Sharif of Mecca
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Sharif of Mecca
Family tree of the early sharifian dynasties of Mecca.
  Sulaymanids
  Hashimids
  Ja'farids
  Qatadids

The Sharif of Mecca (Arabic: ? ‎, Shar?f Makkah) or Hejaz (Arabic: ? ‎, Shar?f al-?ij?z) was the title of the leader of the Sharifate of Mecca, traditional steward of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina and the surrounding Hejaz. The term sharif is Arabic for "honor", and is used to describe the descendants of Prophet Mohammad's grandson al-Hassan ibn Ali.

The Sharif was charged with protecting the cities and their environs and ensuring the safety of pilgrims performing the Hajj. The title is sometimes spelled Sheriff or Sherif, with the latter variant used, for example, by T. E. Lawrence in Seven Pillars of Wisdom.

The office of the Sharifate of Mecca dates back to the late Abbasid era. Until 1200, the Sharifate was held by a member of the Hawashim clan,[1][circular reference][2] not to be confused with the larger clan of Banu Hashim from which all Sharifs claim descent. Descendants of the Banu Hashim continued to hold the position until the 20th century on behalf of various Muslim powers including the Ayyubids and the Mamluks. In 1517, the Sharif acknowledged the supremacy of the Ottoman Caliph, but maintained a great degree of local autonomy. During the Ottoman era, the Sharifate expanded its authority northwards to include Medina, and southwards to the frontiers of 'Asir, and regularly raided Nejd.

The Sharifate came to an end shortly after the reign of Hussein bin Ali, ruled from 1908, who rebelled against the Ottoman rule during the Arab Revolt of 1916. After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in 1918 and its subsequent dissolution in 1923, Hussein declared himself Caliph. The British granted control over the newly formed states of Iraq and Transjordan to his sons Faisal and Abdullah. In 1924, however, in the face of increasing attacks by Ibn Saud, Hussein abdicated his secular titles to his eldest son, Ali bin Hussein, who was to become the last Grand Sharif. At the end of 1925, Ibn Saud conquered the Hejaz and expelled the Hashemites. The House of Saud has ruled the holy cities and the Hajj since that time.[3]

List of Sharifs of Mecca (967-1925)

During the Fatimid Dynasty (967-1101)

Emir Reign Notes
Ja'farid dynasty
Ja'far ibn Muhammad al-Hasani 967-980
Isa ibn Ja'far 980-994
Abu'l-Futuh al-Hasan ibn Ja'far 994-1012 Briefly anti-Caliph in 1012
Abu Tayeb Daoud bin Abdul Rahman bin Abi Al-Fatik 1012-1039
Shukr ibn Abi'l-Futuh 1039-1061 Died childless, end of the Ja'farid dynasty
Hawashim dynasty
Abu Hashim Muhammad ibn Ja'far 1062-1094
Ibn Abu'l-Hashim al-Thalab 1094-1101

During the Ayyubid Empire (1201-1254)

Emir Reign Notes
Qatada ibn Idris al-Hasani al-Alawi 1201-1220 Killed at age 90 by his son; founder of the Banu Qatada, the dynasty which ruled Mecca until 1925.
Hasan ibn Qatada al-Hasani al-Alawi 1220-1241 Al-Zahir Baibers ruler of Egypt sends a prince to collect Zakat from the area including the surrounding bedouins
Al-Hassan abul-Saad 1241-1254

