Serie A
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Serie A

Serie A
Serie A logo.png
Organising bodyLega Serie A
Founded1898; 123 years ago (1898)
1929 (as round-robin)
Number of teams20
Level on pyramid1
Relegation toSerie B
Domestic cup(s)Coppa Italia
Supercoppa Italiana
International cup(s)UEFA Champions League
UEFA Europa League
UEFA Europa Conference League
Current championsInternazionale (19th title)
Most championshipsJuventus (36 titles)
Most appearances
Top goalscorerSilvio Piola (274)
TV partnersList of broadcasters
Current: 2021-22 Serie A

Serie A (Italian pronunciation: ['s?:rje 'a][1]), also called Serie A TIM for sponsorship reasons,[2] is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the top of the Italian football league system and the winner is awarded the Scudetto and the Coppa Campioni d'Italia. It has been operating as a round-robin tournament for over ninety years since the 1929-30 season. It had been organized by the Direttorio Divisioni Superiori until 1943 and the Lega Calcio until 2010, when the Lega Serie A was created for the 2010-11 season. Serie A is regarded as one of the best football leagues in the world and it is often depicted as the most tactical and defensively sound national league.[3] Serie A was the world's strongest national league in 2020 according to IFFHS,[4] and is ranked third among European leagues according to UEFA's league coefficient, behind La Liga and the Premier League and ahead of the Bundesliga and Ligue 1, which is based on the performance of Italian clubs in the Champions League and the Europa League during the previous five years. Serie A led the UEFA ranking from 1986 to 1988 and from 1990 to 1999.[5]

In its current format, the Italian Football Championship was revised from having regional and interregional rounds, to a single-tier league from the 1929-30 season onwards. The championship titles won before 1929 are officially recognised by FIGC with the same weighting as titles that were subsequently awarded. Similarly, the 1945-46 season, when the round-robin was suspended and the league was played over two geographical groups due to the ravages of WWII, is not statistically considered, even if its title is fully official.[6]

The league hosts three of the world's most famous clubs as Juventus, AC Milan and Internazionale, all founding members of the G-14, a group which represented the largest and most prestigious European football clubs from 2000 to 2008,[7] with the first two also being founding members of its successive organisation, European Club Association (ECA). More players have won the coveted Ballon d'Or award while playing at a Serie A club than any league in the world other than Spain's La Liga,[8] although La Liga has the highest total number of Ballon d'Or winners. Juventus, Italy's most successful club of the 20th century[9] and the most successful Italian team,[10] is tied for sixth in Europe and twelfth in the world with the most official international titles.[11] The club is also the only one in the world to have won all possible official confederation competitions.[12] Milan is joint third club for official international titles won in the world, with eighteen.[13] Internazionale, following their achievements in the 2009-10 season, became the first Italian team to have achieved a treble. Inter are also the only team in Italian football history to have never been relegated.[14][15] Juventus, Milan and Inter, along with Lazio, Fiorentina, Roma and Napoli, are known as the Seven Sisters of Italian football.[16][17][18][19][20][note 1]

Serie A is one of the most storied football leagues in the world. Of the 100 greatest footballers in history chosen by FourFourTwo magazine in 2017, 42 players have played in Serie A, more than any other league in the world.[21] Juventus is the team that has produced the most World Cup champions (25), with Inter (19), Roma (15) and Milan (10), being respectively third, fourth and ninth in that ranking.[22]


Serie A, as it is structured today, began during the 1929-30 season. From 1898 to 1922, the competition was organised into regional groups. Because of ever growing teams attending regional championships, the Italian Football Federation (FIGC) split the CCI (Italian Football Confederation) in 1921, which founded in Milan the Lega Nord (Northern Football League), ancestor of present-day Lega Serie A. When CCI teams rejoined the FIGC created two interregional divisions renaming Categories into Divisions and splitting FIGC sections into two north-south leagues. In 1926, due to internal crises and fascist pressures, the FIGC changed internal settings, adding southern teams to the national division, ultimately leading to the 1929-30 final settlement. Torino were declared champions in the 1948-49 season following a plane crash near the end of the season in which the entire team was killed.[]

