|Pudong New Area|
Location within Shanghai
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|District Gov't Established||1993|
|o CPC Pudong District Secretary||Weng Zuliang|
|o District Governor||Hang Yingwei ()|
|o Total||1,210.4 km2 (467.3 sq mi)|
|o Density||4,600/km2 (12,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+08:00 (China Standard Time)|
|- Total||¥1.046 trillion|
$158 billion (nominal)
$299 billion (PPP)
|- Per capita||¥187,522|
"Pudong" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
|Literal meaning||"East of the Pu [River]"|
Pudong is a district of Shanghai located east of the Huangpu River across from the historic city center of Shanghai in Puxi. The name refers to its historic position as "The East Bank" of the Huangpu River, which flows through central Shanghai, although it is now administered as the Pudong New Area, a state-level new area which extends all the way to the East China Sea.
The traditional area of Pudong is now home to the Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone and the Shanghai Stock Exchange and many of Shanghai's best-known buildings, such as the Oriental Pearl Tower, the Jin Mao Tower, the Shanghai World Financial Center, and the Shanghai Tower. These modern skyscrapers directly face Puxi's historic Bund, a remnant of former foreign concessions in China. The rest of the new area includes the Port of Shanghai, the Shanghai Expo and Century Park, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai Pudong International Airport, the Jiuduansha Wetland Nature Reserve, Nanhui New City, and the Shanghai Disney Resort.
Pudong—literally "The East Bank of the Huangpu River"—originally referred only to the less-developed land across from Shanghai's Old City and foreign concessions. The area was mainly farmland and only slowly developed, with warehouses and wharfs near the shore administered by the districts of Puxi on the west bank: Huangpu, Yangpu, and Nanshi. Pudong was originally established as a county in 1958 until 1961 which the county was split among Huangpu, Yangpu, Nanshi, Wusong and Chuansha County. In October 1, 1992 the original area of Pudong County and Chuansha County merged and established Pudong New Area.
In 1993, the Chinese government set up a Special Economic Zone in Chuansha, creating the Pudong New Area. The western tip of the Pudong district was designated as the Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone and has become a financial hub of modern China. Several landmark buildings were constructed, including the Oriental Pearl Tower, and the supertall Jin Mao Building (420.5 m or 1,380 ft), Shanghai World Financial Center (494 m or 1,621 ft) and Shanghai Tower (632 m or 2,073 ft), the world's first trio of adjacent supertall skyscrapers. These buildings—all along Century Avenue and visible from the historic Bund—now form the most common skyline of Shanghai.
On May 6, 2009, it was disclosed that the State Council had approved the proposal to merge Nanhui District with Pudong and comprise the majority of eastern Shanghai. In 2010, Pudong was host to the main venues of the Shanghai Expo, whose grounds now form a public park.
Districts of the Direct-Controlled Municipality of Shanghai are administratively on the same level as prefecture-level cities. However, the government of Pudong has a status equivalent to that of a sub-provincial city, which is a half-level above a prefecture-level city. This is due to Pudong's size and importance as the financial hub of China. The Pudong Communist Party Secretary is the top office of the district, followed by the district governor of Pudong. The Pudong party chief is customarily also a member of the Shanghai Party Standing Committee.
On April 27, 2015, the People's Government of Pudong New Area is working with China (Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone Administrative Committee.
Pudong literally means "East Bank". Pudong is bounded by the Huangpu River in the west and the East China Sea in the east. Pudong is distinguished from Puxi ("West Bank"), the older part of Shanghai. It has an area of 1,210.4 square kilometres (467.3 sq mi) and according to the 2010 Census, a population of 5,044,430 inhabitants, 1.9 million more than in 2000. Currently, at least 2.1 million of residents of Pudong are newcomers from other provinces or cities in China.
Pudong is the most populous district in Shanghai. According to the 2010 Census, it has 5,044,430 people in 1,814,802 families, around 1/4 of Shanghai's total population, an explosive growth since the last census thanks to immigrants. Pudong's resident population growth is well above national average because it is a popular immigration destination. The 2010 census shows a 58.26% increase in the last decade, or an annual pace of 4.7%. In particular, the district saw am immigration growth of 189.5%, or an annual pace of 11.22%.