1250-1301

Emir Reign AH Reign CE Notes References
Abu Sa'd Hasan ibn Ali ibn Qatadah 647-651 1250-1253 Reigned until his death. Killed by Jammaz ibn Hasan. [4]
Abu Numayy Muhammad ibn Abi Sa'd ?-651 ?-1253 Co-reigned with his father. Named co-ruler after he defended Mecca from capture by Rajih ibn Qatadah and his Banu Husayn allies. [5]
Jammaz ibn Hasan ibn Qatadah 651 - Hij 651 1253 - Feb 1254 Captured Mecca with an army provided by al-Nasir Yusuf, the Ayyubid ruler of Syria, to whom he had promised the khutbah. However, he reneged and continued the khutbah in the name of al-Muzaffar Yusuf, the Rasulid sultan of Yemen. Deposed by Rajih ibn Qatadah. [6]
Rajih ibn Qatadah Hij 651 - Rb1 652 Feb 1254 - Apr/May 1254 Deposed by his son Ghanim. [7]
Ghanim ibn Rajih Rb1 652 - Shw 652 Apr/May 1254 - Nov/Dec 1254 Deposed by Abu Numayy and Idris. [8]
Abu Numayy Muhammad ibn Abi Sa'd Shw 652 - Qid 652 Nov/Dec 1254 - Jan 1255 Co-rulers. Khutbah in the name of al-Ashraf Musa, the titular Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, and his atabeg al-Mu'izz Aybak. Deposed by the Yemeni emir Ibn Birtas. [9]
Idris ibn Qatadah
Rasulid occupation [10]
Husayn ibn Ali ibn Birtas
Mubariz al-Din
Qid 652 - Muh 653 Jan 1255 - Mar 1255 Yemeni emir. Reigned on behalf of the Rasulid sultan al-Muzaffar Yusuf.
Idris ibn Qatadah Muh 653 - 654 Mar 1255 - 1256 Co-reigned with his nephew. Deposed in absentia by Abu Numayy when he left Mecca to visit his brother Rajih ibn Qatadah. [11]
Abu Numayy Muhammad ibn Abi Sa'd Muh 653 - 656 Mar 1255 -1258 Co-reigned with his uncle for most of his reign.
Idris ibn Qatadah 654-656 1256-1258 Restored as co-ruler.
Sons of Hasan ibn Qatadah 656 1258 Took over Mecca while Abu Numayy was absent. Imprisoned Idris and held the city for six days, then withdrew when Abu Numayy returned. [12]
Idris ibn Qatadah 656-667 1258 - 1268/1269 Co-reigned with his nephew. Deposed for his pro-Rasulid inclinations when Abu Numayy sought the favor of the Egyptian Mamluks. [13]
Abu Numayy Muhammad ibn Abi Sa'd
Najm al-Din
656 - Rb1 669 1258 - Oct/Nov 1270 Co-reigned with his uncle for most of his reign. In 667 AH he instituted the khutbah in the name of the Mamluk sultan al-Zahir Baybars. Deposed by Idris.
Idris ibn Qatadah
Baha' al-Din