The Serie A Championship title is often referred to as the scudetto ("small shield") because since the 1923-24 season, the winning team will bear a small coat of arms with the Italian tricolour on their strip in the following season. The most successful club is Juventus with 36 championships, followed by Internazionale and AC Milan with 19 and 18 championships respectively. From the 2004-05 season onwards, an actual trophy was awarded to club on the pitch after the last turn of the championship. The trophy, called the Coppa Campioni d'Italia, has officially been used since the 1960-61 season, but between 1961 and 2004 was consigned to the winning clubs at the head office of the Lega Nazionale Professionisti.[]

In April 2009, Serie A announced a split from Serie B. Nineteen of the twenty clubs voted in favour of the move in an argument over television rights; the relegation-threatened Lecce had voted against the decision. Maurizio Beretta, the former head of Italy's employers' association, became president of the new league.[23][24][25][26]

In April 2016, it was announced that Serie A was selected by the International Football Association Board to test video replays, which were initially private for the 2016-17 season, allowing them to become a live pilot phase, with replay assistance implemented in the 2017-18 season.[27] On the decision, FIGC President Carlo Tavecchio said, "We were among the first supporters of using technology on the pitch and we believe we have everything required to offer our contribution to this important experiment."[28]


For most of Serie A's history, there were 16 or 18 clubs competing at the top level. Since 2004-05, however, there have been 20 clubs in total. One season (1947-48) was played with 21 teams for political reasons, following post-war tensions with Yugoslavia. Below is a complete record of how many teams played in each season throughout the league's history;

  • 18 clubs: 1929-1934
  • 16 clubs: 1934-1943
  • 20 clubs: 1946-1947
  • 21 clubs: 1947-1948
  • 20 clubs: 1948-1952
  • 18 clubs: 1952-1967
  • 16 clubs: 1967-1988
  • 18 clubs: 1988-2004
  • 20 clubs: 2004-present
Scudetto patch

During the season, which runs from August to May, each club plays each of the other teams twice; once at home and once away, totalling 38 games for each team by the end of the season. Thus, in Italian football a true round-robin format is used. In the first half of the season, called the andata, each team plays once against each league opponent, for a total of 19 games. In the second half of the season, called the ritorno, the teams play another 19 games, once more against each opponent, in which home and away matches are reversed. The two halves of the season had exactly the same order of fixtures until the 2021-22 season, when an asymmetrical calendar was introduced, following the format of the English, Spanish, and French leagues.[29] Since the 1994-95 season, teams are awarded three points for a win, one point for a draw, and no points for a loss. Prior to this, teams were awarded two points for a win, one for a draw, and none for a loss.

The top four teams in the Serie A qualify straight to the UEFA Champions League. The team finishing fifth, with the winner of the Coppa Italia, qualify for the UEFA Europa League tournament. The sixth or the seventh ranked club, depending from the Coppa Italia winner's performance, joins the preliminary round of the UEFA Europa Conference League. The three lowest-placed teams are relegated to Serie B.

Since the 2005-06 season, when two or more teams are tied in points (for any place), the deciding tie-breakers are as follows:

  1. Head-to-head records (results and points)
  2. Goal difference of head-to-head games
  3. Goal difference overall
  4. Higher number of goals scored
  5. Play-off game at a neutral venue if relevant to decide champion, European spot, or relegation; otherwise by draw[30]

The only time a playoff was used to decide the champion occurred in the 1963-64 season when Bologna and Inter both finished on 54 points. At that time, there were no tiebreakers after total points (under today's rules, Inter would have won on the first tiebreaker, head-to-head points, as they defeated Bologna 2-1 away and played a scoreless draw at home). Bologna won the playoff 2-0 at the Stadio Olimpico in Rome to win the scudetto.[30]


Before 1929, many clubs competed in the top level of Italian football as the earlier rounds were competed up to 1922 on a regional basis then interregional up to 1929. Below is a list of Serie A clubs who have competed in the competition since it has been a league format (66 in total).