Excluding immigrants, the birth rate is 0.806% while the death rate is 0.729, resulting a net growth of 0.077%. The total fertility rate is 1.03, well below the replacement level. The district actually has a negative registered household population growth if immigrants are excluded, thus the growth is purely driven by immigration.
The 2010 Census shows a population density of 3,909/km2. About 3/4 of the population live in the northern part and part of city center called "Northern Territory". 1/4 live in the "Southern Territory" that was the Nanhui District. The Northern Territory has a 6,667 population density, while the Southern Territory has 1,732/km2. Suburbs saw a greater increase in population during 2000-2010 with the help of the city's suburb expansion policy. Some counties in the traditional city center saw a population decrease.
|Name||Chinese (S)||Hanyu Pinyin||Shanghainese Romanization||Population (2010)||Area (km2)|
|Weifang Xincun Subdistrict||Wéif?ng X?nc?n Ji?dào||vij vaon sin tsen ka do||100,548||3.89|
|Lujiazui Subdistrict||Lùji?zu? Ji?dào||loq ka tzyu ka do||112,507||6.89|
|Zhoujiadu Subdistrict||Zh?uji?dù Ji?dào||tzoe ka du ka do||144,668||5.52|
|Tangqiao Subdistrict||?||Tángqiáo Ji?dào||daon djio ka do||76,916||3.86|
|Shanggang Xincun Subdistrict||Shàngg?ng X?nc?n Ji?dào||zaon kaon sin tsen ka do||104,932||7.54|
|Nanmatou Road Subdistrict||Nánm?tóulù Ji?dào||neu mau doe lu ka do||107,130||4.22|
|Hudong Xincun Subdistrict||Hùd?ng X?nc?n Ji?dào||wu ton sin tsen ka do||112,031||5.51|
|Jinyang Xincun Subdistrict||J?nyáng X?nc?n Ji?dào||cin yan sin tsen ka do||206,017||8.02|
|Yangjing Subdistrict||?||Yángj?ng Ji?dào||yan cin ka do||146,237||7.38|
|Puxing Road Subdistrict||P?xìnglù Ji?dào||phu xin lu ka do||177,468||6.25|
|Dongming Road Subdistrict||D?ngmínglù Ji?dào||ton min lu ka do||121,449||5.95|
|Huamu Subdistrict||?||Hu?mù Ji?dào||hau moq ka do||221,327||20.93|
|Chuanshaxin Town* (Chwansha)||?||Chu?nsh?x?n Zhèn||tseu sa sau sin tzen||420,045||139.73|
|Gaoqiao town||G?oqiáo Zhèn||ko djio tzen||184,486||38.73|
|Beicai town||B?icài Zhèn||poq tsa tzen||276,547||24.91|
|Heqing town||Héqìng Zhèn||req chin tzen||132,038||41.97|
|Tang town||Tángzhèn||daon tzen||129,267||32.16|
|Caolu town||Cáolù Zhèn||dzo lu tzen||186,012||45.58|
|Jinqiao town||J?nqiáo Zhèn||cin djio tzen||81,537||25.28|
|Gaohang town||G?oháng Zhèn||ko raon tzen||137,625||22.85|
|Gaodong town||G?od?ng Zhèn||ko ton tzen||110,552||36.24|
|Zhangjiang town||Zh?ngji?ng Zhèn||tzan kaon tzen||165,297||42.10|
|Sanlin town||S?nlín Zhèn||se lin tzen||360,516||34.19|
|Huinan town||Huìnán Zhèn||we neu tzen||213,845||65.24|
|Zhoupu town||Zh?up? Zhèn||tzoe phu tzen||147,329||42.60|
|Xinchang town||X?nch?ng Zhèn||sin dzan tzen||84,183||54.30|
|Datuan Town||Dàtuán Zhèn||da deu tzen||71,162||50.45|
|Kangqiao town||K?ngqiáo Zhèn||khaon djio tzen||174,672||41.25|
|Hangtou town||Hángtóu Zhèn||raon doe tzen||110,060||60.40|
|Zhuqiao town||Zhùqiáo Zhèn||tzoq djio tzen||104,945||154.60|
|Nicheng town||Níchéng Zhèn||gnij zen tzen||62,519||61.50|
|Xuanqiao town||Xu?nqiáo Zhèn||si djio tzen||59,567||45.78|
|Shuyuan town||Sh?yuàn Zhèn||syu yeu tzen||59,323||66.90|
|Wanxiang Town||Wànxiáng Zhèn||ve zian tzen||24,346||23.35|
|Laogang town||L?og?ng Zhèn||lo kaon tzen||37,408||38.90|
|Nanhui Xincheng Town**||Nánhuì X?nchéng Zhèn||neu we sin zen tzen||47,381||67.76|
|Luchaogang Farm||Lúcháog?ng Nóngch?ng||lu dzo kaon non dzan||688||9.40|
|Donghai Farm||?||D?ngh?i Nóngch?ng||ton he non dzan||508||15.20|
|Chaoyang Farm||?||Cháoyáng Nóngch?ng||dzo yan non dzan||862||10.67|
|Waigaoqiao Free-trade Zone||Wàig?oqiáo B?oshuìq?||nga ko djio po seu chiu||1,349||10.00|