667 - Rb2/Jm1 669 1268/1269 - Nov/Dec 1270 Restored as co-ruler and pledged obedience to the Mamluk sultan. Co-reigned with his nephew until Rabi I 669 AH, then reigned independently for 40 days. Beheaded by Abu Numayy on the battlefield at Khulays.
Abu Numayy Muhammad ibn Abi Sa'd
Najm al-Din
Rb2/Jm1 669 - Saf 670 Nov/Dec 1270 - Sep/Oct 1271 Deposed by Jammaz ibn Shihah and Ghanim ibn Idris. [14]
Husaynid occupation
Jammaz ibn Shihah
'Izz al-Din
Saf 670 - Rb2 670 Oct 1271 - Dec 1271 Co-rulers. Held Mecca for 40 days. Deposed by Abu Numayy.
Ghanim ibn Idris ibn Hasan ibn Qatadah
Abu Numayy Muhammad ibn Abi Sa'd
Najm al-Din
Rb2 670 - 687 Dec 1271 - 1288/1289 Deposed by Jammaz ibn Shihah. [15]
Husaynid occupation
Jammaz ibn Shihah
'Izz al-Din
687 1288/1289 Emir of Medina. Captured Mecca with an army provided by the Mamluk sultan al-Mansur Qalawun, but afterwards struck coins and had the khutbah pronounced in his own name. Returned to Medina after he was poisoned.
Abu Numayy Muhammad ibn Abi Sa'd
Najm al-Din
687 - Saf 701 1288/1289 - Oct 1301 Reigned until his death. [16]
Humaydah ibn Abi Numayy
Izz al-Din
Saf 701 - Hij 701 Oct 1301 - Aug 1302
Rumaythah ibn Abi Numayy
Asad al-Din
Abu al-Ghayth ibn Abi Numayy
Imad al-Din
Hij 701 - Hij 704 Aug 1302 - Jul 1305
Utayfah ibn Abi Numayy
Sayf al-Din
Humaydah ibn Abi Numayy
Izz al-Din
Hij 704 - c. Hij 713 Jul 1305 - c. Mar 1314
Rumaythah ibn Abi Numayy
Asad al-Din
Abu al-Ghayth ibn Abi Numayy
Imad al-Din
c. Hij 713 - c. Saf 714 c. Mar 1314 - c. Jun 1314
Humaydah ibn Abi Numayy
Izz al-Din
c. Saf 714 - Ram 715 c. Mar 1314 - Dec 1315
Rumaythah ibn Abi Numayy
Asad al-Din
Ram 715 - c. Muh 718 Dec 1315 - c. Mar 1318
Humaydah ibn Abi Numayy
Izz al-Din
c. Muh 718 - c. Rb2 718 c. Mar 1318 - c. Jun 1318
Rumaythah ibn Abi Numayy
Asad al-Din
c. Rb2 718 - Hij 718 c. Jun 1318 - Feb 1319
Utayfah ibn Abi Numayy
Sayf al-Din
Muh 719 - c. Rb1 731 Mar 1319 - c. Jan 1331
Rumaythah ibn Abi Numayy
Asad al-Din
Qid 720 - c. Rb1 731 Dec 1320 - c. Jan 1331
Egyptian occupation
Rumaythah ibn Abi Numayy
Asad al-Din
Jm1 731 - 744 Feb 1331 - 1343/1344
Utayfah ibn Abi Numayy
Sayf al-Din
734 - Hij 734 1333/1334 - Aug 1334
Hij 735 - c. Shw 737 Jul 1335 - c. May 1337
Thaqabah ibn Rumaythah
Asad al-Din
744 - Qid 744 1343/1344 - Mar/Apr 1344
Ajlan ibn Rumaythah
Izz al-Din
Rumaythah ibn Abi Numayy
Asad al-Din
Qid 744 - Jm2 746 Mar/Apr 1344 - Oct 1345

