|U+0600 to U+06FF|
U+FE70 to U+FEFF
Shahmukhi ( ?, Gurmukhi?, lit. 'from the mouth of the Shah') is a modified Perso-Arabic alphabet used by Punjabi Muslims (primarily in Punjab, Pakistan) to write the Punjabi language. It is generally written in the Nasta?l?q calligraphic hand, which is also used for Urdu. Perso-Arabic is one of two scripts used for Punjabi, the other being Gurmukhi, used by Sikhs in Punjab, India.
The Shahmukhi alphabet was first used by the Sufi poets of Punjab. It became the conventional writing style for the Muslim populace of the Pakistani province of Punjab following the Partition of India, while the largely Hindu and Sikh modern-day state of Punjab, India adopted the Gurmukhi or the Devanagari scripts to record the Punjabi language.
|Khari Zabar||a||[?]||Used in certain loanwords such as '' ('Jesus')|
|Zabar Tanw?n||-an||[?n]||Used for certain loanwords such as '' ('Immediately')|
|Maddah||?||[a:]||Used only for Alif Maddah (? + ? = ?), usually written|
|Zer||i||[?]||Written underneath a letter|
|Zer Tanw?n||in||[?n]||Used for certain loanwords, written underneath a letter|
|Hamza||varied||-||Used on vowels to indicate a diphthong between two vowels, examples such as: '?', '?', '?', and ? usually written|
|Tashd?d||Geminite||[.]||Doubles a consonant, goes above the letter being doubled - = kk|
|No.||Name||IPA||Final glyph||Medial glyph||Initial glyph||Isolated glyph||Gurmukhi|
|1||alifa||/?:, ?, ?/||?||?||?, ? (medial)|
|24||ʻaina||/?:, o:, e:, ?, ?, ?/||?||?|
|35||?||n?n ?unnah||/, ?/||?
|36||w?ʼoa||/?, u:, ?, o:, ?:/||?||?||?, ?|
|/?, ?:, e:/||?||?|
|38||?||do-cashm? h?||/?/ or /?/||?||varied /|
|40||cho y?||/j, i:, ?:/||?||?, ?|
|41||?||wai y?||/?:, e:/||?||?, ?|
|? (?)||? ?||?|
Shahmukhi has more letters added to the Urdu base to represent sounds not present in Urdu, which already has additional letters added to the Arabic and Persian base itself to represent sounds not present in Arabic. Characters added which differ from Persian but not Urdu include: ? to represent /?/, ? to represent /?/, ? to represent /?/, ? to represent //, and ? to represent /?:/ or /e:/. Furthermore, a separate do-cashmi-he letter, ?, exists to denote a /?/ or a /?/, this letter is mainly used as part of the multitude of digraphs, detailed below. Characters added which differ from Urdu include: ? to represent /?/ and ? to represent /?/.
In Punjabi, there are many Arabic and Persian loanwords. These words contain some sounds which were alien to South Asian languages before the influence of Arabic and Persian, and are therefore represented by introducing dots beneath specific Gurumukhi characters. Since the Gurmukhi alphabet is phonetic, any loanwords which contained pre-existing sounds were more easily transliterated without the need for characters modified with subscript dots.
|Shahmukhi Letter||Gurmukhi Letter|
? is pronounced 'j' in French or as vision in English
? is often transliterated in many ways due to its changing sound in various Arabic and Persian words.
It is an ancient Arabic writing tradition (carried on in Persian, Urdu and Shahmukhi) to omit the diacritics (except the Hamza) in ordinary writing and to depend on the context to interpret a word.