2021-22 season


The following 20 clubs are competing in the Serie A during the 2021-22 season.

Team Location 2020-21 season First season in Serie A (as round-robin) No. of Serie A seasons (since 1929) First season of current spell No. of seasons of current spell Serie A titles (since 1929) National titles Most recent title
Atalanta Bergamo 3rd in Serie A 1937-38 61 2011-12 11 0 0 -
Bologna Bologna 12th in Serie A 1929-30 75 2015-16 7 5 7 1963-64
Cagliari Cagliari 16th in Serie A 1964-65 42 2016-17 6 1 1 1969-70
Empoli Empoli Serie B champions 1986-87 14 2021-22 1 0 0 -
Fiorentina Florence 13th in Serie A 1931-32 84 2004-05 18 2 2 1968-69
Genoa Genoa 11th in Serie A 1929-30 55 2007-08 15 0 9 1923-24
Hellas Verona Verona 10th in Serie A 1957-58 31 2019-20 3 1 1 1984-85
Internazionale Milan Serie A champions 1929-30 90 1929-30 90 17 19 2020-21
Juventus Turin 4th in Serie A 1929-30 89 2007-08 15 34 36 2019-20
Lazio Rome 6th in Serie A 1929-30 79 1988-89 34 2 2 1999-00
AC Milan Milan 2nd in Serie A 1929-30 88 1983-84 39 15 18 2010-11
Napoli Naples 5th in Serie A 1929-30 76 2007-08 15 2 2 1989-90
Roma Rome 7th in Serie A 1929-30 89 1952-53 70 3 3 2000-01
Salernitana Salerno 2nd in Serie B 1947-48 3 2021-22 1 0 0 -
Sampdoria Genoa 9th in Serie A 1934-35 65 2012-13 10 1 1 1990-91
Sassuolo Sassuolo 8th in Serie A 2013-14 9 2013-14 9 0 0 -
Spezia La Spezia 15th in Serie A 2020-21 2 2020-21 2 0 0 -
Torino Turin 17th in Serie A 1929-30 78 2012-13 10 6 7 1975-76
Udinese Udine 14th in Serie A 1950-51 49 1995-96 27 0 0 -
Venezia Venice Serie B play-off winners 1939-40 13 2021-22 1 0 0 -


Seasons in Serie A

There are 67 teams that have taken part in 90 Serie A championships in a single round that was played from the 1929-30 season until the 2021-22 season. The teams in bold compete in Serie A currently. Internazionale is the only team that has played Serie A football in every season.


Serie A had logos that featured its sponsor Telecom Italia (TIM). The logo that was introduced in 2010 had a minor change in 2016 due to the change of the logo of Telecom Italia itself.[31][32] In August 2018, a new logo was announced, and another one in August 2019.[33]

Television rights

In the past, individual clubs competing in the league had the rights to sell their broadcast rights to specific channels throughout Italy, unlike in most other European countries. Currently, the two broadcasters in Italy are the satellite broadcaster Sky Italia and streaming platform DAZN for its own pay television networks; RAI is allowed to broadcast only highlights (in exclusive from 13:30 to 22:30 CET). This is a list of television rights in Italy (since 2021-22):

  • Sky Italia (3 matches per week)
  • DAZN (all matches)
  • OneFootball (highlights)

Since the 2010-11 season, Serie A clubs have negotiated television rights collectively rather than on an individual club basis, having previously abandoned collective negotiation at the end of the 1998-99 season.[34]

In the 1990s, Serie A was at its most popular in the United Kingdom when it was shown on Football Italia on Channel 4, although it has actually appeared on more UK channels than any other league, rarely staying in one place for long since 2002. Serie A has appeared in the UK on BSB's The Sports Channel (1990-91), Sky Sports (1991-1992), Channel 4 (1992-2002), Eurosport (2002-2004), Setanta Sports and Bravo (2004-2007), Channel 5 (2007-2008), ESPN (2009-2013), Eleven Sports Network (2018), Premier, FreeSports (2019-2021) and BT Sport (2013-2018; 2021-present).[35]


Bold indicates clubs which play in the 2020-21 Serie A.

  • A decoration was awarded to Spezia in 2002 by the FIGC for the 1944 wartime championship. However, the FIGC has stated that it cannot be considered as a scudetto.

By city

City Championships Clubs
Turin 43 Juventus (36), Torino (7)
Milan 37 Internazionale (19), AC Milan (18)
Genoa 10 Genoa (9), Sampdoria (1)
Bologna 7 Bologna (7)
Vercelli 7 Pro Vercelli (7)
Rome 5 Roma (3), Lazio (2)
Florence 2 Fiorentina (2)
Naples 2 Napoli (2)
Cagliari 1 Cagliari (1)
Casale Monferrato 1 Casale (1)
Novi Ligure 1 Novese (1)
Verona 1 Verona (1)

By region

Region Championships Clubs
Piedmont 52 Juventus (36), Torino (7), Pro Vercelli (7), Casale (1), Novese (1)
Lombardy 37 Internazionale (19), AC Milan (18)
Liguria 10 Genoa (9), Sampdoria (1)
Emilia-Romagna 7 Bologna (7)
Lazio 5 Roma (3), Lazio (2)
Campania 2 Napoli (2)
Tuscany 2 Fiorentina (2)
Sardinia 1 Cagliari (1)
Veneto 1 Verona (1)


Boldface indicates a player still active in Serie A. Italics indicates a player active outside Serie A.

Most appearances

Gianluigi Buffon has made a record 657 appearances in Serie A
As of 12 May 2021
Rank Player Club(s) Apps Goals
1 Italy Gianluigi Buffon Parma, Juventus 1995-2006
657 0
2 Italy Paolo Maldini AC Milan 647 29
3 Italy Francesco Totti Roma 1992-2017 619 250
4 Argentina Javier Zanetti Internazionale 1995-2014 615 12
5 Italy Gianluca Pagliuca Sampdoria, Internazionale, Bologna, Ascoli 1987-2005
592 0
6 Italy Dino Zoff Udinese, Mantova, Napoli, Juventus 1961-1983 570 0
7 Italy Pietro Vierchowod Como, Fiorentina, Roma, Sampdoria, Juventus, AC Milan, Piacenza 1980-2000 562 38
8 Italy Roberto Mancini Bologna, Sampdoria, Lazio 1981-2000 541 156
9 Italy Silvio Piola Pro Vercelli, Lazio, Juventus, Novara 1929-1943
537 274
10 Italy Enrico Albertosi Fiorentina, Cagliari, AC Milan 1958-1980 532 0

Most goals

Silvio Piola is the highest goalscorer in Serie A history with 274 goals
As of 8 February 2020
Rank Player Club(s) Goals Apps Ratio
1 Italy Silvio Piola Pro Vercelli, Lazio, Juventus, Novara
274 537 0.51
2 Italy Francesco Totti Roma 1992-2017 250 619 0.4
3 Sweden Gunnar Nordahl AC Milan, Roma 1949-1958 225 291 0.77
4 Italy Giuseppe Meazza Internazionale, AC Milan, Juventus 1929-1943
216 367 0.59
Brazil Italy José Altafini AC Milan, Napoli, Juventus 1958-1976 216 459 0.47
6 Italy Antonio Di Natale Empoli, Udinese 2002-2016 209 445 0.47
7 Italy Roberto Baggio Fiorentina, Juventus, AC Milan, Bologna, Internazionale, Brescia 1985-2004 205 452 0.45
8 Sweden Kurt Hamrin Juventus, Padova, Fiorentina, AC Milan, Napoli 1956-1971 190 400 0.48
9 Italy Giuseppe Signori Foggia, Lazio, Sampdoria, Bologna 1991-2004 188 344 0.55
Italy Alessandro Del Piero Juventus 1993-2006
188 478 0.39
Italy Alberto Gilardino Piacenza, Hellas Verona, Parma, AC Milan, Fiorentina, Genoa, Bologna 1999-2017 188 502 0.37


Non-EU players

Unlike La Liga, which imposed a quota on the number of non-EU players on each club, Serie A clubs could sign as many non-EU players as available on domestic transfer.

During the 1980s and 1990s, most Serie A clubs signed a large number of players from foreign nations (both EU and non-EU members). Notable foreign players to play in Serie A during this era included Irish international Liam Brady, England internationals Paul Gascoigne and David Platt, France's Michel Platini and Laurent Blanc, Lothar Matthäus and Jürgen Klinsmann from Germany, Dutchmen Ruud Gullit and Dennis Bergkamp, and Argentina's Diego Maradona.

But since the 2003-04 season, a quota has been imposed on each of the clubs limiting the number of non-EU, non-EFTA and non-Swiss players who may be signed from abroad each season,[36] following provisional measures[37] introduced in the 2002-03 season, which allowed Serie A and B clubs to sign only one non-EU player in the 2002 summer transfer window.

In the middle of the 2000-01 season, the old quota system was abolished, which no longer limited each team to having more than five non-EU players and using no more than three in each match.[37][38] Concurrent with the abolishment of the quota, the FIGC had investigated footballers that used fake passports. Alberto and Warley, Alejandro Da Silva and Jorginho Paulista of Udinese;[39] Fábio Júnior and Gustavo Bartelt of Roma;[40] Dida of Milan; Álvaro Recoba of Inter; Thomas Job, Francis Zé, Jean Ondoa of Sampdoria; and Jeda and Dede of Vicenza were all banned in July 2001 for lengths ranging from six months to one year.[41] However, most of the bans were subsequently reduced.

The number of non-EU players was reduced from 265 in 2002-03 season to 166 in 2006-07 season.[42] It also included players who received EU status after their respective countries joined the EU (see 2004 and 2007 enlargement), which made players such as Adrian Mutu, Valeri Bojinov, Marek Jankulovski and Marius Stankevi?ius EU players.

The rule underwent minor changes in August 2004,[43] June 2005,[44] June 2006.[45][46] and June 2007.[47]

Since the 2008-09 season, three quotas have been awarded to clubs that do not have non-EU players in their squad (previously only newly promoted clubs could have three quotas); clubs that have one non-EU player have two quotas. Those clubs that have two non-EU players, are awarded one quota and one conditional quota, which is awarded after: 1) Transferred 1 non-EU player abroad, or 2) Release 1 non-EU player as free agent, or 3) A non-EU player received EU nationality. Clubs with three or more non-EU players, have two conditional quotas, but releasing two non-EU players as free agent, will only have one quota instead of two.[48] Serie B and Lega Pro clubs cannot sign non-EU player from abroad, except those followed the club promoted from Serie D.

Large clubs with many foreigners usually borrow quotas from other clubs that have few foreigners or no foreigners in order to sign more non-EU players. For example, Adrian Mutu joined Juventus via Livorno in 2005, as at the time Romania was not a member of the EU. Other examples include Júlio César, Victor Obinna and Maxwell, who joined Internazionale from Chievo (first two) and Empoli respectively.

On 2 July 2010, the above conditional quota reduced back to one, though if a team did not have any non-EU players, that team could still sign up to three non-EU players.[49][50][51] In 2011 the signing quota reverted to two.[52]

Homegrown players

Serie A also imposed Homegrown players rule, a modification of Homegrown Player Rule (UEFA). Unlike UEFA, Serie A at first did not cap the number of players in first team squad at 25, meaning the club could employ more foreigners by increasing the size of the squad.[53] However, a cap of 25 (under-21 players were excluded) was introduced to 2015-16 season (in 2015-16 season, squad simply require 8 homegrown players but not require 4 of them from their own youth team).[54] In the 2016-17 season, the FIGC sanctioned Sassuolo for fielding ineligible player, Antonino Ragusa.[55] Although the club did not exceed the capacity of 21 players that were not from their own youth team (only Domenico Berardi was eligible as youth product of their own) as well as under 21 of age (born 1995 or after, of which four players were eligible) in their 24-men call-up,[56] It was reported that on Lega Serie A side the squad list was not updated.[57]

In 2015-16 season, the following quota was announced.

Size of first team squad Local + club youth product
min. 8 (max. 4 not from own youth team)

FIFA World Players of the Year

See also


  1. ^ Luciano Canepari. "serie". DiPI Online (in Italian). Retrieved 2021.
  3. ^ The Big Five Leagues
  4. ^ "IFFHS World's Best National League in the World 2020". IFFHS. 20 January 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  5. ^ "Member associations - Italy - Honours -".
  6. ^ "Page 21: official statistical records recognized by FIGC" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 2010.
  7. ^ "G-14's members". Archived from the original on 2 September 2006. Retrieved 2006.
  8. ^ "European Footballer of the Year ("Ballon d'Or")". Retrieved 2007.
  9. ^ "Europe's club of the Century". International Federation of Football History & Statistics. Retrieved 2009.
  10. ^ "Juventus building bridges in Serie B". Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 2006.
  11. ^ Sixth most successful European club for confederation and FIFA competitions won with eleven titles. Sixth most successful club in Europe for confederation club competition titles won (11), cf. "Confermato: I più titolati al mondo!" (in Italian). A.C. Milan S.p.A. official website. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  12. ^ "Legend: UEFA club competitions". Union des Associations Européennes de Football. 21 August 2006. Archived from the original on 31 January 2010. Retrieved 2013.
    "1985: Juventus end European drought". Union des Associations Européennes de Football. 8 December 1985. Archived from the original on 8 December 2013. Retrieved 2013.
    "FIFA Club World Championship TOYOTA Cup: Solidarity - the name of the game" (PDF). FIFA Activity Report 2005. Zurich: Fédération Internationale de Football Association: 62. April 2005 - May 2005. Retrieved 2012.
    "We are the champions". Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 1 December 2005. Retrieved 2009.
  13. ^ "Milan top of the world!". Archived from the original on 18 December 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  14. ^ "Le squadre mai retrocesse in Europa". (in Italian). 18 May 2018. Retrieved 2020.
  15. ^ "Inter join exclusive treble club". 22 May 2010. Retrieved 2012.
  16. ^ "Le "7 sorelle" dell'Italcalcio tornano a spendere all'estero -". 3 August 2013.
  17. ^ "Calcio al via, uno scudetto per sette sorelle -". Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  18. ^ Serie A al via: le sette sorelle sono tornate Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ "IL PUNTO DI CM.IT - Dalla 'paziente' Juventus al Napoli 'esaurito': come perdono le nostre big". Archived from the original on 8 December 2015.
  20. ^ "Calciomercato Serie A, le nuove formazioni delle 'sette sorelle'". Archived from the original on 8 December 2015.
  21. ^ "100 Greatest footballers ever -". 24 July 2017.
  22. ^ [1]
  23. ^ "Serie A to form breakaway league - BBC Sport". BBC News. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 2010.
  24. ^ "Serie A clubs to set up their own league". Bleacher Report. Archived from the original on 26 December 2014.
  25. ^ "Serie A set for breakaway". SkySports. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 2010.
  26. ^ "Italian league splits in two after meeting ends in stalemate". Guardian. London. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 2010.
  27. ^ "Serie A will start with VAR". Football Italia. 10 June 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  28. ^ "Serie A selected by IFAB to test video replay". 14 April 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  29. ^ "Rivoluzione in Serie A: il calendario sarà asimmetrico". Corriere dello Sport (in Italian). 2 July 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  30. ^ a b "Goal difference or head to head? How every major football competition ranks teams level on points |". Retrieved 2021.