During the Mamluk Empire (1254-1517)

Flag of Mamluk Hejaz
Emir Reign Notes
Muhammed abul-Nubaj 1254-1301 First Mamluk Sharif after the fall of Ayyubid Empire
Rumaitha Abul-Rada 1301-1346
Ajlan Abul-Sarjah 1346-1375
Sharif Ali bin Ajlan Abul-Sarjah 1375-1394 Later become Sultan of Brunei in 1425.
Al-Hassan II 1394-1425
Barakat I 1425-1455
Malik ul-Adil ibn Muhammed ibn Barakat 1455-1473
Barakat II bin Muhammed 1473-1525 Built the first Walls of Jeddah by order of Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri

During the Ottoman Empire (1517-1917)

Flag of Ottoman Hejaz
Muhammed bin Abd al-Muin, Sharif of Mecca 1827-1851, as pictured in the 1848 book by William Francis Lynch
Emir Reign Notes
Barakat II bin Muhammed 1473-1525 Co-reigned with his son Abu Numayy II for the last thirteen years of his rule; first Ottoman Sharif; Hejaz became an Ottoman state after the fall of Cairo to Sultan Selim I.
Abu Numayy II bin Barakat 1512-1584 Co-reigned with his father Barakat II for the first thirteen years of his rule, and with his son Hassan for the last thirty-one years of his rule; rebuilt the walls of Jeddah in 1525 following the victory over Portuguese Armada in the Red Sea.
Hassan bin Abu Numayy II 1553-1601 Co-reigned with his father for the first thirty-one years of his rule.
Abd al-Muttalib bin Hassan 1601 Reigned for less than a year.
Abu Talib bin Hassan 1601-1603 Co-reigned with his brother Idris.
Idris bin Hassan 1601-1620 Co-reigned with his brother Abu Talib for the first two years of his rule, then with his brother Fuhaid for six years and nephew Muhsin for sixteen.
Fuhaid bin Hassan 1604-1610 Co-reigned with his brother Idris and his son Muhsin.
Muhsin bin Fuhaid 1604-1628 Co-reigned with his father for the first six years of his rule, and with his uncle Idris for the first sixteen.
Ahmed bin Abd al-Muttalib 1628-1629
Masoud bin Idris 1629-1630
Abdullah I bin Hassan 1630-1631
Muhammed bin Abdullah 1631-1632 Co-reigned with his first cousin once removed, Zeid.
Zeid bin Muhsin 1631-1632 First reign, co-reigned with his first cousin once removed, Muhammed.
Namy bin Abd al-Muttalib 1632 Briefly co-reigned with his cousin Abd al-Aziz.
Abd al-Aziz bin Idris 1632 Briefly co-reigned with his cousin Namy.
Zeid bin Muhsin 1632-1666 Second reign.
Saad bin Zeid 1666-1672 First reign, co-reigned with his brother Ahmed for the last three years of his rule.
Ahmed bin Zeid 1669-1672 First reign, co-reigned with his brother Saad.
Barakat bin Muhammed bin Ibrahim bin Barakat bin Abu Numayy 1672-1682
Said bin Barakat 1682-1683
Ahmed bin Zeid 1672-1688
Ahmed bin Ghalib bin Muhammed bin Musaid bin Masoud bin Hasan 1688-1690
Muhsin bin Hussein 1690-1691
Said bin Saad 1691 Ceded reign to his father Saad.
Saad bin Zeid 1691-1696 Second reign.
Abdullah II bin Hashim 1696 Co-reigned with Said.
Saad bin Zeid 1694-1702 Third reign.
Abdulkarim bin Muhammed 1704-1705 First reign.
Saad bin Zeid 1705 Fourth reign, lasted eighteen days.
Said bin Saad 1705
Abdulkarim bin Muhammed 1705-1711 Second reign.
Said bin Saad 1711-1717 Second reign.
Abdullah III bin Said 1717-1718 First reign.
Ali bin Said 1718
Yahya bin Barakat 1718-1720
Mubarak bin Ahmad 1720-1723
Yahya bin Barakat 1723-1725
Abdullah III bin Said 1725-1731 Second reign.
Muhammed bin Abdullah 1731-1733 Co-reigned with his uncle Masoud for the last year of his rule.
Masoud bin Said 1732-1752 Briefly co-reigned with his nephew Muhammed for the first year of his rule.
Musaid bin Said 1752-1759 First reign.
Jafar bin Said 1759-1760
Musaid bin Said 1760-1770 Second reign.
Abdullah IV bin Hussein bin Barakat 1770-1771
Ahmed bin Said 1771-1773
Surur bin Musaid 1773-1788
Abd al-Muin bin Musaid 1788 First reign, only lasted a few days.
Ghalib bin Musaid 1788-1813 Co-reigned with his brother Abd al-Muin while Saudis held the city of Mecca.
Abd al-Muin bin Musaid 1796-1813 Second reign, co-reigned with his brother Ghalib.
Yahya bin Surur 1813-1827
Abd al-Muttalib bin Ghalib 1827 First reign.
Muhammed bin Abd al-Muin bin Awn bin Muhsin bin Abdullah bin al-Hussain bin Abdullah I 1827-1851 First reign, placed in power by Muhammad Ali Pasha.
Abd al-Muttalib bin Ghalib 1851-1856 Second reign.
Muhammed bin Abd al-Muin 1856-1858 Second reign.
Abdullah bin Muhammed 1858-1877
Hussein bin Muhammed 1877-1880
Abd al-Muttalib bin Ghalib 1880-1881 Third reign.
Abd al-Ilah bin Muhammed 1881-1882 Was appointed again in 1908 after the deposition of Ali bin Abdullah, however he died before reaching Mecca.
Awn ar-Rafiq bin Muhammed 1882-1905
Ali bin Abdullah bin Muhammed 1905-1908
Hussein bin Ali Pasha 1908-1916 Later King Hussein
Ali Haidar Pasha 1916-1917

During the Kingdom of Hejaz (1916-1925)

Flag of Kingdom of Hejaz
Genealogical tree of the Hashemite family showing their descent from Muhammad.[17][18][19][20]

