Shanghainese Cuisine
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Shanghainese Cuisine
Shanghai cuisine
Chinese
Hu cuisine
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
Skewered quail is common street food in Qibao Town, Shanghai

Shanghai cuisine (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shàngh?i cài), also known as Hu cuisine (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Hù cài), is a popular style of Chinese food. In a narrow sense, Shanghai cuisine refers only to what is traditionally called Benbang cuisine (; ; B?nb?ng cài; 'local cuisine') which originated in Shanghai; in a broad sense, it refers to complex and developed styles of cooking under profound influence of those of the surrounding provinces, Jiangsu and Zhejiang. It takes "colour, aroma and taste" as its elements, like other Chinese regional cuisines, and emphasises in particular the use of seasonings, the quality of raw ingredients and original flavours. Shanghai was formerly a part of Jiangsu province; as such Shanghai cuisine is most similar to Jiangsu cuisine and may still be classified as a part of Jiangsu cuisine. Although it has come into more contact with Zhejiang cuisine and foreign influences as an international city. The adoption of Western influence in Shanghai cuisine developed a unique cooking style known as Haipai cuisine.

Characteristic

Shanghai dishes usually appear red and shiny because they are often pickled in wine. They are cooked using a variety of methods including baking, stewing, braising, steaming and deep-frying. Fish, crab and chicken are made "drunken" with spirits and briskly cooked, steamed or served raw. Salted meats and preserved vegetables are also commonly used to enhance various dishes. Sugar is an important ingredient in Shanghai cuisine, especially when used in combination with soy sauce. Another characteristic is the use of a great variety of seafood. Rice is more commonly served than noodles or other wheat products.[]

Shanghai cuisine emphasises the use of condiments while retaining the original flavours of raw ingredients. It aims at lightness in flavour and is mellower and slightly sweet in taste compared to some other Chinese cuisines. Sweet and sour is a typical Shanghai taste. An attractive presentation is also important in Shanghai cooking with ingredients being carefully cut and presented with a view to harmonising colours.[]

Although Shanghai is a sea port, most families did not incorporate fish in their daily meals in the early 20th century. Eating meat with meals was considered a luxury, as the typical meal consisted of vegetables, beans, and rice. In a month, most families typically usually ate meat or fish for about four meals: on the second, eighth, sixteenth, and twenty-third day of each month. These days became known as dang hun.[1] In recent times, special attention has been paid to low-sugar and low-fat food, with a good quantity of vegetables and improved nutritional value.

History

Shanghai cuisine is the youngest among the ten major cuisines of China although it has a history of more than 400 years. Traditionally called Benbang cuisine, it originated in the Ming and Qing dynasties (c. 1368-1840). In the later part of the 19th century, after Shanghai became a major domestic and international trading port, Benbang dishes underwent some substantial changes, adopting influences from other cuisines which added to its complexity.

Notable dishes in Shanghai cuisine

Seafood

Shanghai hairy crab's original taste is best preserved with steaming.
  • Eel noodles - (; ; Mányú Miàn) - Made with sliced eels and wheat noodles.[2]
  • Scallion stewed crucian carp - (?; ?; C?ngsh?o Jìyú) - This is rather involved and complex preparation for the common crucian carp. The dish requires long hours for preparation since the fish needs to be soaked in vinegar, and then deep-fried, stewed for a long prolonged period, and cooled to make the fish tender enough to consume together with all its bones. Due to the complexity of its preparation and the difficulty in perfecting it, the dish was sometimes used by families as a test when recruiting a cook.[3]
  • Shanghai hairy crab (?; Shàngh?i Máo Xiè) - A variety of Chinese mitten crab. The crab is usually steamed with fragrant ginger, and consumed with a dipping sauce of rice vinegar, sugar and ginger. Mixing crabmeat with lard to make Xiefen, and consuming it in xiaolongbao or with tofu is another highlight of hairy crab season.[4][5]
  • Squirrel-shaped mandarin fish (?; ?; S?ngsh? Gu?yú) - This dish uses fresh mandarin fish. The fish is deep-fried and has a crispy exterior and soft interior. Yellow and red in colour, it is displayed in the shape of a squirrel on the plate. Hot broth is poured over, which produces a high-pitched sound. Sour and sweet flavours are combined in this dish.[6]

Meat and poultry

  • Beggar's chicken (; ; Jiàohu? J?) - Beggar's Chicken calls for a chicken wrapped in lotus leaves, encased in mud, and roasted in fire, resulting in a delicious and tender meat. According to a legend, a beggar in the Qing dynasty stole and hid a chicken under mud.[2]
  • Lion's head (; ; Sh?zi Tóu) - The name derives from the shape of the pork meatball which is supposed to resemble a lion's head and the cabbage (or other vegetables), which is supposed to resemble the lion's mane. It is served in two varieties: the white (or plain), and the red (cooked with soy sauce), and is usually in a white pot.[2]
  • Red braised pork belly (; ; Hóngsh?o Ròu) - The dish is a braised pork belly cooked in Shanghainese soy sauce for a long time, resulting in a juicy and tender meat.[2]
  • Sweet and sour spare ribs (?; Táng Cù Páig?) - The fresh pork ribs, which appear shiny and red after being cooked, are traditionally deep fried then coated in a sweet and sour sauce.[7]

Snacks

Xiaolongbao, a type of steamed bun from the Jiangnan region
  • Shengjian mantou (?; ?; Sh?ngji?n Mántóu) or Shengjianbao (; Sh?ngji?n b?o) - It is typically in a round bun, similar yet thicker than a xiaolongbao (due to the addition of yeast) and is stuffed with pork. It is then pan-fried and seasoned with sesame seeds and chopped scallions.[8]
  • Xiaolongbao (; ; Xi?olóngb?o) - A type of steamed bun made with a thin skin of dough and stuffed with pork or minced crabmeat, and soup. The delicious soup inside can be hold up until it is bitten.[9]

Desserts

  • Tangyuan (; ; T?ngyuán) - A type of sweet dumpling made of glutinous rice flour and stuffed with black sesame. Qibao has a number of tangyuan vendors.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ Hanchao Lu (1999). Beyond the Neon Lights: Everyday Shanghai in the Early Twentieth Century. University of California Press. ISBN 0520215648.
  2. ^ a b c d Deason, Rachel. "Traditional Shanghainese Dishes You Must Try". Culture Trip. Retrieved .
  3. ^ Lee, Jesse (2008), ?, ?, ISBN 978-986-6655-14-2
  4. ^ "The That's Guide to Gorging on Shanghai Hairy Crab". www.thatsmags.com. Archived from the original on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ "Zoobenthos Archived 2015-01-09 at the Wayback Machine". The Shanghai Jiuduansha Wetland Nature Reserve (Shanghai), 2014.
  6. ^ ?--?. home.meishichina.com. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  7. ^ . www.meishij.net. Archived from the original on 29 August 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  8. ^ a b Wei, Clarissa (2017-04-27). "A Guide to 14 of the Most Iconic Foods in Shanghai". Vice. Retrieved .
  9. ^ ,!. kknews.cc. Retrieved 2019.

External links


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