  31. ^ "Serie A col nuovo logo. Il campionato 2016 al via il 21 agosto". Sky Sport (in Italian). Sky Italia. 15 January 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  32. ^ "New Serie A TIM Logo Revealed". 26 January 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  33. ^ "LA LEGA SERIE A RINNOVA I PROPRI LOGHI" (Press release) (in Italian). Lega Serie A. 8 August 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  34. ^ "Italian clubs cross fingers over TV ruling". FourFourTwo. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  35. ^ "Serie A: Eleven Sports gain TV rights from BT in three-year deal". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. 13 July 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  36. ^ "Italy blocks non-EU players". 5 March 2003. Retrieved 2010.
  37. ^ a b "Italians bar non-EU imports". 17 July 2002. Retrieved 2010.
  38. ^ "Milan challenge non-EU rule". BBC Sport. 3 November 2000. Retrieved 2010.
  39. ^ "Fake passport scandal hits Serie A". BBC News. 8 October 2000. Retrieved 2010.
  40. ^ "Lazio hit with passport charges". BBC News. 8 May 2001. Retrieved 2010.
  41. ^ Kennedy, Frances (28 June 2001). "Players banned over false passport scandal". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2010.
  42. ^ "COMUNICATO STAMPA: CONSIGLIO FEDERALE" (PDF). FIGC (in Italian). 21 June 2007. Retrieved 2010.
  43. ^ "Comunicato n° 090 del 25 agosto 2004" (PDF). FIGC (in Italian). 25 August 2004. Retrieved 2010.
  44. ^ "Comunicato n° 225 del 13 giugno 2005" (PDF). FIGC (in Italian). 13 June 2005. Retrieved 2010.
  45. ^ "Comunicato n° 7 dell' 8 giugno 2006" (PDF). FIGC (in Italian). 8 June 2006. Retrieved 2010.
  46. ^ "Comunicato n° 8 dell' 8 giugno 2006" (PDF). FIGC (in Italian). 8 June 2006. Retrieved 2010.
  47. ^ "Comunicato n° 023/A del 21 giugno 2007" (PDF). FIGC (in Italian). 21 June 2007. Retrieved 2010.
  48. ^ "Comunicato n° 003/A del 3 luglio 2008/" (PDF) (in Italian). FIGC. 3 July 2008. Retrieved 2010.
  49. ^ "Coumunicato Stampa" [Press Release] (PDF). The Federal Council (in Italian). FIGC. 2 July 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  50. ^ "Su extracomunitari, vivai, Club Italia e Settori le prime misure della FIGC". FIGC (in Italian). 2 July 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  51. ^ "C.U. N°6/A (2010-11)" (PDF). FIGC (in Italian). 5 July 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  52. ^ "C.U. N°6/A (2011-12): Tesseramento extracomunitari" (PDF). The Federal Council (in Italian). FIGC. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 2016.
  53. ^ "Incentivazione e promozione calciatori locali di Serie A" (PDF). Segreteria Federale. Comunicato Ufficiale (in Italian). Italian Football Federation. 2011-12 (7/A). 5 July 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  54. ^ "C.U. N°83/A (2014-15)" (PDF). Consiglio Federale (in Italian). FIGC. 20 November 2014. Retrieved 2016.
  55. ^ "C.U. N°24 (2016-17)" (PDF) (in Italian). Lega Serie A. 30 August 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  56. ^ "SASSUOLO-PESCARA: sono 24 i convocati neroverdi" (in Italian). U.S. Sassuolo Calcio. 27 August 2016. Retrieved 2016.
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  1. ^ In the 1990s, when the term originated, Parma was seen as one of the Seven Sisters and Napoli was not included.
  1. ^ Title was revoked and left unassigned through the courts following the Calciopoli Scandal.
  2. ^ Title was put sub judice, then assigned to Internazionale, through the courts following the Calciopoli Scandal.
  3. ^ Title was revoked and left unassigned due to the Allemandi match fixing scandal.

External links

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