See also

References

  1. ^ "? - ? ". Retrieved .
  2. ^ "? ? ? - ". www.al-amir.info (in Arabic). Retrieved .
  3. ^ "Ibn Saud reign of Hejaz - www.saudinf.com".
  4. ^ al-Sinj?r?, Man?'i? al-karam, 2/311-314
  5. ^ al-Sinj?r?, Man?'i? al-karam, 2/312-314; al-'Izz Ibn Fahd, Gh?yat al-mar?m, 2/39-40
  6. ^ al-Sinj?r?, Man?'i? al-karam, 2/314-315
  7. ^ al-Sinj?r?, Man?'i? al-karam, 2/315-316
  8. ^ al-Sinj?r?, Man?'i? al-karam, 2/315-316
  9. ^ al-Sinj?r?, Man?'i? al-karam, 2/316; al-'Izz Ibn Fahd, Gh?yat al-mar?m, 1/642, 2/10; al-Najm Ibn Fahd, Itf al-wará, 3/76
  10. ^ al-Sinj?r?, Man?'i? al-karam, 2/316-317; al-'Izz Ibn Fahd, Gh?yat al-mar?m, 1/642, 2/10-12, 44-46; al-Najm Ibn Fahd, Itf al-wará, 3/76-77
  11. ^ al-Sinj?r?, Man?'i? al-karam, 2/317-318; al-'Izz Ibn Fahd, Gh?yat al-mar?m, 1/640-642, 2/11-12
  12. ^ al-Sinj?r?, Man?'i? al-karam, 2/318; al-Najm Ibn Fahd, Itf al-wará, 3/80
  13. ^ al-Sinj?r?, Man?'i? al-karam, 2/319-321; al-'Izz Ibn Fahd, Gh?yat al-mar?m, 1/641-642, 2/12-14; al-Najm Ibn Fahd, Itf al-wará, 3/93-99
  14. ^ al-Sinj?r?, Man?'i? al-karam, 2/321-322; al-'Izz Ibn Fahd, Gh?yat al-mar?m, 2/14-16; al-Najm Ibn Fahd, Itf al-wará, 3/101
  15. ^ al-Sinj?r?, Man?'i? al-karam, 2/323-324; al-'Izz Ibn Fahd, Gh?yat al-mar?m, 2/17-18; al-Najm Ibn Fahd, Itf al-wará, 3/118-119
  16. ^ al-Sinj?r?, Man?'i? al-karam, 2/324-325; al-'Izz Ibn Fahd, Gh?yat al-mar?m, 2/38; al-Najm Ibn Fahd, Itf al-wará, 3/132-134
  17. ^ Stitt, George (1948). A Prince of Arabia, the Amir Shereef Ali Haider. George Allen & Unwin, London.
  18. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1996). The New Islamic Dynasties. Edinburgh University Press.
  19. ^ Antonius, George (1946). The Arab Awakening. Capricorn Books, New York.
  20. ^ The Hashemites, 1827-present

Bibliography

  • Mortel, Richard T. (1985). "The Genealogy of the ?asanid Sharifs of Mecca". Journal of the College of Arts, King Saud University. 12: 221-250.
  • Mortel, Richard T. (1987). "Zaydi Shiism and the Hasanid Sharifs of Mecca". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 19 (4): 455-472. JSTOR 163211.
  • Ibn Fahd, 'Izz al-Din 'Abd al-'Az?z ibn 'Umar (1986-1988) [Composed before 1518]. Shalt?t, Fah?m Mu?ammad (ed.). Gh?yat al-mar?m bi-akhb?r sal?anat al-Balad al-?ar?m ? (in Arabic) (1st ed.). Makkah: J?mi'at Umm al-Qurá, Markaz al-Ba?th al-'Ilm? wa-I?y?' al-Tur?th al-Isl?m?, Kull?yat al-Sharah wa-al-Dir?s?t al-Isl?m?yah.
  • Ibn Fahd, Najm al-Din Umar ibn Mu?ammad (1983-1984) [Composed before 1481]. Shalt?t, Fah?m Mu?ammad (ed.). Itf al-wará bi-akhb?r Umm al-Qurá (in Arabic) (1st ed.). Makkah: J?mi'at Umm al-Qurá, Markaz al-Ba?th al-'Ilm? wa-I?y?' al-Tur?th al-Isl?m?, Kull?yat al-Sharah wa-al-Dir?s?t al-Isl?m?yah.
  • al-Sinj?r?, 'Al? ibn T?j al-D?n ibn Taq? al-D?n (1998) [Composed 1713]. al-Mi?r?, Jam?l 'Abd All?h Mu?ammad (ed.). Man?'i? al-karam f? akhb?r Makkah wa-al-Bayt wa-wul?t al-?aram (in Arabic) (1st ed.). Makkah: J?mi'at Umm al-Qurá.


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