|Jinqiao Export Processing Zone||J?nqiáo J?ngjì Jìshù K?if?q?||cin djio cin tzij djij dzeq khe faq chiu||5,514||67.79|
|Zhangjiang Hi-tech Park||?||Zh?ngji?ng G?o K?jì Yuánq?||tzan kaon ko khu djij yeu chiu||23,617||75.90|
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With the Nanhui District merger in May 2009, the size of Pudong's economy grew. The district's 2015 gross domestic product amounts to an estimated 789.8 billion RMB (~US$113.5 billion), with services comprising 70% of economic output. Its GDP per capita in terms of purchasing power parity is approximately $50,783. The area is divided into four distinct economic districts. Apart from Lujiazui Trade and Finance Zone, there is Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, the largest free trade zone in mainland China covering approximately 10 square kilometres (3.9 sq mi) in north-east Pudong. The Jinqiao Export Processing Zone is another major industrial area in Pudong covering 19 square kilometres (7.3 sq mi) Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park is a special area for technology-oriented businesses.
The Pudong area continues to experience rapid development, especially in the commercial sector, with 1.3 million square meters of prime office space reaching completion in 2008, more than the previous two years combined. Pudong has also attracted considerable fixed asset and real estate investment, reporting 87.268 billion RMB in fixed asset investment and 27.997 billion RMB in real estate investment in 2008.
Bao Steel has its head office in the Bao Steel Tower (simplified Chinese: ?; traditional Chinese: ?; pinyin: ) in Pudong.Comac has its head office in Pudong. The headquarters of Yangtze River Express, a cargo airline, are in the Pufa Tower (?; ?; ) in Pudong.
Hang Seng Bank has its mainland offices in the Hang Seng Bank Tower in Pudong.Kroll has an office in the Hang Seng Bank Tower.Google has its Shanghai offices in the Shanghai World Financial Center.
The Shanghai Pudong International Airport opened its doors in 1999, shortening the travel time for visitors.
In the same year, Line 2 of the Shanghai Metro commenced services. An extension brought the line further east, where it serves the airport. Other lines, namely Lines 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13 and 16 also have sections that serve parts of Pudong. A magnetic levitation train began operating in 2004, moving passengers between the airport and Longyang Road Metro station.
Pudong is connected to Puxi by several tunnels and four major bridges. The first of these bridges were the Nanpu Bridge (1991) and the Yangpu Bridge (1993). The Xupu Bridge opened in 1996. The latest of these is Lupu Bridge, which is the world's second longest arch bridge and was completed in 2002. Currently there are five tunnels that link the two sides, Dapu Rd. Tunnel, the first tunnel across the Huangpu River, Yan'an Rd. Tunnel, running east-west, and Dalian Rd. Tunnel, running north-south, Fuxing Rd. Tunnel, complementing the Yan'an Rd. Tunnel, Waihuan Tunnel, one part of Shanghai Outer Ring Express. Two new tunnels linking Lujiazui to Puxi are under construction.
Roads in Pudong have no particular longitudinal or latitudinal orientation. Major thoroughfares Pudong Avenue, Zhangyang Road and Yanggao Road run east-west until Yangpu Bridge before turning gradually to become north-south. Century Avenue crosses all three major roads and extends from Lujiazui to Century Park. Yanggao Road extends south to the A20, Shanghai's outer Ring road, which runs east-west from Xupu Bridge and then north-south beginning at the interchange near Renxi Village, when the east-west expressway turns into Yingbin Avenue, headed for Pudong International Airport.
Pudong is twinned with: