of the other, they do not share a parent (siblings), and neither is a sibling of a common ancestor (aunts/uncles and nieces/nephews). In the English system the cousin relationship is further detailed by the concepts of degree and removal.
The degree is the number of generations subsequent to the common ancestor before a parent of one of the cousins is found. This means that the degree is the removal of the cousin from the common ancestor less one and that if the cousins aren't removed from the common ancestor by the same number of generations, the cousin with the smallest removal is used to determine the degree. The removal is the difference between the number of generations from each cousin to the common ancestor. Two people can be removed but be around the same age due to differences in birth dates of parents children and other relevant ancestors.
To illustrate these concepts the following table is provided. This table identifies the degree and removal of cousin relationship between two people using their most recent common ancestor as the reference point and demonstrates it in the example family tree.
Relative's relationship to the most recent common ancestor
Example from Basic family tree ?
Subject's relationship to the most recent common ancestor
Joseph & Julie
|1st cousin once removed
Joseph & Matt
|1st cousin twice removed
Joseph & Lyla
|1, (R - 2)|
|1st cousin once removed
Gordon & Julie
Gordon & Matt
|2nd cousin once removed
Gordon & Lyla
|2, (R - 3)|
|1st cousin twice removed
Sam & Julie
|2nd cousin once removed
Sam & Matt
Sam & Lyla
|3, (R - 4)|
|generations||Degree,||1, (S - 2)||2, (S - 3)||3, (S - 4)||(min(R, S) - 1), |||
The following is a list of less common cousin terms.
A maternal cousin is a cousin that is related to the mother's side of the family, while a paternal cousin is a cousin that is related to the father's side of the family. This relationship is not necessarily reciprocal, as the maternal cousin of one person could be the paternal cousin of the other. In the example Basic family tree Julie is Joseph's maternal cousin and Joseph is Julie's paternal cousin.
Parallel and cross cousins on the other hand are reciprocal relationships. Parallel cousins are descended from same-sex siblings. Cousins that are related to same-sex siblings of their most recent common ancestor are parallel cousins. A parallel first cousin relationship exist when both the subject and relative are maternal cousins, or both are paternal cousins.
Cross cousins are descendants from opposite-sex siblings. A cross first cousin relationship exist when the subject and the relative are maternal cousins and paternal cousin to each other. In the example Basic family tree Joseph and Julie are both cross cousins.
|Joseph and Julie are double first cousins as they are cousins through both parents. They are cousins through the siblings James and Mary as well as the siblings Helen and Eugene.|
Double cousins are relatives that are cousins on their maternal side and cousins on their paternal side. This occurs when siblings, respectively, reproduce with different siblings from another family. This may also be referred to as 'cousins on both sides.' The resulting children are related to each other through both of their parents and are thus doubly related. Double first cousins share both sets of grandparents.
|Joseph and Lilian are half cousins because their parents (Helen and Charles) are half-siblings, their grandmother (Beatrice) having remarried.|
Half cousins are descended from half siblings and would share 1 grandparent. The children of two half siblings are first half cousins. If half siblings have children with another pair of half siblings, the resulting children would be double half first cousins.
|Joseph and Rachel are step-cousins because Joseph's uncle (Eugene) has become Rachel's stepfather as a result of Rachel's mother (Corinda) having remarried Eugene.|
Step-cousins are either stepchildren of an individual's aunt or uncle, nieces and nephews of one's stepparent, or the children of one's parent's stepsibling. Cousin-in-laws are the cousins of a person's spouse or the spouse of a person's cousin. Neither of these relationships has consanguinity. In the Basic family tree example Joseph and Roger are both Cousin-in-laws.
Consanguinity is a measure of how closely individuals are related to each other. It is measured by the coefficient of relationship. Below, when discussing the coefficient of relationship, we assume the subject and the relative are only related through the kinship term. A coefficient of one represents the relationship you have with yourself. Consanguinity decreases by half for every generations of separation from the most recent common ancestor, as there are two parents for each child. When there is more than one common ancestor the consanguinity between each ancestor is added together to get the final result.
Between first cousins there are two shared ancestors each with four generations of separation, up and down the family tree (), therefore their consanguinity is one-eighth. When the removal of the cousins relationship increases consanguinity is reduced by half, as the generations of separation increase by one. When the degree of the cousins relationship increases consanguinity is reduced by a quarter, as the generations of separation increase by one on both sides.
Half cousins have half the consanguinity of ordinary cousins as they have half the common ancestors (i.e. one vs two). Double cousins have twice the consanguinity of ordinary cousins as they have twice the number of common ancestors (i.e. four vs two). Double first cousins share the same consanguinity as half-siblings. Likewise double half cousins share the same consanguinity as cousins as they both have two common ancestors. If there are half siblings on one side and full siblings on the other they would have three-halves the consanguinity of ordinary first cousins.
In a scenario where two monozygotic (identical) twins mate with another pair of monozygotic twins, the resulting double cousins would test as genetically similar as siblings.
Couples that possess higher than normal consanguinity, shared identical DNA and genetic material, have an increased chance of sharing genes for recessive traits. Therefore, children of high consanguinity parents may have an increased risk of genetic disorders, particularly if their parents both carry a harmful recessive mutation. See inbreeding for more information.
Scientists through multiple studies have established a substantial and consistent positive correlation between the kinship of couples and the number of children and grandchildren they have. The 2008 deCODE study results show that couples related at the level of third cousins have the greatest number of offspring, with the greatest reproductive success observed for couples related at the level of third and fourth cousins. This study provides the most comprehensive answer yet to the longstanding question of how kinship affects human fertility. The study result was somewhat counterintuitive from an evolutionary perspective because closely related parents have a higher probability of having offspring homozygous for deleterious recessive mutations, although closer parental kinship can also decrease the likelihood of immunological incompatibility between mother and offspring, for example in rhesus factor blood type. The study confirmed that the offspring of first and second cousins died younger and reproduced less.
Cousin marriage is important in several anthropological theories which often differentiate between matriarchal and patriarchal parallel and cross cousins.
Currently about 10% and historically as high as 80% of all marriages are between first or second cousins. Cousin marriages are often arranged. Anthropologists believe it is used as a tool to strengthen the family, conserve its wealth, protect its cultural heritage, and retain the power structure of the family and its place in the community. Some groups encourage cousin marriage while others attach a strong social stigma to it. In some regions in the Middle East over half of all marriages are between first and second cousins. In some of the countries in this region this may exceed 70%. Just outside this region it is often legal but infrequent. Many cultures have encouraged specifically cross-cousin marriages. In other places it is legally prohibited and culturally equivalent to incest. Supporters of cousin marriage often view the prohibition as discrimination, while opponents cite the potential immorality.
They seemed to treasure genetic relations in a way I had not encountered before, using such relational designations as "cousin-uncle." They spoke of Mennonite names, Mennonite food, Low German, Russian immigration.